nfkb1 - nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide enhancer in B-cells
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Publication
Journal: Cellular immunology
November/16/2009
Abstract
Transendothelial trafficking model mimics in vivo differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC). The serum from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus promotes the differentiation of monocytes into mature DC. We have shown that selective inhibition of NF-kappaB by adenoviral gene transfer of a novel mutated IkappaBalpha (AdIkappaBalphaM) in DC contributes to T cell tolerance. Here we demonstrated for the first time that asthmatic serum facilitated human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) maturation associated with increased NF-kappaB activation in this model. Furthermore, selective blockade of NF-kappaB by AdIkappaBalphaM in MDDC led to increased apoptosis, and decreased levels of CD80, CD83, CD86, and IL-12 p70 but not IL-10 in asthmatic serum-stimulated MDDC, accompanied by reduced proliferation of T cells. These results suggest that AdIkappaBalphaM-transferred MDDC are at a more immature stage which is beneficial to augment the immune tolerance in asthma.
Publication
Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
September/19/2001
Abstract
Notch participates in diverse cell fate decisions throughout embryonic development and postnatal life. Members of the NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors are involved in the regulation of a variety of genes important for immune function. The biological activity of the NF-kappaB transcription factors is controlled by IkappaB proteins. Our previous work demonstrated that an intracellular, constitutively active form of human Notch-1/translocation-associated Notch homologue-1 (Notch(IC)) functions as an IkappaB molecule with specificity for the NF-kappaB p50 subunit and physically interacts with NF-kappaB in T cells. In the current study, we investigated the roles of different domains of Notch(IC) in the regulation of NF-kappaB-directed gene expression and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. We found that Notch(IC) localizes to the nucleus and that a region in the N-terminal portion of Notch(IC), not the six ankyrin repeats, is responsible for the inhibitory effects of Notch on NF-kappaB-directed gene expression and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. The N-terminal portion of Notch(IC) inhibited p50 DNA binding and interacted specifically with p50 subunit, not p65 of NF-kappaB. The interaction between Notch and NF-kappaB indicates that in addition to its role in the development of the immune system, Notch-1 may also have critical functions in the immune response, inflammation, viral infection, and apoptosis through control of NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression.
Publication
Journal: Computational biology and chemistry
September/24/2019
Abstract
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is currently a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to screen critical genes and miRNAs involved in ACS.Microarray data (access number GSE19339) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. After data preprocessing, we screened the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using limma package and subsequently performed enrichment analysis using DAVID tool. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and transcription factor (TF)-miRNA-target gene regulatory network were visualized using Cytoscape software. Finally, the drug-gene interactions were predicted using DGIdb database.A total of 425 DEGs were identified in ACS samples compared with healthy control samples. Functional enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were mainly involved in angiogenesis, inflammatory response and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. IL6 and VEGFA were key nodes in PPI network. In addition, hsa-miR-29, hsa-miR-1, NFIC, NFKB1 and RELA were identified as key factors in TF-miRNA-target gene network. Finally, the prediction results revealed that VWF, CXCL8 and IL6 had higher degree than other genes.IL6 and VEGFA might play major roles in ACS progression. Two miRNAs (hsa-miR-29 and hsa-miR-1) and three TFs (NFIC, NFKB1 and RELA) were critical genes involved in pathological process of ACS. VWF, CXCL8 and IL6 might be potential druggable genes for ACS therapy.
Publication
Journal: The EMBO journal
July/19/2000
Abstract
Processing of the p105 precursor to form the active subunit p50 of the NF-kappaB transcription factor is a unique case in which the ubiquitin system is involved in limited processing rather than in complete destruction of the target substrate. A glycine-rich region along with a downstream acidic domain have been demonstrated to be essential for processing. Here we demonstrate that following IkappaB kinase (IkappaK)-mediated phosphorylation, the C-terminal domain of p105 (residues 918-934) serves as a recognition motif for the SCF(beta)(-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase. Expression of IkappaKbeta dramatically increases processing of wild-type p105, but not of p105-Delta918-934. Dominant-negative beta-TrCP inhibits IkappaK-dependent processing. Furthermore, the ligase and wild-type p105 but not p105-Delta918-934 associate physically following phosphorylation. In vitro, SCF(beta)(-TrCP) specifically conjugates and promotes processing of phosphorylated p105. Importantly, the TrCP recognition motif in p105 is different from that described for IkappaBs, beta-catenin and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu. Since p105-Delta918-934 is also conjugated and processed, it appears that p105 can be recognized under different physiological conditions by two different ligases, targeting two distinct recognition motifs.
