Radix Bupleuri extract (RBE) is one of the most popular oriental herbal medicines, which has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its protective effects and underlying molecular mechanisms on oxidative damage in tilapia are still unclear. The aims of the study were to explore the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of RBE against oxidative damage, and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms in fish. Tilapia received diet containing three doses of RBE (0, 1 and 3 g/kg diet) for 60 days, and then were given an intraperitoneal injection of H2O2 or saline. Before injection, RBE treatments improved growth performance and partial anti-oxidative capacity in tilapia. After oxidative damage, RBE pretreatments were able to signally reduce the higher serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and liver necrosis. In serum and liver, the abnormal lipid peroxidation level and antioxidant status induced by H2O2 injection were restored by RBE treatments. Furthermore, RBE treatments activated erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, which promoted the gene expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). Meanwhile, RBE treatments reduced inflammatory response by inhibiting TLRs-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway, accompanied by the lower interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-8 mRNA levels. In addition, RBE treatments upregulated complement (C3) gene expression and downregulated heat shock protein (HSP70) gene expression. In conclusion, the current study suggested that RBE pretreatments protected against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in tilapia. The beneficial activity of RBE may be due to the modulation of Nrf2/ARE and TLRs-Myd88-NF-κB signaling pathway.