nfkb1
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nfkb1 -nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide enhancer in B-cells
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Ubiquitin-mediated NFκB degradation pathway.
Journal: Cellular & molecular immunology
August/8/2016
Description

The nuclear factor κB (NFκB) transcription factor plays critical roles in inflammation and immunity. The dysregulation of NFκB is associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer. NFκB activation is negatively regulated by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation pathway. In the present review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how ubiquitin ligases regulate the NFκB degradation pathway.

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Myoloid-related protein 8, an endogenous ligand of Toll-like receptor 4, is involved in epileptogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy via activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway in astrocytes.
Journal: Molecular neurobiology
October/26/2014
Description

The role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the activation of innate immunity has been extensively studied in the past several years. Here, we are the first to report that myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8), an endogenous TLR4 ligand, is involved in the epileptogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We find that the expression of MRP8, TLR4, and interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) was upregulated in a MTLE model during both acute and chronic disease stages. We next investigated the possible roles played by astrocytes, which have been shown to be the major source of IL-1β during epilepsy. Stimulation via MRP8 led to the induction of IL-1β in astrocytes in vitro, accompanied by the activation of Nuclear Factor-κB, while knockdown of TLR4 or inhibition of NF-κB in astrocytes prevented this IL-1β induction. Thus, MRP8 may potentiate the perpetuation of MTLE by activating the NF-κB pathway in astrocytes, and could be a new target for anticonvulsant therapies.

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Activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 in the peritoneal membrane of uremic patients.
Journal: American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
August/12/2015
Description

Peritoneal inflammation and fibrosis are responses to the uremic milieu and exposure to hyperosmolar dialysis fluids in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Cells respond to high osmolarity via the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT5). In the present study, the response of human peritoneal fibroblasts to glucose was analyzed in vitro. Expression levels of NFAT5 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL2) mRNA were quantified in peritoneal biopsies of five nonuremic control patients, five uremic patients before PD (pPD), and eight patients on PD (oPD) using real-time PCR. Biopsies from 5 control patients, 25 pPD patients, and 25 oPD patients were investigated using immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of NFAT5, CCL2, NF-κB p50, NF-κB p65, and CD68. High glucose concentrations led to an early, dose-dependent induction of NFAT5 mRNA in human peritoneal fibroblasts. CCL2 mRNA expression was upregulated by high concentrations of glucose after 6 h, but, most notably, a concentration-dependent induction of CCL2 was present after 96 h. In human peritoneal biopsies, NFAT5 mRNA levels were increased in uremic patients compared with nonuremic control patients. No significant difference was found between the pPD group and oPD group. CCL2 mRNA expression was higher in the oPD group. Immunohistochemistry analysis was consistent with the results of mRNA analysis. CD68-positive cells were significantly increased in the oPD group. In conclusion, uremia results in NFAT5 induction, which might promote early changes of the peritoneum. Upregulation of NFAT5 in PD patients is associated with NFκB induction, potentially resulting in the recruitment of macrophages.

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A contralateral repeated bout effect attenuates induction of NF-κB DNA binding following eccentric exercise.
Journal: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
January/21/2015
Description

We investigated the existence of contralateral repeated bout effect and tested if the attenuation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB; an important regulator of muscle inflammation) induction following eccentric exercise is a potential mechanism. Thirty-one healthy men performed two bouts of knee extension eccentric exercise, initially with one leg and then with the opposite leg 4 wk later. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of both exercised and control legs were taken 3 h postexercise. Knee extension isometric and isokinetic strength (60°/sec and 180°/sec) were measured at baseline, pre-exercise, immediately postexercise, and 1/day for 5 days postexercise. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness were assessed at baseline and 1/day for 5 days postexercise. NF-κB (p65) DNA-binding activity was measured in the muscle biopsies. Isometric strength loss was lower in bout 2 than in bout 1 at 24, 72, and 96 h postexercise (P < 0.05). Isokinetic strength (60°/s and 180°/s) was reduced less in bout 2 than in bout 1 at 72 h postexercise (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between bouts for postexercise CK activity or muscle soreness. p65 DNA-binding activity was increased following eccentric exercise (compared with the control leg) in bout 1 (122.9% ± 2.6%; P < 0.001) and bout 2 (109.1% ± 3.0%; P < 0.05). Compared with bout 1, the increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity postexercise was attenuated after bout 2 (P = 0.0008). Repeated eccentric exercise results in a contralateral repeated bout effect, which could be due to the attenuated increase in NF-κB activity postexercise.