Publication
Journal: International heart journal
November/28/2018
Abstract
Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is one of the deubiquitinating enzymes in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been shown that UCH-L1 could markedly decrease neointima formation through suppressing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in the balloon-injured rat carotid. However, whether UCH-L1 plays roles in VSMC migration remains to be determined. In this study, the primary VSMCs were isolated from aortic media of rats and TNF-α to was used to induce VSMC migration. Using a modified Boyden chamber and wound healing assay, it was found that TNF-α can dose and time-dependently induce VSMC migration with a maximal effect at 10 ng/mL. Moreover, UCH-L1 expression increased gradually with the prolonged induction time at 10 ng/mL of TNF-α. UCH-L1 content in VSMC was then modulated by recombinant adenoviruses expressing UCH-L1 or RNA interference to evaluate its roles in cell migration. The results showed that over-expression of UCH-L1 attenuated VSMC migration, while knockdown of it enhanced cell migration significantly no matter whether TNF-α treatment or not. Finally, the effect of UCH-L1 on NF-κB activation was demonstrated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity, and the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in cell culture media were examined by ELISA. It was showed that UCH-L1 over-expression inhibited NF-κB activation and decrease IL-6 and IL-8 levels, while knockdown of it enhanced NF-κB activation and increase IL-6 and IL-8 levels during TNF-α treatment. These data suggest that UCH-L1 can inhibit TNF-α-induced VSMCs migration, and this kind of effect may partially due to its suppression role in NF-κB activation.
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Publication
Journal: Molecular and cellular biology
June/6/2001
Abstract
Transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB is mediated by signal-induced phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitor, IkappaBalpha. NF-kappaB activation induces a rapid resynthesis of IkappaBalpha which is responsible for postinduction repression of transcription. Following resynthesis, IkappaBalpha translocates to the nucleus, removes template bound NF-kappaB, and exports NF-kappaB to the cytoplasm in a transcriptionally inactive form. Here we demonstrate that IkappaBalpha interacts directly with another nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, hnRNPA1, both in vivo and in vitro. This interaction requires one of the N-terminal RNA binding domains of hnRNPA1 and the C-terminal region of IkappaBalpha. Cells lacking hnRNPA1 are defective in NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation, but the defect in these cells is complemented by ectopic expression of hnRNPA1. hnRNPA1 expression in these cells increased the amount of IkappaBalpha degradation, compared to that of the control cells, in response to activation by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. Thus in addition to regulating mRNA processing and transport, hnRNPA1 also contributes to the control of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription.
Publication
Journal: Journal of clinical laboratory analysis
November/19/2019
Abstract
Epulis has a tumor-like appearance but is considered to be a massive reactive lesion rather than a true neoplasia. Limited information about the pathogenesis of epulis is available. The purpose of our study was to identify potential signaling pathways in fibrous epulis through transcriptome profiling.Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between fibrous epulis lesions and normal gingival tissues were detected using RNA sequencing (RNAseq). The expression levels of eighteen genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).RNAseq identified 533 upregulated genes and 732 downregulated genes. The top 10 upregulated genes were IL11, OSM, MMP3, KRT75, MMP1, IL6, IL1B, IL24, SP7, and ADGRG3. The top 10 downregulated genes were BCHE, TYR, DCT, KRT222, RP11-507K12.1, COL6A5, PMP2, GFRA1, SCN7A, and CDH19. KEGG pathway analysis further indicated that the DEGs were enriched in "Pathways in cancer" and the "Ras signaling pathway". quantitative real-time PCR verified that the expression levels of SOS1, HRAS, PIK3CA, AKT3, IKBKA, IKBKB, NFKB1, BCL2, BCL2L1, XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3 were increased significantly.The current transcriptomic profiling study reveals that in fibrous epulis, RAS-PI3K-AKT-NF-κB pathway transcriptionally regulates the expression of BCL2 family and IAP family genes, leading to increased proliferation and apoptosis inhibition.
