tnf - tumor necrosis factor
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Publication
Journal: Brain research
May/29/2018
Abstract
Interleukin (IL)-6 is an important mediator of neurovascular dysfunction, neurodegeneration and/or neuroinflammation. We previously reported that brain pericytes released higher levels of IL-6 than did glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Moreover, pericytes stimulated with TNF-α enhanced activation of BV-2 microglia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of TNF-α mediated induction of IL-6 release from brain pericytes and astrocytes and whether pericyte-derived IL-6 would facilitate activation of BV-2 microglia. Using rat brain pericyte and astrocyte primary cultures and pharmacological inhibitors, we found that, TNF-α induced the highest levels of IL-6 release from pericytes by activating the inhibitor kappa B (IκB)-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) and Janus family of tyrosine kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 pathways. STAT3 contributed to TNF-α induced nuclear translocation of phospho-NFκB in pericytes. TNF-α-induced IL-6 release in astrocytes was mediated by NFκB but not by STAT3. The presence of pericytes amplified TNF-α-induced iNOS mRNA expression in BV-2 microglia. This effect was blocked by a neutralizing antibody for IL-6. These findings indicated that crosstalk between the IκB-NFκB and JAK-STAT3 pathways is a pericyte specific mechanism, not occurring in astrocytes, for TNF-α-induced IL-6 release. IL-6 derived from pericytes enhanced microglial activation. Our findings increase understanding of the role of pericyte-microglia crosstalk in the brain under neuroinflammatory conditions and suggest a potentially attractive therapeutic target for brain inflammation.
Publication
Journal: Neuroreport
December/20/2018
Abstract
Aberrant expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was reported in several types of cancers and it was demonstrated to promote tumor progression. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), TRAF6 depression by miRNA could decrease GBM cell resistance to temozolomide, but the prognostic values of TRAF6 and its functions in GBM progression have not been elucidated. In our study, the expression of TRAF6 and matrix metalloprotein 9 (MMP9) in 101 cases of GBM were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Twelve pairs of GBM frozen tissues and their corresponding adjacent tissues were collected during operation prospectively, and TRAF6 and MMP9 mRNA levels in them were detected using qRT-PCR. The correlations between TRAF6, MMP9, and clinicopathological factors were analyzed using the Chi-square test, and the prognostic value of TRAF6 and MMP9 were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. The effect of TRAF6 and MMP9 on GBM cell invasion and proliferation was detected with experiments in vitro, and the correlation between TRAF6 and MMP9 expression was explored by regulating their expression with overexpression or knockdown. The expression of TRAF6 and MMP9 in GBM tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues. The expression of TRAF6 and MMP9 was significantly associated in GBM tissues. Both TRAF6 and MMP9 correlated with poor prognosis of GBM, and TRAF6 was identified as an independent prognostic factor of GBM. TRAF6 could promote invasion instead of proliferation of GBM cells via elevating expression of MMP9. TRAF6 was identified as an independent prognostic factor of GBM, with ability to promote invasion of GBM cells via elevating expression of MMP9.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
April/17/2006
Abstract
Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-kappaB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity.
