Gt(ROSA)26Sor - gene trap ROSA 26, Philippe Soriano
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Publication
Journal: British journal of cancer
December/6/2018
Abstract
Although the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) kinase, included in the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signalling hubs, has been demonstrated to be active in a significant fraction of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the value of the kinase as a therapeutic target needs further clarification.
We used Mtor floxed mice to analyse the function of the kinase in context of the pancreas at the genetic level. Using a dual-recombinase system, which is based on the flippase-FRT (Flp-FRT) and Cre-loxP recombination technologies, we generated a novel cellular model, allowing the genetic analysis of MTOR functions in tumour maintenance. Cross-species validation and pharmacological intervention studies were used to recapitulate genetic data in human models, including primary human 3D PDAC cultures.
Genetic deletion of the Mtor gene in the pancreas results in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. In established murine PDAC cells, MTOR is linked to metabolic pathways and maintains the glucose uptake and growth. Importantly, blocking MTOR genetically as well as pharmacologically results in adaptive rewiring of oncogenic signalling with activation of canonical extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT pathways. We provide evidence that interfering with such adaptive signalling in murine and human PDAC models is important in a subgroup.
Our data suggest developing dual MTORC1/TORC2 inhibitor-based therapies for subtype-specific intervention.
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
December/6/2018
Abstract
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal genetic disorder. Patients with NF1 are associated with mono-allelic loss of the tumor suppressor gene NF1 in their germline, which predisposes them to develop a wide array of benign lesions. Intriguingly, recent sequencing efforts revealed that the NF1 gene is frequently mutated in multiple malignant tumors not typically associated with NF1 patients, suggesting that NF1 heterozygosity is refractory to at least some cancer types. In two orthogonal mouse models representing NF1- and non-NF1-related tumors, we discover that an Nf1+/- microenvironment accelerates the formation of benign tumors but impairs further progression to malignancy. Analysis of benign and malignant tumors commonly associated with NF1 patients, as well as those with high NF1 gene mutation frequency, reveals an antagonistic role for NF1 heterozygosity in tumor initiation and malignant transformation and helps to reconciliate the role of the NF1 gene in both NF1 and non-NF1 patient contexts.
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Publication
Journal: Developmental cell
December/6/2018
Abstract
The cilia and cell cycles are inextricably linked. Centrioles in the basal body of cilia nucleate the ciliary axoneme and sequester pericentriolar matrix (PCM) at the centrosome to organize the mitotic spindle. Cilia themselves respond to growth signals, prompting cilia resorption and cell cycle re-entry. We describe a fluorescent cilia and cell cycle biosensor allowing live imaging of cell cycle progression and cilia assembly and disassembly kinetics in cells and inducible mice. We define assembly and disassembly in relation to cell cycle stage with single-cell resolution and explore the intercellular heterogeneity in cilia kinetics. In all cells and tissues analyzed, we observed cilia that persist through the G1/S transition and into S/G2/M-phase. We conclude that persistence of cilia after the G1/S transition is a general property. This resource will shed light at an individual cell level on the interplay between the cilia and cell cycles in development, regeneration, and disease.
Publication
Journal: PLoS genetics
December/3/2018
Abstract
Plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells (pDCs and cDCs) arise from monocyte and dendritic progenitors (MDPs) and common dendritic progenitors (CDPs) through gene expression changes that remain partially understood. Here we show that the Ikaros transcription factor is required for DC development at multiple stages. Ikaros cooperates with Notch pathway activation to maintain the homeostasis of MDPs and CDPs. Ikaros then antagonizes TGFβ function to promote pDC differentiation from CDPs. Strikingly, Ikaros-deficient CDPs and pDCs express a cDC-like transcriptional signature that is correlated with TGFβ activation, suggesting that Ikaros is an upstream negative regulator of the TGFβ pathway and a repressor of cDC-lineage genes in pDCs. Almost all of these phenotypes can be rescued by short-term in vitro treatment with γ-secretase inhibitors, which affects both TGFβ-dependent and -independent pathways, but is Notch-independent. We conclude that Ikaros is a crucial differentiation factor in early dendritic progenitors that is required for pDC identity.
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Publication
Journal: PLoS genetics
December/2/2018
Abstract
Successful embryo implantation requires a receptive endometrium. Poor uterine receptivity can account for implantation failure in women who experience recurrent pregnancy loss or multiple rounds of unsuccessful in vitro fertilization cycles. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1) is a critical regulator of endometrial receptivity in vivo. Uterine ablation of Foxo1 using the progesterone receptor Cre (PgrCre) mouse model resulted in infertility due to altered epithelial cell polarity and apoptosis, preventing the embryo from penetrating the luminal epithelium. Analysis of the uterine transcriptome after Foxo1 ablation identified alterations in gene expression for transcripts involved in the activation of cell invasion, molecular transport, apoptosis, β-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling pathway, and an increase in PGR signaling. The increase of PGR signaling was due to PGR expression being retained in the uterine epithelium during the window of receptivity. Constitutive expression of epithelial PGR during this receptive period inhibited expression of FOXO1 in the nucleus of the uterine epithelium. The reciprocal expression of PGR and FOXO1 was conserved in human endometrial samples during the proliferative and secretory phase. This demonstrates that expression of FOXO1 and the loss of PGR during the window of receptivity are interrelated and critical for embryo implantation.