Publication
Journal: BMC proceedings
December/14/2009
Abstract
The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a variety of genes involved in apoptosis and immune response. We examined relationships between genotypes at five NF-kappaB subunits (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, and RELB) and variable expression levels of 15 NF-kappaB regulated proteins with heritability greater than 0.40: BCL2A1, BIRC2, CD40, CD44, CD80, CFLAR, CR2, FAS, ICAM1, IL15, IRF1, JUNB, MYC, SLC2A5, and VCAM1. SNP genotypes and expression phenotypes from pedigrees of Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe were provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 and supplemented with additional genotype data from the International HapMap Consortium. We conducted association, linkage, and family-based association analyses between each candidate gene and the 15 heritable expression phenotypes. We observed consistent results in association and linkage analyses of the NFKB1 region (encoding p50) and levels of FAS and IRF1 expression. FAS is a cell surface protein that also belongs to the TNF-receptor family; signals through FAS are able to induce apoptosis. IRF1 is a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor family, which has been shown to regulate apoptosis and tumor-suppression. Analyses in the REL region (encoding c-Rel) revealed linkage and association with CD40 phenotype. CD40 proteins belong to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor family, which mediates a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses. We conclude that variation in the genes encoding p50 and c-Rel may play a role in NF-kappaB-related transcription of FAS, IRF1, and CD40.
Publication
Journal: Nature
January/14/2004
Abstract
Although human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infects quiescent and proliferating CD4+ lymphocytes, the virus replicates poorly in resting T cells. Factors that block viral replication in these cells might help to prolong the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection; however, the molecular mechanisms that control this process are not fully understood. Here we show that Murr1, a gene product known previously for its involvement in copper regulation, inhibits HIV-1 growth in unstimulated CD4+ T cells. This inhibition was mediated in part through its ability to inhibit basal and cytokine-stimulated nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activity. Knockdown of Murr1 increased NF-kappaB activity and decreased IkappaB-alpha concentrations by facilitating phospho-IkappaB-alpha degradation by the proteasome. Murr1 was detected in CD4+ T cells, and RNA-mediated interference of Murr1 in primary resting CD4+ lymphocytes increased HIV-1 replication. Through its effects on the proteasome, Murr1 acts as a genetic restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes, which could contribute to the regulation of asymptomatic HIV infection and the progression of AIDS.
Publication
Journal: American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
August/10/2005
Abstract
The transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB plays a leading role in cardiac hypertrophy associated with heart failure, but whether it is involved in cardiac mass reduction is not known. We evaluated whether inhibiting the NF-kappaB cascade with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) affected hypertrophy. We measured NF-kappaB signaling components [NF-kappaB translocation, IkappaBalpha, p65, mRNA and protein levels, and IkappaB kinase-beta (IKKbeta) activity] at 12 and 36 wk in WKYs and SHRs and at 10 wk in PDTC-treated rats (n = 9). NF-kappaB activation was also evaluated in rats treated for 10 wk with captopril or hydralazine alone or with either drug plus PDTC. All components were increased in SHRs compared with WKYs. After PDTC treatment, NF-kappaB activity was inhibited, and heart weight-to-body weight ratio in SHRs was significantly attenuated (3.52 +/- 0.04 to 3.32 +/- 0.05 mg/kg). Captopril treatment significantly reduced cardiac mass (3.5 vs. 3.05 mg/kg; n = 9) and inhibited NF-kappaB activity (169.71 +/- 5.70 to 106.7 +/- 12.44). Hydralazine had no effect on cardiac mass (3.5 vs. 3.42 mg/kg) or NF-kappaB activity (169.71 +/- 5.70 to 155.52 +/- 6.11). Hydralazine plus PDTC reduced blood pressure (191.16 +/- 1.7 to 158.5 +/- 2.36 mmHg) and inhibited NF-kappaB activity (169.71 +/- 5.70 to 97.29 +/- 3.65). Our data suggest that 1) cardiac hypertrophy in SHRs is partly due to NF-kappaB activation, 2) inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by PDTC parallels regression of hypertrophy, and 3) regression of hypertrophy is partly due to inhibition of NF-kappaB activity, independent of hypertension. The relationship between NF-kappaB activity and cardiac remodeling is causal, not coincidental.