Publication
Journal: Technology in cancer research & treatment
November/13/2018
Abstract
To investigate the association between the susceptibility to cervical cancer and the single nucleotide polymorphisms of 5 tumor necrosis factor-α promoter genes (rs361525, rs1800629, rs1800750, rs1799964, and rs673) in Chinese women. A total of 946 peripheral blood samples were collected from women of Han Ethnicity in Shandong province. Of them, 452 were diagnosed with cervical squamous cell carcinomas. The study also included a control group of 494 healthy women. The targeted single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed by TaqMan probe method. (1) The rate of high-risk subtype human papillomavirus infection in exfoliated cervical epithelial cells was significantly higher in patients with cervical cancer than the control group (91.4% vs 10.3%, P < .01). The rate of human papillomavirus infection was lower in patients with carcinoma in situ than those with invasive carcinoma (77.9% vs 95.4%, P < .01). (2) There was a significant difference for rs361525 genotype (CC/CT/TT) between the control, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma groups ( P < .001). Both rs1800629 and rs1799964 genotypes (both GG/GA/AA) were also different between these groups ( P < .001 and P < .001). (3) The allele frequencies of rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1799964 were significantly correlated with the diagnosis of cervical cancer. The frequency of T allele in rs361525 was significantly higher for cervical cancer group (10.8%) than control group (3.8%; odds ratio = 3.04, 95% confidence interval = 1.76-5.25, P < .01). The frequency of A allele in rs1800629 was significantly higher for cervical cancer (29.9%) than control group (14.2%; odds ratio = 2.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.87-3.56, P < .01). The frequency of A allele in rs1799964 was also higher for cervical cancer group (38.3%) than control group (16.4%; odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.91, P < .05). The rs361525, rs1800629, and rs17999645 were significantly correlated with the diagnosis of cervical cancer.
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Publication
Journal: ACG case reports journal
October/16/2019
Abstract
Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNF-α) is frequently used for Crohn's disease and other autoimmune conditions. Increased risk of infection is an accepted adverse effect of TNF-α, and routine screening for potential infections are carried out before initiation of therapy. We report the case of a patient who developed a localized painful swelling near the injection site, which was diagnosed as acute dermato-lymphangio-adenitis due to filarial infection. This adds to the limited number of case reports on parasitic complications following TNF-α therapy.
Publication
Journal: Neurochemistry international
May/26/2019
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a key role in different etiologies of pain. At sub-cellular level, mitochondria and plasma membranes have been identified as endogenous sources of ROS required for pain generation. NADPH oxidase (NOX) is the main contributor of membrane associated ROS generation. Out of 7 isozymes, NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 are reported to be associated with nociceptive sensitization. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that specific inhibition of the NOX isozymes could be putative strategy for treatment of pain. However, unavailability of specific inhibitors was the biggest obstacle to test this hypothesis. Here, we investigated anti-nociceptive potential of a newly identified specific NOX1 inhibitor ML171 in formalin induced inflammatory pain. ML171 administration decreased the paw lickings and flinching response in both phases of formalin test. Behavioral response was supported with decreased activation of c-Fos in spinal dorsal horn. The increased level of total NOX activity, ROS and pERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn of formalin induced nociception were reversed by ML171 administration. ML171 also inhibited the upregulated Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) expression in DRG, whereas did not show any effect in spinal dorsal horn which was unaltered after formalin insult. The study for the first time depicts anti-nociceptive potential of ML171 via regulation of ROS mediated ERK1/2 signaling by inhibition of NOX1 activity.
Publication
Journal: Cytokine
July/11/2006
Abstract
SEPS1 (also called selenoprotein S, SelS) plays an important role in the production of inflammatory cytokines and its expression is activated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this report, we have identified two binding sites for the nuclear factor kappa B in the human SEPS1 promoter. SEPS1 gene expression, protein levels and promoter activity were all increased 2-3-fold by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in HepG2 cells. We have also confirmed that the previously proposed ER stress response element GGATTTCTCCCCCGCCACG in the SEPS1 proximate promoter is fully functional and responsive to ER stress. However, concurrent treatment of HepG2 cells with IL-1beta and ER stress produced no additive effect on SEPS1 gene expression. We conclude that SEPS1 is a new target gene of NF-kappaB. Together with our previous findings that SEPS1 may regulate cytokine production in macrophage cells, we propose a regulatory loop between cytokines and SEPS1 that plays a key role in control of the inflammatory response.
