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nfkb1 -nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide enhancer in B-cells
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Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling.
Journal: Cell
March/5/2008
Description

The transcription factor NF-kappaB has served as a standard for inducible transcription factors for more than 20 years. The numerous stimuli that activate NF-kappaB, and the large number of genes regulated by NF-kappaB, ensure that this transcription factor is still the subject of intense research. Here, we attempt to synthesize some of the basic principles that have emerged from studies of NF-kappaB, and we aim to generate a more unified view of NF-kappaB regulation.

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The NF-kappa B and I kappa B proteins: new discoveries and insights.
Journal: Annual review of immunology
December/23/1996
Description

The transcription factor NF-kappa B has attracted widespread attention among researchers in many fields based on the following: its unusual and rapid regulation, the wide range of genes that it controls, its central role in immunological processes, the complexity of its subunits, and its apparent involvement in several diseases. A primary level of control for NF-kappa B is through interactions with an inhibitor protein called I kappa B. Recent evidence confirms the existence of multiple forms of I kappa B that appear to regulate NF-kappa B by distinct mechanisms. NF-kappa B can be activated by exposure of cells to LPS or inflammatory cytokines such as TNF or IL-1, viral infection or expression of certain viral gene products, UV irradiation, B or T cell activation, and by other physiological and nonphysiological stimuli. Activation of NF-kappa B to move into the nucleus is controlled by the targeted phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of I kappa B. Exciting new research has elaborated several important and unexpected findings that explain mechanisms involved in the activation of NF-kappa B. In the nucleus, NF-kappa B dimers bind to target DNA elements and activate transcription of genes encoding proteins involved with immune or inflammation responses and with cell growth control. Recent data provide evidence that NF-kappa B is constitutively active in several cell types, potentially playing unexpected roles in regulation of gene expression. In addition to advances in describing the mechanisms of NF-kappa B activation, excitement in NF-kappa B research has been generated by the first report of a crystal structure for one form of NF-kappa B, the first gene knockout studies for different forms of NF-kB and of I kappa B, and the implications for therapies of diseases thought to involve the inappropriate activation of NF-kappa B.

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NF-kappa B and Rel proteins: evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses.
Journal: Annual review of immunology
August/4/1998
Description

The transcription factor NF-kappa B, more than a decade after its discovery, remains an exciting and active area of study. The involvement of NF-kappa B in the expression of numerous cytokines and adhesion molecules has supported its role as an evolutionarily conserved coordinating element in the organism's response to situations of infection, stress, and injury. Recently, significant advances have been made in elucidating the details of the pathways through which signals are transmitted to the NF-kappa B:I kappa B complex in the cytosol. The field now awaits the discovery and characterization of the kinase responsible for the inducible phosphorylation of I kappa B proteins. Another exciting development has been the demonstration that in certain situations NF-kappa B acts as an anti-apoptotic protein; therefore, elucidation of the mechanism by which NF-kappa B protects against cell death is an important goal. Finally, the generation of knockouts of members of the NF-kappa B/I kappa B family has allowed the study of the roles of these proteins in normal development and physiology. In this review, we discuss some of these recent findings and their implications for the study of NF-kappa B.

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Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
Journal: Nature
December/25/2012
Description

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.

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Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3.
Journal: Cell
November/7/2005
Description

Viral infection triggers host innate immune responses through activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF 3, which coordinately regulate the expression of type-I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Herein, we report the identification of a novel protein termed MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), which mediates the activation of NF-kappaB and IRF 3 in response to viral infection. Silencing of MAVS expression through RNA interference abolishes the activation of NF-kappaB and IRF 3 by viruses, thereby permitting viral replication. Conversely, overexpression of MAVS induces the expression of IFN-beta through activation of NF-kappaB and IRF 3, thus boosting antiviral immunity. Epistasis experiments show that MAVS is required for the phosphorylation of IRF 3 and IkappaB and functions downstream of RIG-I, an intracellular receptor for viral RNA. MAVS contains an N-terminal CARD-like domain and a C-terminal transmembrane domain, both of which are essential for MAVS signaling. The transmembrane domain targets MAVS to the mitochondria, implicating a new role of mitochondria in innate immunity.

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Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.
Journal: Nature
September/15/2011
Description

Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

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NF-kappa B: ten years after.
Journal: Cell
November/24/1996
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An essential role for NF-kappaB in preventing TNF-alpha-induced cell death.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
December/9/1996
Description

Studies on mice deficient in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) subunits have shown that this transcription factor is important for lymphocyte responses to antigens and cytokine-inducible gene expression. In particular, the RelA (p65) subunit is required for induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent genes. Treatment of RelA-deficient (RelA-/-) mouse fibroblasts and macrophages with TNF-alpha resulted in a significant reduction in viability, whereas RelA+/+ cells were unaffected. Cytotoxicity to both cell types was mediated by TNF receptor 1. Reintroduction of RelA into RelA-/- fibroblasts resulted in enhanced survival, demonstrating that the presence of RelA is required for protection from TNF-alpha. These results have implications for the treatment of inflammatory and proliferative diseases.

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NF-kappaB: a key role in inflammatory diseases.
Journal: The Journal of clinical investigation
February/1/2001
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I kappa B: a specific inhibitor of the NF-kappa B transcription factor.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
November/22/1988
Description

In cells that do not express immunoglobulin kappa light chain genes, the kappa enhancer binding protein NF-kappa B is found in cytosolic fractions and exhibits DNA binding activity only in the presence of a dissociating agent such as sodium deoxycholate. The dependence on deoxycholate is shown to result from association of NF-kappa B with a 60- to 70-kilodalton inhibitory protein (I kappa B). The fractionated inhibitor can inactivate NF-kappa B from various sources--including the nuclei of phorbol ester-treated cells--in a specific, saturable, and reversible manner. The cytoplasmic localization of the complex of NF-kappa B and I kappa B was supported by enucleation experiments. An active phorbol ester must therefore, presumably by activation of protein kinase C, cause dissociation of a cytoplasmic complex of NF-kappa B and I kappa B by modifying I kappa B. this releases active NF-kappa B which can translocate into the nucleus to activate target enhancers. The data show the existence of a phorbol ester-responsive regulatory protein that acts by controlling the DNA binding activity and subcellular localization of a transcription factor.

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