Publication
Journal: Cell death and differentiation
August/31/2005
Abstract
We have shown that C2 ceramide, a cell-permeable analog of this lipid second messenger, triggers an NF-kappaB dependent survival pathway that counteracts cell death. Activation of NF-kappaB and subsequent induction of prosurvival genes relies on calpain activity and is prevented on silencing of the calpain small subunit (Capn4) that is required for the function of ubiquitous calpains. We have demonstrated that p105 (NF-kappaB1) and its proteolytic product p50 can be targets of micro- and milli-calpain in vitro and that a p50 deletion mutant, lacking both the N- and the C-terminal ends, is resistant to calpain-mediated degradation. Capn4 silencing results in stabilization of endogenous p105 and p50 in diverse human cell lines. Furthermore, p105 processing and activation of NF-kappaB survival genes in response to C2 ceramide is impaired in Capn4-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts defective in calpain activity. Altogether, these data argue for the existence of a ceramide-calpain-NF-kappaB axis with prosurvival functions.
Publication
Journal: Free radical research
February/6/2007
Abstract
Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were attenuated by the expression of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II). Cellular senescence as judged by senescence-associated (SA)-beta-galactosidase (Gal) positive cell formation was increased in Prx II-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). Ras expression was increased following passages. The level of Ras expression was higher in Prx II-/- MEF than wild type MEF. ERK activity was also augmented by the deletion of Prx II. SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation was reduced by PD98059, ERK inhibitor. Activated nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) by the deletion of Prx II was inhibited by the treatment with PD98059. In contrast, no changes in SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation were detected by NFkappaB inhibitor, N-alpha-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK). Collectively, results suggest that Prx II deletion activate Ras-ERK-NFkappaB pathways and cellular senescence in Prx II-/- MEF cells was mediated by ERK activation but not by NFkappaB activation.
Publication
Journal: Brain research. Molecular brain research
March/7/2001
Abstract
Peroxidation of membrane lipids occurs in many different neurodegenerative conditions including stroke, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Recent findings suggest that lipid peroxidation can promote neuronal death by a mechanism involving production of the toxic aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2,3-nonenal (HNE), which may act by covalently modifying proteins and impairing their function. The transcription factor NF-kappa B can prevent neuronal death in experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders by inducing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase. We now report that HNE selectively suppresses basal and inducible NF-kappa B DNA binding activity in cultured rat cortical neurons. Immunoprecipitation-immunoblot analyses using antibodies against HNE-conjugated proteins and p50 and p65 NF-kappa B subunits indicate that HNE does not directly modify NF-kappa B proteins. Moreover, HNE did not affect NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity when added directly to cytosolic extracts, suggesting that HNE inhibits an upstream component of the NF-kappa B signaling pathway. Inhibition of the survival-promoting NF-kappa B signaling pathway by HNE may contribute to neuronal death under conditions in which membrane lipid peroxidation occurs.
Publication
Journal: Stem cell reviews
November/20/2018
Abstract
Autologous human cardiac stem/progenitor cell (hCPC) therapy is a promising treatment that has come into use in recent years for patients with cardiomyopathy. Though innovative in theory, a major hindrance to the practical application of this treatment is that the hCPCs of elderly patients, who are most susceptible to myocardial disease, are senescent and prone to cell death. Rejuvenating hCPCs from elderly patients may help overcome this obstacle, and can be accomplished by reversing entry into the cellular stage of senescence. p16INK4A, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, is an important player in the regulation of cell senescence. In this study, we investigated whether knockdown of p16INK4A will rejuvenate aging hCPCs to a youthful phenotype. Our data indicated that upregulation of p16INK4A is associated with hCPC senescence. Both cell proliferation and survival capacity were significantly increased in hCPCs infected with lentivirus expressing p16INK4A shRNA when compared to control hCPCs. The knockdown of p16INK4A also induced antioxidant properties as indicated by a 50% decrease in ROS generation at basal cell metabolism, and a 25% decrease in ROS generation after exposure to oxidative stress. Genes associated with cell senescence (p21CIP1), anti-apoptosis (BCL2 and MCL1), anti-oxidant (CYGB, PRDX1 and SRXN1), and NFκB signal pathway (p65, IKBKB, HMOX1, etc.), were significantly upregulated after the p16INK4A knockdown. Knocking down the NFĸB-p65 expression also significantly diminished the cytoprotective effect caused by the p16INK4A knockdown. Our results suggest that genetic knockdown of p16INK4A may play a significant role in inducing antioxidant effects and extending lifespan of aging hCPCs. This genetic modification may enhance the effectiveness of autologous hCPC therapy for repair of infarcted myocardium.