Publication
Journal: Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
July/9/2006
Abstract
To clarify the role of myocardial apoptosis associated with the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human myocardial infarction (MI), we have analyzed the expression of apoptosis positive for single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) antibody, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-8 in 147 samples of infarcted myocardial tissue from 65 patients. ss-DNA-positive apoptotic nuclei were found mainly in cardiomyocytes in the border zones and granulation tissue cells in the infarct foci. The ss-DNA index (SI) of cardiomyocytes (average 0.13%) peaked at stage II (established myocardial necrosis), the value being significantly higher than at stages III (macrophage infiltration), IV (granulation formation), and V (scar formation) (P<0.05), whereas the SI of granulation tissue (average 0.08%) at stages III, IV, and V showed no significant differences between the three stages. These results suggest that cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the border zone is responsible for cellular loss in the acute stage of MI, whereas granulation tissue apoptosis may not be involved in the process of ventricular remodeling. TNF-alpha was expressed in cardiomyocytes in the border zones of infarct foci, but no significant positive correlation was found between SI and TNF-alpha index in cardiomyocytes (r=0.08, P = 0.37), suggesting that TNF-alpha does not serve as a direct trigger of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo. The number of IL-8-positive cells peaked at stage II, and IL-8-myeloperoxidase-double-positive neutrophils were frequently detected, indicating that infiltrating neutrophils are the predominant source of IL-8 in the infarcted myocardium. These results suggest that, in human MI, TNF-alpha produced by cardiomyocytes does not play a critical role in their apoptosis, and that IL-8 produced by neutrophils is responsible for the subsequent accumulation and activation of neutrophils, thus increasing the degree of myocardial damage.
Publication
Journal: Burns & trauma
May/30/2019
Abstract
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) plays a protective effect in hypoxic cardiomyocytes, but the precise mechanisms are not well clarified. The study is aimed to identify the mechanism of TRAP1 on hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes.In this study, the effects of TRAP1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COXII) on apoptosis in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes were explored using overexpression and knockdown methods separately.Hypoxia induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and TRAP1 overexpression notably inhibited apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Conversely, TRAP1 silencing promoted apoptosis in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Further investigation revealed that the proapoptotic effects caused by the silencing of TRAP1 were prevented by COXII overexpression, whereas COXII knockdown reduced the antiapoptotic function induced by TRAP1 overexpression. Additionally, changes in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and the caspase-3 activity in the cytoplasm, as well as reactive oxygen species production, were found to be correlated with the changes in apoptosis.The current study uncovered that TRAP1 regulates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway mediated by COXII, in which reactive oxygen species presents as an important component.
Publication
Journal: JAAD case reports
November/13/2019
Publication
Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
November/7/2019
Abstract
Glycosyltransferase-producing Leuconostoc lactis CCK940 produces CCK- oligosaccharides, gluco-oligosaccharide molecules, using sucrose and maltose as donor and acceptor molecules, respectively. In this study, the immunostimulatory activities of CCK-oligosaccharides on RAW264.7 macrophages and BALB/c mice were evaluated. CCK-oligosaccharides induced the expression of phosphorylated-p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and upregulation of phagocytic activity in RAW264.7 macrophages, suggesting their involvement in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and phagocytosis. When CCK-oligosaccharides were administered to mice intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide (CY), spleen indices and expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α increased, compared with those in only CY-treated group. These findings suggest that CCK-oligosaccharides can be used as an effective immunostimulating agent.
Publication
Journal: Journal of food biochemistry
November/4/2019
Abstract
The current project was designed to utilize flavonoids and chlorogenic acids enriched stevia residue extract (STVRE) against hyperuricemia (HU). The in vitro results showed that STVRE potently and synergistically inhibits Xanthine oxidase (XO) with allopurinol. The AFM results predicted that STVRE compounds bind with XO and alter its structure which further prevents the entrance of substrate with XO. These in vitro results were further confirmed in fructose-PO-induced hyperuricemic mice model. The results showed that supplementation of STVRE with allopurinol significantly attenuated HU, oxidative stress, and inflammation caused by UA via inhibiting the production of uric acid and lowering cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6, and interleukin 1-beta levels in serum and renal tissues. Moreover, STVRE and allopurinol treatment attenuated, tubular dilation, infiltration of inflammatory cells, improved structure disorder of podocyte, and foot process fusion, and decreased glomerular basement membrane thickness. These findings suggested that STVRE can be used as an antihyperuricemic agent along with allopurinol. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The results of present study showed that STVRE has a beneficial effect against fructose-PO-induced hyperuricemia by decreasing uric acid level, xanthine oxidase activity, improving oxidative stress and inflammation. These findings suggested that by-product of stevia (STVRE) enriched with polyphenolic compounds can be used as a functional ingredient against hyperuricemia and related diseases.