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
November/26/2018
Abstract
Learning to predict future outcomes is critical for driving appropriate behaviors. Reinforcement learning (RL) models have successfully accounted for such learning, relying on reward prediction errors (RPEs) signaled by midbrain dopamine neurons. It has been proposed that when sensory data provide only ambiguous information about which state an animal is in, it can predict reward based on a set of probabilities assigned to hypothetical states (called the belief state). Here we examine how dopamine RPEs and subsequent learning are regulated under state uncertainty. Mice are first trained in a task with two potential states defined by different reward amounts. During testing, intermediate-sized rewards are given in rare trials. Dopamine activity is a non-monotonic function of reward size, consistent with RL models operating on belief states. Furthermore, the magnitude of dopamine responses quantitatively predicts changes in behavior. These results establish the critical role of state inference in RL.
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
November/20/2018
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Publication
Journal: Nature communications
November/15/2018
Abstract
Microglia, the mononuclear phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), are important for the maintenance of CNS homeostasis, but also critically contribute to CNS pathology. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulatory protein A20 is crucial in regulating microglia activation during CNS homeostasis and pathology. In mice, deletion of A20 in microglia increases microglial cell number and affects microglial regulation of neuronal synaptic function. Administration of a sublethal dose of lipopolysaccharide induces massive microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and lethality in mice with microglia-confined A20 deficiency. Microglia A20 deficiency also exacerbates multiple sclerosis (MS)-like disease, due to hyperactivation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome leading to enhanced interleukin-1β secretion and CNS inflammation. Finally, we confirm a Nlrp3 inflammasome signature and IL-1β expression in brain and cerebrospinal fluid from MS patients. Collectively, these data reveal a critical role for A20 in the control of microglia activation and neuroinflammation.
Publication
Journal: Cell
November/15/2018
Abstract
Adaptation of liver to the postprandial state requires coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and folding aligned with changes in lipid metabolism. Here we demonstrate that sensory food perception is sufficient to elicit early activation of hepatic mTOR signaling, Xbp1 splicing, increased expression of ER-stress genes, and phosphatidylcholine synthesis, which translate into a rapid morphological ER remodeling. These responses overlap with those activated during refeeding, where they are maintained and constantly increased upon nutrient supply. Sensory food perception activates POMC neurons in the hypothalamus, optogenetic activation of POMC neurons activates hepatic mTOR signaling and Xbp1 splicing, whereas lack of MC4R expression attenuates these responses to sensory food perception. Chemogenetic POMC-neuron activation promotes sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) subserving the liver, and norepinephrine evokes the same responses in hepatocytes in vitro and in liver in vivo as observed upon sensory food perception. Collectively, our experiments unravel that sensory food perception coordinately primes postprandial liver ER adaption through a melanocortin-SNA-mTOR-Xbp1s axis. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Publication
Journal: Nature medicine
November/13/2018
Abstract
Itch and pain are refractory symptoms of many ocular conditions. Ocular itch is generated mainly in the conjunctiva and is absent from the cornea. In contrast, most ocular pain arises from the cornea. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using genetic axonal tracing approaches, we discover distinct sensory innervation patterns between the conjunctiva and cornea. Further genetic and functional analyses in rodent models show that a subset of conjunctival-selective sensory fibers marked by MrgprA3 expression, rather than corneal sensory fibers, mediates ocular itch. Importantly, the actions of both histamine and nonhistamine pruritogens converge onto this unique subset of conjunctiva sensory fibers and enable them to play a key role in mediating itch associated with allergic conjunctivitis. This is distinct from skin itch, in which discrete populations of sensory neurons cooperate to carry itch. Finally, we provide proof of concept that selective silencing of conjunctiva itch-sensing fibers by pruritogen-mediated entry of sodium channel blocker QX-314 is a feasible therapeutic strategy to treat ocular itch in mice. Itch-sensing fibers also innervate the human conjunctiva and allow pharmacological silencing using QX-314. Our results cast new light on the neural mechanisms of ocular itch and open a new avenue for developing therapeutic strategies.
