The HIV-1 Tat protein, essential for HIV-1 gene expression and viral replication, is known to be secreted by infected cells and has pleiotropic effects on various cell functions. It seems that extracellular Tat may exert its functions on cellular targets by at least two different mechanisms, namely, by adsorptive endocytosis, and by a possible interaction with cell surface receptor(s). Here we report that extracellular Tat activates AIM/CD69 gene transcription through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in the erythroleukemia cell line K562. Tat induces NF-kappaB binding to DNA as a result of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, which depend on the intracellular redox state. We found that the second Tat-coding exon is required for CD69 gene trans-activation, but not for HIV LTR gene transcription. Fluorescein-labeled Tat proteins were used to study cell surface binding sites and cellular uptake of the proteins. Full-length Tat protein has specific binding sites on the surface of K562 cells, whereas truncated Tat1-48, which is efficiently internalized by the cells, does not bind to the cell surface. Our results suggest that extracellular Tat may activate a cell surface-mediated pathway that induces intracellular signal transduction in K562 cells, leading to the activation of NF-kappaB and the transcription of NF-kappaB-dependent genes, such as CD69.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two genes involved in the NF-κB cascade (GPR177 and MAP3K14) and bone mineral density (BMD) assessed at different skeletal sites, radial geometric parameters and bone turnover.
Ten GPR177 SNPs previously associated with BMD with genome-wide significance and twelve tag SNPs (r(2)≥0.8) within MAP3K14 (±10 kb) were genotyped in 2359 men aged 40-79 years recruited from 8 centres for participation in the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Measurement of bone turnover markers (PINP and CTX-I) in the serum and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus were performed in all centres. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at the lumbar spine and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), at the distal and midshaft radius, were performed in a subsample (2 centres). Linear regression was used to test for association between the SNPs and bone measures under an additive genetic model adjusting for study centre.
We validated the associations between SNPs in GPR177 and BMD(a) previously reported and also observed evidence of pleiotrophic effects on density and geometry. Rs2772300 in GPR177 was associated with increased total hip and LS BMD(a), increased total and cortical vBMD at the radius and increased cortical area, thickness and stress strain index. We also found evidence of association with BMD(a), vBMD, geometric parameters and CTX-I for SNPs in MAP3K14. None of the GPR177 and MAP3K14 SNPs were associated with calcaneal estimated BMD measured by QUS.
Our findings suggest that SNPs in GPR177 and MAP3K14 involved in the NF-κB signalling pathway influence bone mineral density, geometry and turnover in a population-based cohort of middle aged and elderly men. This adds to the understanding of the role of genetic variation in this pathway in determining bone health.
Endothelial lipase (EL) is a new member of triacylglycerol lipase family that has been shown to decrease high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels leading to increased risk of atherosclerosis. Its expression is increased during inflammation and by inflammatory cytokines. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is one of the molecular targets for SFN-mediated protective effects. Our aim was therefore to assess whether SFN could impact on EL expression via modulation of NF-κB pathway.
Quantitative PCR and Western blot results demonstrated that SFN inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated induction of EL in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Lentiviral transduction of HUVEC with mutated form of IκB-α (IκBM) as well as silencing of NF-κB subunit p65 using RNA interference revealed that TNF-α-mediated induction of EL is mediated through NF-κB pathway. In addition, a total of five NF-κB binding sites were found in LIPG gene, which encodes EL. SFN inhibited binding of NF-κB to these sites analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). SFN also inhibited TNF-α mediated phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) 1/2 and IκB-α.
Collectively, these results indicate that SFN inhibits EL expression via inhibition of NF-κB which may have a beneficial effect on HDL cholesterol levels.
The transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) and NFκB pathways are important regulators of epidermal homeostasis, inflammatory responses and carcinogenesis. Previous studies have shown extensive crosstalk between these pathways that is cell type and context dependent, but this has not been well-characterized in epidermal keratinocytes. Here we show that in primary mouse keratinocytes, TGFβ1 induces NFκB-luciferase reporter activity that is dependent on both NFκB and Smad3. TGFβ1-induced NFκB-luciferase activity was blocked by the IκB inhibitor parthenolide, the IκB super-repressor, a dominant negative TGFβ1-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and genetic deletion of NFκB1. Coexpression of NFκB p50 or p65 subunits enhanced NFκB-luciferase activity. Similarly, inhibition of the TGFβ1 type I receptor with SB431542 or genetic deletion of Smad3 blocked TGFβ1 induction of NFκB-luciferase. TGFβ1 rapidly induced IKK phosphorylation but did not cause a detectable decrease in cytoplasmic IκB levels or nuclear translocation of NFκB subunits, although EMSA showed rapid NFκB nuclear binding activity that could be blocked by SB431542 treatment. TNFα, a well characterized NFκB target gene was also induced by TGFβ1 and this was blocked in NFκB+/- and -/- keratinocytes and by the IκB super-repressor. To test the effects of the TGFβ1 pathway on a biologically relevant activator of NFκB, we exposed mice and primary keratinocytes in culture to UVB irradiation. In primary keratinocytes UVB caused a detectable increase in levels of Smad2 phosphorylation that was dependent on ALK5, but no significant increase in SBE-dependent gene expression. Inhibition of TGFβ1 signaling in primary keratinocytes with SB431542 or genetic deletion of Tgfb1 or Smad3 suppressed UVB induction of TNFα message. Similarly, UVB induction of TNFα mRNA was blocked in skin of Tgfb1+/- mice. These studies demonstrate that intact TGFβ1 signaling is required for NFκB-dependent gene expression in mouse keratinocytes and skin and suggest that a convergence of these pathways in the nucleus rather than the cytoplasm may be critical for regulation of inflammatory pathways in skin by TGFβ1.
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) plasma level is high in cardiac and renal failure and is associated with poor clinical prognosis of these disorders. Both diseases are paralleled by hyperaldosteronism. Excessive FGF23 levels and hyperaldosteronism are further observed in Klotho-deficient mice. The present study explored a putative aldosterone sensitivity of Fgf23 transcription and secretion the putative involvement of the aldosterone sensitive serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, SGK1 sensitive transcription factor NFκB and store operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Serum FGF23 levels were determined by ELISA in mice following sham treatment or exposure to deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) or salt depletion. In osteoblastic UMR106 cells transcript levels were quantified by qRT-PCR, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration utilizing Fura-2-fluorescence, and SOCE from Ca(2+) entry following store depletion by thapsigargin. As a result, DOCA treatment and salt depletion of mice elevated the serum C-terminal FGF23 concentration. In UMR106 cells aldosterone enhanced and spironolactone decreased SOCE. Aldosterone further increased Fgf23 transcript levels in UMR106 cells, an effect reversed by mineralocorticoid receptor blockers spironolactone and eplerenone, SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683, NFκB-inhibitor withaferin A, and Ca(2+) channel blocker YM58483. In conclusion, Fgf23 expression is up-regulated by aldosterone, an effect sensitive to SGK1, NFκB and store-operated Ca(2+) entry.
The signal-transducing adaptor protein 2 (STAP-2) is a recently identified adaptor protein that contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) and Src homology 2 (SH2)-like domains, as well as a proline-rich domain in its C-terminal region. In previous studies, we demonstrated that STAP-2 binds to MyD88 and IKK-alpha or IKK-beta and modulates NF-kappaB signaling in macrophages. In the present study, we found that ectopic expression of STAP-2 inhibited Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP1-mediated NF-kappaB signaling and interleukin-6 expression. Indeed, STAP-2 associated with LMP1 through its PH and SH2-like domains, and these proteins interacted with each other in EBV-positive human B cells. We found, furthermore, that STAP-2 regulated LMP1-mediated NF-kappaB signaling through direct or indirect interactions with the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and TNFR-associated death domain (TRADD) proteins. STAP-2 mRNA was induced by the expression of LMP1 in human B cells. Furthermore, transient expression of STAP-2 in EBV-positive human B cells decreased cell growth. Finally, STAP-2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed enhanced LMP1-induced cell growth. These results suggest that STAP-2 acts as an endogenous negative regulator of EBV LMP1-mediated signaling through TRAF3 and TRADD.
Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., commonly known as Javanese turmeric, has been reported to possess a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects, anticarcinogenic effects, wound healing effects, and serum cholesterol-lowering effects. CPE, crude polysaccharide extract isolated from the rhizome of C. xanthorrhiza using 0.1 N NaOH, consisted of arabinose (18.69%), galactose (14.0%), glucose (50.67%), mannose (12.97%), rhamnose (2.73%), and xylose (0.94%), with an average molecular weight of 33,000 Da. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CPE on nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW 264.7 cells. The uptake of fluorescein-labeled Escherichia coli was measured to determine whether CPE stimulates the phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells. CPE significantly increased the phagocytosis of macrophages and the release of NO, H2O2, TNF-alpha, and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner, and showed a similar activity to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To study the mechanisms of CPE, we examined induction of iNOS and COX-2. NO and PGE2 were produced as a result of stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) respectively. Both modulations of iNOS and COX-2 expression by CPE were evaluated by Western immunoblotting and RT-PCR. Since transcription of these enzymes is under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), we assessed the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) through Western immunoblotting. CPE clearly induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, suggesting a role as an NF-kappaB activator. Taking all this together, we conclude that CPE isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza stimulates the immune functions of macrophages, which is mediated in part by specific activation of NF-kappaB.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) are important mediators of the inflammatory response. We report that in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), NO exerts a biphasic effect on the expression of IL-6. Using sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) as NO-donating compounds, we observed that both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 increased at lower (≤10μM) and decreased at higher (>100μM) concentrations of NO donors. Changes in the expression of IL-6 correlated with changes in the activity of NF-κB, which increased at lower and decreased at higher concentrations of both NO donors as shown by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The effects of NO on NF-κB activity were cGMP-dependent because they were reversed in the presence of ODQ, the inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and KT5823, the inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Moreover, the membrane permeable analog of cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) mimicked the effect of the NO donors. These observations show that NO, depending on its concentration, may act in human PBMCs as a stimulator of IL-6 expression involving the sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway.
The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax is a potent activator of classical and alternative NF-κB pathways and is thought to promote cell proliferation and transformation via NF-κB activation. We showed recently that hyperactivation of NF-κB by Tax triggers a cellular senescence response (H. Zhi et al., PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002025, 2011). Inhibition of NF-κB activation by expression of I-κBα superrepressor or by small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of p65/RelA rescues cells from Tax-induced rapid senescence (Tax-IRS). Here we demonstrate that Tax-IRS is driven by the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Knockdown of IKKγ, the primary Tax target, by shRNAs abrogated Tax-mediated activation of both classical and alternative NF-κB pathways and rendered knockdown cells resistant to Tax-IRS. Consistent with a critical role of IKKα in the transcriptional activity of NF-κB, IKKα deficiency drastically decreased NF-κB trans-activation by Tax, although it only modestly reduced Tax-mediated I-κBα degradation and NF-κB nuclear localization. In contrast, although IKKβ knockdown attenuated Tax-induced NF-κB transcriptional activation, the residual NF-κB activation in IKKβ-deficient cells was sufficient to trigger Tax-IRS. Importantly, the phenotypes of NIK and TAK1 knockdown were similar to those of IKKα and IKKβ knockdown, respectively. Finally, double knockdown of RelB and p100 had a minor effect on senescence induction by Tax. These data suggest that Tax, through its interaction with IKKγ, helps recruit NIK and TAK1 for IKKα and IKKβ activation, respectively. In the presence of Tax, the delineation between the classical and alternative NF-κB pathways becomes obscured. The senescence checkpoint triggered by Tax is driven by the transcriptional activity of NF-κB, which depends on activated IKKα and p65/RelA.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Wild-type p53-induced protein 1 (WIP1) is overexpressed in multiple human cancers and acted as an oncogene. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of WIP1 in colorectal cancer growth and analyzed underlying mechanisms. Herein, we determined WIP1 expression in CRC tissues and cell lines, as well as evaluated its detailed function in CRC cell proliferation. Several factors have been reported to mediate WIP1 effects; herein, we examined the involvement of mTOR and p21 in WIP1 regulation of CRC cell proliferation. Moreover, NF-κB has been regarded as a positive transcriptional regulator of WIP1 to activate its expression. NF-κB knockdown suppressed CRC cell proliferation, which could be reversed by WIP1 overexpression, through p21 and mTOR. Further, we examined the binding of NF-κB to the promoter region of WIP1. In CRC tissues, NF-κB expression was significantly up-regulated, and positively correlated with WIP1 expression, suggesting that inhibiting NF-κB expression to attenuate its activating effect on WIP1 expression presented a promising strategy of controlling excess proliferation of CRC cell. In summary, WIP1 promotes CRC proliferation through p21 and mTOR, both downstream targets of p53; NF-κB served as a positive transcriptional regulator of WIP1 to activate its expression and affect its function in CRC cells. Our finding provided a novel strategy for treatment for CRC.