We investigated the effects of 18 confirmed type 2 diabetes risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and conversion of proinsulin to insulin.
A total of 5,327 nondiabetic men (age 58 +/- 7 years, BMI 27.0 +/- 3.8 kg/m(2)) from a large population-based cohort were included. Oral glucose tolerance tests and genotyping of SNPs in or near PPARG, KCNJ11, TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, LOC387761, CDKN2B, IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, HNF1B, WFS1, JAZF1, CDC123, TSPAN8, THADA, ADAMTS9, NOTCH2, KCNQ1, and MTNR1B were performed. HNF1B rs757210 was excluded because of failure to achieve Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Six SNPs (TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKN2B, CDKAL1, and MTNR1B) were significantly (P < 6.9 x 10(-4)) and two SNPs (KCNJ11 and IGF2BP2) were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with early-phase insulin release (InsAUC(0-30)/GluAUC(0-30)), adjusted for age, BMI, and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda ISI). Combined effects of these eight SNPs reached -32% reduction in InsAUC(0-30)/GluAUC(0-30) in carriers of >or=11 vs. <or=3 weighted risk alleles. Four SNPs (SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKAL1, and TCF7L2) were significantly or nominally associated with indexes of proinsulin conversion. Three SNPs (KCNJ11, HHEX, and TSPAN8) were nominally associated with Matsuda ISI (adjusted for age and BMI). The effect of HHEX on Matsuda ISI became significant after additional adjustment for InsAUC(0-30)/GluAUC(0-30). Nine SNPs did not show any associations with examined traits.
Eight type 2 diabetes-related loci were significantly or nominally associated with impaired early-phase insulin release. Effects of SLC30A8, HHEX, CDKAL1, and TCF7L2 on insulin release could be partially explained by impaired proinsulin conversion. HHEX might influence both insulin release and insulin sensitivity.