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Up-regulation of human bradykinin B1 receptor by secreted components of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via a NF-κB pathway in epithelial cells.
Journal: FEMS immunology and medical microbiology
March/6/2012
Description

Pulmonary epithelial cells produce neutrophil chemotactic activity in response to pathogenic bacterial infections, resulting in neutrophil migration to infection sites. Elicited neutrophils in the inflamed tissues were found to be dependent on bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R), which shows high affinity for the active metabolites derived from bradykinin. Thus, the up-regulation of bradykinin and B1R expression represents an important host defense response against invading microbes such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the effect of P. aeruginosa on the expression of B1R remains unclear, while P. aeruginosa infection is known to stimulate the production of bradykinin. Here, we report that human B1R (hB1R) transcription is up-regulated in host cells co-cultured with P. aeruginosa. Components secreted from P. aeruginosa play a major role in the up-regulation, and the secretion of the components is not controlled by either type III secretion system or quorum sensing. Moreover, the B1R induction is mediated by a NF-κB signaling pathway in human lung epithelial cells. Taken together, this study demonstrates that P. aeruginosa is capable of up-regulating hB1R expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

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miR-146a induces differentiation of periodontal ligament cells.
Journal: Journal of dental research
March/25/2010
Description

Differentiation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells occurs under specific induction; furthermore, NF-kappaB signaling is important for regulation of bone differentiation. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that repress the translation of target genes and modulate cellular processes. miR-146a has been reported to modulate NF-kappaB signaling. This study hypothesized that miR-146a has a regulatory role in PDL differentiation by affecting NF-kappaB signaling. Immortalized PDL (I-PDL) cell lines were established by exogenous telomerase expression. The genesis of alkaline phosphatase and the up-regulation of miR-146a were induced by ascorbic acid in the I-PDL cells and primary PDL cells. I-PDL cells with exogenous miR-146a expression showed attenuation of NF-kappaB activity and exhibited higher differentiation relative to the controls. Exogenous NF-kappaB expression decreased the expression of differentiation markers, while the inactivation of endogenous NF-kappaB increased alkaline phosphatase in I-PDL cells. This study concludes that miR-146a promotes the differentiation in PDL cells through the down-regulation of NF-kappaB signaling.

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Transcriptional regulation of intronic calcium-activated potassium channel SK2 promoters by nuclear factor-kappa B and glucocorticoids.
Journal: Molecular and cellular biochemistry
September/24/2007
Description

Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK) of the SK2 subtype are widely expressed in the central nervous system where they contribute to the control of neuronal excitability. Two SK2 isoforms, SK2-S and SK2-L, the latter representing an N-terminally extended protein of SK2-S, are expressed in similar patterns in the brain. However, our understanding of mechanisms by which the expression of SK2 is regulated is limited. We identified one functional glucocorticoid response element (GRE) at position -2248 bp and two functional nuclear factor-kappB (NF-kappaB) response elements at positions -1652 and -1586 bp in the SK2-S promoter. An increase in SK2-S promoter activity was observed in PC12 cells transiently transfected with a wild-type SK2-S promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct and treated with aldosterone or dexamethasone. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone or the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone fully inhibited aldosterone or dexamethasone activation of the SK2-S promoter, respectively. SK2-S promoter activity was also induced by the cell-permeable ceramide analog, N-acetylsphingosine (C2-ceramide). Antisense oligonucleotides directed to NF-kappaB p65 or p50 suppressed SK2-S transcription induced by C2-ceramide. Deletion studies showed that only the -1586 bp NF-kappaB binding site was necessary for maximum C2-ceramide response. Finally, we showed that activation of GRs but not of MRs repressed the NF-kappaB-mediated induction of SK2-S transcription. These findings suggest a possible transcriptional cross talk between GRs and NF-kappaB in the intronic promoter regulation of SK2-S channel gene transcription.