Publication
Journal: eLife
November/13/2018
Abstract
Facial shape is the basis for facial recognition and categorization. Facial features reflect the underlying geometry of the skeletal structures. Here, we reveal that cartilaginous nasal capsule (corresponding to upper jaw and face) is shaped by signals generated by neural structures: brain and olfactory epithelium. Brain-derived Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) enables the induction of nasal septum and posterior nasal capsule, whereas the formation of a capsule roof is controlled by signals from the olfactory epithelium. Unexpectedly, the cartilage of the nasal capsule turned out to be important for shaping membranous facial bones during development. This suggests that conserved neurosensory structures could benefit from protection and have evolved signals inducing cranial cartilages encasing them. Experiments with mutant mice revealed that the genomic regulatory regions controlling production of SHH in the nervous system contribute to facial cartilage morphogenesis, which might be a mechanism responsible for the adaptive evolution of animal faces and snouts.
Publication
Journal: eLife
November/13/2018
Abstract
Sensory experience plays an important role in shaping neural circuitry by affecting the synaptic connectivity and intrinsic properties of individual neurons. Identifying the molecular players responsible for converting external stimuli into altered neuronal output remains a crucial step in understanding experience-dependent plasticity and circuit function. Here, we investigate the role of the activity-regulated, non-canonical Ras-like GTPase Rem2 in visual circuit plasticity. We demonstrate that Rem2-/- mice fail to exhibit normal ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period. At the cellular level, our data establish a cell-autonomous role for Rem2 in regulating intrinsic excitability of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons, prior to changes in synaptic function. Consistent with these findings, both in vitro and in vivo recordings reveal increased spontaneous firing rates in the absence of Rem2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Rem2 is a key molecule that regulates neuronal excitability and circuit function in the context of changing sensory experience.
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Publication
Journal: Nature communications
November/13/2018
Abstract
Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, ablate the expression of specific forms of long-term synaptic depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses in dorsal striatum (DS), a brain region involved in goal-directed and habitual behaviors. This loss of LTD is associated with altered DS-dependent behavior. Given the role of the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) in behavioral responding for alcohol, we explored the impact of alcohol on various forms of MOR-mediated synaptic depression that we find are differentially expressed at specific DS synapses. Corticostriatal MOR-mediated LTD (mOP-LTD) in the dorsolateral striatum occurs exclusively at inputs from anterior insular cortex and is selectively disrupted by in vivo alcohol exposure. Alcohol has no effect on corticostriatal mOP-LTD in dorsomedial striatum, thalamostriatal MOR-mediated short-term depression, or mOP-LTD of cholinergic interneuron-driven glutamate release. Disrupted mOP-LTD at anterior insular cortex-dorsolateral striatum synapses may therefore be a key mechanism of alcohol-induced neuroadaptations involved in the development of alcohol use disorders.
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Publication
Journal: eLife
November/13/2018
Abstract
Dopamine neurons have different synaptic actions in the ventral and dorsal striatum (dStr), but whether this heterogeneity extends to dStr subregions has not been addressed. We have found that optogenetic activation of dStr dopamine neuron terminals in mouse brain slices pauses the firing of cholinergic interneurons in both the medial and lateral subregions, while in the lateral subregion the pause is shorter due to a subsequent excitation. This excitation is mediated mainly by metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) and partially by dopamine D1-like receptors coupled to transient receptor potential channel 3 and 7. DA neurons do not signal to spiny projection neurons in the medial dStr, while they elicit ionotropic glutamate responses in the lateral dStr. The DA neurons mediating these excitatory signals are in the substantia nigra (SN). Thus, SN dopamine neurons engage different receptors in different postsynaptic neurons in different dStr subregions to convey strikingly different signals.
This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor's assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).
Publication
Journal: European journal of immunology
November/13/2018
Abstract
Members of the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family have been implicated in the development of thymic microenvironments and the recovery of this architecture after damage. However, a detailed characterization of this family in the thymus is lacking. To better understand the thymic ILC compartment, we have utilized multiple in vivo models including the fate mapping of inhibitor of DNA binding-2 (Id2) expression and the use of Id2 reporter mice. Our data demonstrate that ILCs are more prominent immediately after birth, but were rapidly diluted as the T-cell development program increased. As observed in the embryonic thymus, CCR6+ NKp46- lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells were the main ILC3 population present, but numbers of these cells swiftly declined in the neonate and ILC3 were barely detectable in adult thymus. This loss of ILC3 means ILC2 are the dominant ILC population in the thymus. Thymic ILC2 were able to produce IL-5 and IL-13, were located within the medulla, and did not result from ILC3 plasticity. Furthermore, in WT mice, thymic ILC2 express little RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand) arguing that functionally, these cells provide different signals to LTi cells in the thymus. Collectively, these data reveal a dynamic switch in the ILC populations of the thymus during neonatal development.