Publication
Journal: Amino acids
July/20/2005
Abstract
In a previous research, we have shown that adequate levels of polyamines are required in transformed mouse fibroblasts for the correlated activations of MAPK subtypes (ERK and JNK) and caspases induced by etoposide and leading to apoptosis. We report now that the treatment of fibroblasts with etoposide also elicited a progressive and sustained increase of NF-kappaB activation. The DNA binding activity of p65 NF-kappaB subunit was increased up to approximately 4-fold and was accompanied by enhancement of p65 phosphorylation. A two days pre-treatment of fibroblasts with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), which caused polyamine depletion, provoked a slight activating effect when given alone, but markedly inhibited the etoposide-induced increases in p65 DNA binding and phosphorylation. The NF-kappaB inhibiting effect of DFMO was prevented by the addition of exogenous putrescine, which restored the intracellular content of polyamines. Selective inhibitors of the etoposide-stimulated MAPK subtypes also reduced NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, pharmacological NF-kappaB inhibition reduced the increase in caspase activity and cell death elicited by etoposide, suggesting that NF-kappaB is involved in signaling to apoptosis. The results of the present study, together with our previous findings, suggest that polyamines play a permissive role in the pathways triggered by etoposide and leading to cell death of fibroblasts, by supporting the activation of MAPKs, NF-kappaB and caspases.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of experimental medicine
April/10/2005
Abstract
The pre-T cell receptor (TCR) is expressed early during T cell development and imposes a tight selection for differentiating T cell progenitors. Pre-TCR-expressing cells are selected to survive and differentiate further, whereas pre-TCR(-) cells are "negatively" selected to die. The mechanisms of pre-TCR-mediated survival are poorly understood. Here, we describe the induction of the antiapoptotic gene BCL2A1 (A1) as a potential mechanism regulating inhibition of pre-T cell death. We characterize in detail the signaling pathway involved in A1 induction and show that A1 expression can induce pre-T cell survival by inhibiting activation of caspase-3. Moreover, we show that in vitro "knockdown" of A1 expression can compromise survival even in the presence of a functional pre-TCR. Finally, we suggest that pre-TCR-induced A1 overexpression can contribute to T cell leukemia in both mice and humans.
Publication
Journal: American journal of hypertension
September/21/2016
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is beneficial in various models of hypertension and renal disease. We hypothesized first that NFκB inhibition during renal development ameliorates hereditary hypertensive renal disease and next whether this was mediated via suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α).
RESULTS
Prior to the development of renal injury in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats, a model of hypertension, glomerular hyperfiltration, and progressive renal injury, NFkB activity, measured by nuclear protein expression of NFkB subunit p65, was enhanced twofold in 2-day-old male and female FHH kidneys as compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (P < 0.05). Treating FHH dams with pyrrolidine di thio carbamate (PDTC), an NFκB inhibitor, from 2 weeks before birth to 4 weeks after birth diminished NFkB activity in 2-day-FHH offspring to 2-day-WKY levels (P < 0.01). Perinatal PDTC reduced systolic blood pressure from 20 weeks onwards by on average 25 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and ameliorated proteinuria (P < 0.05) and glomerulosclerosis (P < 0.05). In kidneys of 2-day-, 2-week-, and adult offspring of PDTC-treated FHH dams, PGC-1α was induced on average by 67% (quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)) suggesting that suppression of this factor by NFkB could be involved in renal damage. Follow-up experiments with perinatal pioglitazone (Pio), a PPARγ agonist, failed to confer persistent antihypertensive or renoprotective effects.