Publication
Journal: Bioscience reports
November/11/2019
Abstract
Sevoflurane was found to show protective roles in mice with asthma, however, the mechanism of which need further exploring. Aquaporins (AQPs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, while endoplasmic reticulum stress has been reported to be related to many inflammatory diseases and involved in protein processing,including AQPs. This study aimed to determine the role of sevoflurane in AQPs (AQP1,3,4,5) expression in mice with allergic airway inflammation and the probable mechanism. The increased number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the lung tissue, and the elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-13 were all decreased after sevoflurane treatment (all P &lt; 0.05). Meanwhile, mRNA levels of AQP1 and AQP5 but not AQP3 and AQP4 were decreased in OVA-induced allergic mice lung. Both the decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of AQP1 and AQP5 in allergic lung tissues were reversed by sevoflurane treatment. Furthermore, we established that sevoflurane inhibited the OVA-induced protein increase of the ER stress markers BiP and CHOP. Collectively, these findings suggested that sevoflurane modulated the expression and protein level of AOPs (AQP1, AQP5) as well as inhibited ER stress response in OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation of mice.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in psychiatry
November/4/2019
Abstract
Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are common complications of diabetes mellitus and mutually affect each other. As a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family, P2X7 receptor is associated with the transduction of pain signal and the onset of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on rats with comorbid DNP and MDD. After the comorbid model was established, rat behavior changes were monitored by measuring the mechanical withdrawal threshold, thermal withdrawal latency, sugar water preference, immobility time in the forced-swim test, and open-field test parameters. The expressions of P2X7 receptor in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, and hippocampus were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and double immunofluorescence. We found that hyperalgesia, allodynia, and depressive behaviors of rats with comorbid DNP and MDD were relieved by treatment with DHM or application of a short-hairpin RNA for P2X7 receptor. The expression levels of P2X7, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 1ß were increased in the DRGs, spinal cord, and hippocampus of rats in the model group but restored after DHM or P2X7 short-hairpin RNA treatment. In conclusion, P2X7 receptor in the DRGs, spinal cord, and hippocampus participates in the transduction of DNP and MDD signals. DHM seems to relieve comorbid DNP and MDD by reducing the expression of P2X7 receptor in the DRGs, spinal cord, and hippocampus and may be an effective new drug for the treatment of patients with both DNP and MDD.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric research
September/7/2019
Abstract
To examine which inflammatory markers are associated with bone mass and whether this association varies according to muscular fitness in children with overweight/obesity.Plasma interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), and C-reactive protein were analyzed in 55 children aged 8-11 years. A muscular fitness score was computed. Bone mineral content (BMC) of the total body-less head (TBLH) and lumbar spine (LS) were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.IL-6 (β = -0.136) and VEGF (β = -0.099) were associated with TBLH BMC, while TNF-α (β = -0.345) and IL-1β (β = 0.212) were associated with LS BMC (P < 0.05). The interaction effect of muscular fitness showed a trend in the association of VEGF with TBLH BMC (P = 0.122) and TNF-α with LS BMC (P = 0.057). Stratified analyses by muscular fitness levels showed an inverse association of VEGF with TBLH BMC (β = -0.152) and TNF-α with LS BMC (β = -0.491) in the low-fitness group, while no association was found in the high-fitness group.IL-6, VEGF, TNF-α, and IL-1β are significantly associated with bone mass. Higher muscular fitness may attenuate the adverse effect of high VEGF and TNF-α on bone mass.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology
August/12/2019
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the effects of triterpene extract of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (CPT) on diabetes-induced hepatic inflammation and to unveil the underlying mechanisms. Diabetes in db/db mice was alleviated after CPT administration, as assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, treatment with CPT dramatically reduced serum insulin, aspartate amino-transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, and total cholesterol amounts. Besides, serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also reduced after CPT administration. Western blot analysis revealed that CPT treatment significantly reversed the protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, p-P65, p-IκBα, p-IKKα, and p-IKKβ in liver samples obtained from db/db mice. Upon palmitic acid stimulation, the protective effects of CPT on the liver were further assessed in HepG2 and LO2 cells, and no appreciable cytotoxic effects were found. Therefore, these findings indicate that CPT alleviates liver inflammation via Rho-kinase signaling. Chemical compounds evaluated in this report: Metformin (PubChem CID: 4091); Fasudil (PubChem CID: 3547); Palmitic acid (PubChem CID: 985).