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4-O-methylhonokiol inhibits colon tumor growth via p21-mediated suppression of NF-κB activity.
Journal: The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
November/1/2012
Description

Biphenolic components in the Magnolia family have shown several pharmacological activities such as antitumor effects. This study investigated the effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH), a constituent of Magnolia officinalis, on human colon cancer cell growth and its action mechanism. 4-O-methylhonokiol (0-30 μM) decreased constitutive activated nuclear factor (NF)-κB DNA binding activity and inhibited growth of human colon (SW620 and HCT116) cancer cells. It also caused G₀-G₁ phase cell cycle arrest followed by an induction of apoptotic cell death. However, knockdown with small interfering RNA (siRNA) of p21 or transfection with cyclin D1/Cdk4 binding site-mutated p21 abrogated MH-induced cell growth inhibition, inhibition of NF-κB activity as well as expression of cyclin D1 and Cdk4. Conversely, inhibition of NF-κB with specific inhibitor or siRNA augmented MH-induced apoptotic cell death. 4-O-methylhonokiol inhibited tumor growth, NF-κB activity and expression of antiapoptotic proteins; however, it increased the expression of apoptotic proteins as well as p21 in xenograft nude mice bearing SW620 cancer cells. The present study reveals that MH causes p21-mediated human colon cancer cell growth inhibition through suppression of NF-κB and indicates that this compound by itself or in combination with other anticancer agents could be useful for the treatment of cancer.

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JANEX-1, a JAK3 inhibitor, protects pancreatic islets from cytokine toxicity through downregulation of NF-kappaB activation and the JAK/STAT pathway.
Journal: Experimental cell research
July/5/2009
Description

JANEX-1/WHI-P131, a selective Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor, has been shown to delay the onset of diabetes in the NOD mouse model. However, the molecular mechanism by which JANEX-1 protects pancreatic beta-cells is unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of JANEX-1 on interleukin (IL)-1beta and interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced beta-cell damage using isolated islets. JANEX-1-pretreated islets showed resistance to cytokine toxicity, namely suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production, reduced inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS) expression, and decreased islet destruction. The molecular mechanism by which JANEX-1 inhibits iNOS expression was mediated through suppression of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways. Islets treated with the cytokines downregulated the protein levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 and SOCS-3, but pretreatment with JANEX-1 attenuated these decreases. Additionally, islets from JAK3(-/-) mice were more resistant to cytokine toxicity than islets from control mice. These results demonstrate that JANEX-1 protects beta-cells from cytokine toxicity through suppression of the NF-kappaB and JAK/STAT pathways and upregulation of SOCS proteins, suggesting that JANEX-1 may be used to preserve functional beta-cell mass.

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Lineage-dependent NF-kappaB activation contributes to the resistance of human macrophages to apoptosis.
Journal: The hematology journal : the official journal of the European Haematology Association
April/29/2004
Description

Granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes develop from the same myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow via distinct differentiation pathways. Yet, it is known that mature macrophages are more resistant than granulocytes to spontaneous apoptosis in cultures without hematopoietic growth factors. This fact suggests that the development of resistance to apoptosis during myeloid differentiation is differentially regulated by a lineage-dependent mechanism. Using primary cultures of human bone marrow cells, we now report that induction of monocytic differentiation into mature macrophages with M-CSF was correlated with a steady and gradual increase in the levels of X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apotosis (XIAP) and Bcl-2, while induction of granulocytic differentiation with G-CSF had no significant effects on the expression of these proteins. Consistent with this, NF-kappaB activation is linked to monocytic, but not granulocytic differentiation, while ERK or STAT3 activation is not lineage-dependent. Blockade of NF-kappaB activation in mature macrophages resulted in a marked decrease in the levels of XIAP and Bcl-2, which was accompanied with cell death through an apoptotic mechanism. Thus lineage-dependent activation of NF-kappaB is responsible at least in part for the resistance of mature macrophages to 'spontaneous' apoptosis in vitro.

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