CONCLUSIONS
Perinatal inhibition of enhanced active renal NFκB in 2-day FHH had persistent antihypertensive and renoprotective effects. However, this was not the case for PPARγ stimulation. NFkB stimulation is therefore involved in renal damage in the FHH model of proteinuric renal disease by pathways other than via PPARγ.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases
January/15/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Choline-binding protein A (CbpA) and pneumolysin (Ply) can induce the expression and release of chemokines by human cells, which might modulate specific immune responses. In dendritic cells (DCs), such effects could be important for the size and character of the immunity induced if administered as vaccines. We studied the induction of CCL and CXCL chemokines by CbpA and Ply in DCs and related signaling pathways.
METHODS
Proteins derived from bacterial cultures and cloning were used as stimulants. DCs were generated from CD14+ human monocytes by negative selection, followed by coculture with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and recombinant interleukin-4. The role played by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) was assessed using anti-TLR antibodies. Likewise, specific inhibitors (given in parentheses) of signaling molecules were used: NF-kappaB (SN50), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (PD98059), p38 (SB203580), and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125).
RESULTS
Both CbpA and Ply significantly up-regulated DC mRNA of several CCL (2, 4, 5, and 8) and CXCL (8 and 10) chemokines studied as well as the expression of 3 proteins studied: CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL8. Ply stimulation was blocked by anti-TLR4. Inhibition of NF-kappaB and several mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways also reduced chemokine release.
CONCLUSIONS
Chemokine induction in DCs by CbpA and Ply may be important for their potential use in future pneumococcal vaccines.
Publication
Journal: Cell
July/1/2015
Abstract
NF-κB is a key transcriptional regulator involved in inflammation and cell proliferation, survival, and transformation. Several key steps in its activation are mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub) system. One uncharacterized step is limited proteasomal processing of the NF-κB1 precursor p105 to the p50 active subunit. Here, we identify KPC1 as the Ub ligase (E3) that binds to the ankyrin repeats domain of p105, ubiquitinates it, and mediates its processing both under basal conditions and following signaling. Overexpression of KPC1 inhibits tumor growth likely mediated via excessive generation of p50. Also, overabundance of p50 downregulates p65, suggesting that a p50-p50 homodimer may modulate transcription in place of the tumorigenic p50-p65. Transcript analysis reveals increased expression of genes associated with tumor-suppressive signals. Overall, KPC1 regulation of NF-κB1 processing appears to constitute an important balancing step among the stimulatory and inhibitory activities of the transcription factor in cell growth control.
Publication
Journal: Nature
August/10/2010
Abstract
Cells operate in dynamic environments using extraordinary communication capabilities that emerge from the interactions of genetic circuitry. The mammalian immune response is a striking example of the coordination of different cell types. Cell-to-cell communication is primarily mediated by signalling molecules that form spatiotemporal concentration gradients, requiring cells to respond to a wide range of signal intensities. Here we use high-throughput microfluidic cell culture and fluorescence microscopy, quantitative gene expression analysis and mathematical modelling to investigate how single mammalian cells respond to different concentrations of the signalling molecule tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and relay information to the gene expression programs by means of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. We measured NF-kappaB activity in thousands of live cells under TNF-alpha doses covering four orders of magnitude. We find, in contrast to population-level studies with bulk assays, that the activation is heterogeneous and is a digital process at the single-cell level with fewer cells responding at lower doses. Cells also encode a subtle set of analogue parameters to modulate the outcome; these parameters include NF-kappaB peak intensity, response time and number of oscillations. We developed a stochastic mathematical model that reproduces both the digital and analogue dynamics as well as most gene expression profiles at all measured conditions, constituting a broadly applicable model for TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB signalling in various types of cells. These results highlight the value of high-throughput quantitative measurements with single-cell resolution in understanding how biological systems operate.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry
June/9/2004
Abstract
The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays important roles in inflammation and cell survival. NF-kappaB is composed of homodimeric and heterodimeric complexes of Rel/NF-kappaB family members, including p65 (RelA), c-Rel (Rel), RelB, NF-kappaB1/p50, and NF-kappaB2/p52. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel ZU5 and death domain-containing protein designated ZUD. In reporter gene assays, overexpression of ZUD inhibited NF-kappaB-dependent transcription induced by both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 and their downstream signaling proteins. Gel shift assays indicated that the overexpression of ZUD inhibited binding of NF-kappaB to its target sequence. ZUD is a cytoplasmic protein, and coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that ZUD interacted with the NF-kappaB subunit p105 and transactivator p65. Consistent with its role in inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, ZUD sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by TNF and the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Our findings suggest that ZUD is an inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation and that this protein may provide an alternative regulatory mechanism for NF-kappaB-mediated transcription.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
November/30/2014
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Foam cell formation in the arterial wall plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies showed that Urotensin II (U II) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here we examined the effects of human U II on ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and the underlying mechanism in THP-1 macrophages.