Publication
Journal: European neurology
June/11/2007
Abstract
Previous findings regarding the role of TNF-alpha-308 gene polymorphism in multiple sclerosis (MS) are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism on MS susceptibility and the MS disease process in a Croatian and Slovenian population. Genotyping was performed in 338 patients and 460 healthy controls. The TNF2 allele was present in 123 (26.8%) healthy controls vs. 67 (19.9%) MS patients (p = 0.023, odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-0.95), suggesting that carriage of the TNF2 allele might decrease MS risk. The difference in TNF2 allele carrier frequency between patients and controls was identified in the relapsing-remitting MS group. There was no association between TNF2 allele carrier status and age at disease onset or disease progression. Our results suggest that, in the study populations, the TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism may play a role in MS susceptibility.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of dermatology
June/18/2007
Publication
Journal: Cytokine
June/17/2007
Abstract
Inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and growth factors are associated with the pathology of chronic liver diseases. The aim of our present work was to study the effect of exogenous leptin and/or ethanol on the secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 both in vivo and in vitro. Forty eight hours after the exposure to ethanol (500 mM) significantly elevated the secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 in the cell-free culture supernatant (HepG2 and mouse HCC cell lines), which were decreased on leptin (31.2 nM) treatment. Similarly, leptin administration to ethanol (6.32 g kg(-1) body weight) fed mice for 45 days significantly lowered the concentration of these cytokines in the circulation; however, leptin alone (230 microg kg(-1) body weight i.p. administered every alternate day for the last 15 days) had no such significant effect on cytokine secretion both in vivo and in vitro conditions. We conclude that leptin is involved in the protective mechanisms that allow an organism to cope with the potentially autoaggressive effects of its immune system in alcoholic liver disease.
Publication
Journal: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
May/7/2006
Abstract
Enhanced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -alpha, is associated with the neuropathological effects underlying disease-, trauma- and chemically induced neurodegeneration. Previously, we have shown that deficiency of TNF receptors protects against MPTP-induced striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity, findings suggestive of a role for TNF-alpha in neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that deficiency of TNF receptors suppresses microglial activation and alters the susceptibility of brain regions to MPTP. MPTP-induced expression of microglia-derived factors, TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and IL-1alpha, preceded the degeneration of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals and astrogliosis, as assessed by loss of striatal dopamine and TH, and an increase in striatal GFAP. Pharmacological neuroprotection with the dopamine reuptake inhibitor, nomifensine, abolished striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity and associated microglial activation. Similarly, in mice lacking TNF receptors, microglial activation was suppressed, findings consistent with a role for TNF-alpha in striatal MPTP neurotoxicity. In the hippocampus, however, TNF receptor-deficient mice showed exacerbated neuronal damage after MPTP, as evidenced by Fluoro Jade-B staining (to identify degenerating neurons) and decreased microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) immunoreactivity. These effects were not accompanied by microglial activation, but were associated with increased oxidative stress (nitrosylation of tyrosine residues). These findings suggest that TNF-alpha exerts a neurotrophic/neuroprotective effect in hippocampus. The marked differences we observed in the regional density, distribution and/or activity of microglia and microglia-derived factors may influence the region-specific role for this cell type. Taken together, our results are indicative of a region-specific and dual role for TNF-alpha in the brain: a promoter of neurodegeneration in striatum and a protector against neurodegeneration in hippocampus.