RESULTS
Cultured THP-1 macrophages were treated with U II, followed by measuring the intracellular lipid contents, cholesterol efflux and ABCA1 levels. The results showed that U II dramatically decreased ABCA1 levels and impaired cholesterol efflux. However, the effects of U II on ABCA1 protein expression and cellular cholesterol efflux were partially reversed by inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, suggesting the potential roles of ERK1/2 and NF-κB in ABCA1 expression, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Our current data indicate that U II may have promoting effects on the progression of atherosclerosis, likely through suppressing ABCA1 expression via activation of the ERK/NF-κB pathway and reducing cholesterol efflux to promote macrophage foam cell formation.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry
September/27/2009
Abstract
The precise sequence of events that enable mammary tumorigenesis to convert transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter remains incompletely understood. We show here that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (xIAP) is essential for the ability of TGF-beta to stimulate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells. Indeed whereas TGF-beta suppressed NF-kappaB activity in normal mammary epithelial cells, those engineered to overexpress xIAP demonstrated activation of NF-kappaB when stimulated with TGF-beta. Additionally up-regulated xIAP expression also potentiated the basal and TGF-beta-stimulated transcriptional activities of Smad2/3 and NF-kappaB. Mechanistically xIAP (i) interacted physically with the TGF-beta type I receptor, (ii) mediated the ubiquitination of TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), and (iii) facilitated the formation of complexes between TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1) and IkappaB kinase beta that enabled TGF-beta to activate p65/RelA and to induce the expression of prometastatic (i.e. cyclooxygenase-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and prosurvival (i.e. survivin) genes. We further observed that inhibiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase function of xIAP or expressing a mutant ubiquitin protein (i.e. K63R-ubiquitin) was capable of blocking xIAP- and TGF-beta-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Functionally xIAP deficiency dramatically reduced the coupling of TGF-beta to Smad2/3 in NMuMG cells as well as inhibited their expression of mesenchymal markers in response to TGF-beta. More importantly, xIAP deficiency also abrogated the formation of TAB1.IkappaB kinase beta complexes in 4T1 breast cancer cells, thereby diminishing their activation of NF-kappaB, their expression of prosurvival/metastatic genes, their invasion through synthetic basement membranes, and their growth in soft agar. Collectively our findings have defined a novel role for xIAP in mediating oncogenic signaling by TGF-beta in breast cancer cells.
Publication
Journal: American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
June/4/2017
Abstract
Calcific aortic valve disease is a chronic inflammatory condition, and the inflammatory responses of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) play a critical role in the disease progression. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) released from damaged or stressed cells is proinflammatory and may contribute to the mechanism of chronic inflammation observed in diseased aortic valves. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of dsRNA on AVIC inflammatory responses and the underlying mechanism. AVICs from normal human aortic valves were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a mimic of dsRNA. Poly(I:C) increased the production of IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and ICAM-1. Poly(I:C) also induced robust activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB. Knockdown of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) or Toll-IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF) suppressed ERK1/2 and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and reduced inflammatory mediator production induced by poly(I:C). Inhibition of NF-κB, not ERK1/2, reduced inflammatory mediator production in AVICs exposed to poly(I:C). Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB by prevention of p50 migration failed to suppress inflammatory mediator production. NF-κB p65 intranuclear translocation induced by the TLR4 agonist was reduced by inhibition of p50 migration; however, poly(I:C)-induced p65 translocation was not, although the p65/p50 heterodimer is present in AVICs. Poly(I:C) upregulates the production of multiple inflammatory mediators through the TLR3-TRIF-NF-κB pathway in human AVICs. The NF-κB activated by dsRNA appears not to be the canonical p65/p50 heterodimers.
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