Publication
Journal: Arthritis research & therapy
April/12/2006
Abstract
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is considered to be a major factor in chronic synovial inflammation and is an inducer of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling. In the present study we investigated the ability of TNF to activate MAPKs in the synovial membrane in vivo. We studied human TNF transgenic mice--an in vivo model of TNF-induced arthritis--to examine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) and p38MAPKalpha in the inflamed joints by means of immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the effects of systemic blockade of TNF, IL-1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand on the activation of MAPKs were assessed. In vivo, overexpression of TNF induced activation of p38MAPKalpha and ERK in the synovial membrane, whereas activation of JNK was less pronounced and rarely observed on immunohistochemical analysis. Activated p38MAPKalpha was predominantly found in synovial macrophages, whereas ERK activation was present in both synovial macrophages and fibroblasts. T and B lymphocytes did not exhibit major activation of any of the three MAPKs. Systemic blockade of TNF reduced activation of p38MAPKalpha and ERK, whereas inhibition of IL-1 only affected p38MAPKalpha and blockade of RANK ligand did not result in any decrease in MAPK activation in the synovial membrane. These data indicate that TNF preferentially activates p38MAPKalpha and ERK in synovial membrane exposed to TNF. This not only suggests that targeted inhibition of p38MAPKalpha and ERK is a feasible strategy for blocking TNF-mediated effects on joints, but it also shows that even currently available methods to block TNF effectively reduce activation of these two MAPKs.
Publication
Journal: Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
May/20/2007
Abstract
BACKGROUND
We speculated TNF-alpha can be one of candidate gene for aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) because TNF-alpha is pro-inflammatory cytokine and known to be increased level in asthmatic airways. In addition, genetic interaction between TNF-alpha and human antigen leucocyte (HLA) DPB1*0301, which is a strong genetic marker for AIA, was examined for its close location within chromosome 6.
METHODS
To investigate genetic association of TNF-alpha with an AIA phenotype, three study groups (163 patients with AIA, 197 patients with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA), 257 normal control subjects) were enrolled. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using a single-base extension method and HLA DPB1 genotyping was determined by high-throughput sequencing method.
RESULTS
All five SNPs of TNF-alpha were tested; there were no significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies among the three groups. However, significant association between TNF-alpha-308G>A polymorphism and atopy status was noted (P<0.05). Gene to gene interaction between TNF-alpha-1031T>C (or -863C>A or -857C>A) and HLA DPB1*0301could synergistically increase the susceptibility to AIA with odds ratio (OR) to 7.738 (or OR=8.184 for -863C>A, OR=7.500 for -857C>T, P<0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
TNF-alpha promoter polymorphism may significantly increase susceptibility to AIA by gene-to-gene interaction with HLA DPB1*0301.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases
November/30/2000
Abstract
Genes involved in regulating antimicrobial immunity and inflammation may modulate the risk of tissue scarring and fibrosis in chlamydial diseases such as trachoma. By use of a large case-control study of scarring trachoma in The Gambia, the importance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in several candidate genes was investigated. Overall, no significant differences were found between patients and control subjects in genotype frequencies for polymorphisms in cytokine promoters interleukin (IL)-10 (positions -1082, -819, -592), IL-4 (-590), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (-376) or for codon 57 of the mannose-binding protein. Among the ethnic groups in the study, Mandinkas had the highest frequency of the IL-10-1082G allele (0.36). Within this ethnic group, the IL-10-1082G homozygote genotype was significantly more common among case patients than control subjects (odds ratio, 5.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-24.2; P=.009). This single association is consistent with data indicating that the IL-10-1082G allele is associated with higher levels of IL-10 transcription and that Th2-type immune responses are associated with risk of chlamydial disease.
Publication
Journal: Clinical and experimental rheumatology
February/4/2009
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