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Publication
Journal: eLife
November/13/2018
Abstract
The inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 is broadly expressed by CNS glia and deficits in Kir4.1 lead to seizures and myelin vacuolization. However, the role of oligodendrocyte Kir4.1 channels in controlling myelination and K+ clearance in white matter has not been defined. Here, we show that selective deletion of Kir4.1 from oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) or mature oligodendrocytes did not impair their development or disrupt the structure of myelin. However, mice lacking oligodendrocyte Kir4.1 channels exhibited profound functional impairments, including slower clearance of extracellular K+ and delayed recovery of axons from repetitive stimulation in white matter, as well as spontaneous seizures, a lower seizure threshold, and activity-dependent motor deficits. These results indicate that Kir4.1 channels in oligodendrocytes play an important role in extracellular K+ homeostasis in white matter, and that selective loss of this channel from oligodendrocytes is sufficient to impair K+ clearance and promote seizures.
Publication
Journal: Neuron
November/13/2018
Abstract
Screens for genes that orchestrate neural circuit formation in mammals have been hindered by practical constraints of germline mutagenesis. To overcome these limitations, we combined RNA-seq with somatic CRISPR mutagenesis to study synapse development in the mouse retina. Here synapses occur between cellular layers, forming two multilayered neuropils. The outer neuropil, the outer plexiform layer (OPL), contains synapses made by rod and cone photoreceptor axons on rod and cone bipolar dendrites, respectively. We used RNA-seq to identify selectively expressed genes encoding cell surface and secreted proteins and CRISPR-Cas9 electroporation with cell-specific promoters to assess their roles in OPL development. Among the genes identified in this way are Wnt5a and Wnt5b. They are produced by rod bipolars and activate a non-canonical signaling pathway in rods to regulate early OPL patterning. The approach we use here can be applied to other parts of the brain.
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
November/13/2018
Abstract
Cortical neurons are often functionally heterogeneous even for molecularly defined subtypes. In sensory cortices, physiological responses to natural stimuli can be sparse and vary widely even for neighboring neurons. It is thus difficult to parse out circuits that encode specific stimuli for further experimentation. Here, we report the development of a Cre-reporter mouse that allows recombination for cellular labeling and genetic manipulation, and use it with an activity-dependent Fos-CreERT2 driver to identify functionally active circuits in the auditory cortex. In vivo targeted patch recordings validate our method for neurons responding to physiologically relevant natural sounds such as pup wriggling calls and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Using this system to investigate cortical responses in postpartum mothers, we find a transient recruitment of neurons highly responsive to USVs. This subpopulation of neurons has distinct physiological properties that improve the coding efficiency for pup USV calls, implicating it as a unique signature in parental plasticity.
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Publication
Journal: EMBO molecular medicine
November/12/2018
Abstract
Salivary gland acinar cells are routinely destroyed during radiation treatment for head and neck cancer that results in a lifetime of hyposalivation and co-morbidities. A potential regenerative strategy for replacing injured tissue is the reactivation of endogenous stem cells by targeted therapeutics. However, the identity of these cells, whether they are capable of regenerating the tissue, and the mechanisms by which they are regulated are unknown. Using in vivo and ex vivo models, in combination with genetic lineage tracing and human tissue, we discover a SOX2+ stem cell population essential to acinar cell maintenance that is capable of replenishing acini after radiation. Furthermore, we show that acinar cell replacement is nerve dependent and that addition of a muscarinic mimetic is sufficient to drive regeneration. Moreover, we show that SOX2 is diminished in irradiated human salivary gland, along with parasympathetic nerves, suggesting that tissue degeneration is due to loss of progenitors and their regulators. Thus, we establish a new paradigm that salivary glands can regenerate after genotoxic shock and do so through a SOX2 nerve-dependent mechanism.
Publication
Journal: Cancer cell
August/13/2018
Abstract
Over half of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor TP53 missense mutations (mutp53). We show that the most common mutp53 allele R248Q (p53Q) exerts gain of function (GOF) and creates tumor dependence in mouse CRC models. mutp53 protein binds Stat3 and enhances activating Stat3 phosphorylation by displacing the phosphatase SHP2. Ablation of the p53Q allele suppressed Jak2/Stat3 signaling, growth, and invasiveness of established, mutp53-driven tumors. Treating tumor-bearing mice with an HSP90 inhibitor suppressed mutp53 levels and tumor growth. Importantly, human CRCs with stabilized mutp53 exhibit enhanced Jak2/Stat3 signaling and are associated with poorer patient survival. Cancers with TP53R248Q/W are associated with a higher patient death risk than are those having nonR248 mutp53. These findings identify GOF mutp53 as a therapeutic target in CRC.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
June/20/2018
Abstract
The basic pattern of activity underlying stepping in mammals is generated by a neural network located in the caudal spinal cord. Within this network, the specific circuitry coordinating left-right alternation has been shown to involve several groups of molecularly defined interneurons. Here we characterize a population of spinal neurons that express the Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene and investigate their role during locomotor activity in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that WT1-expressing cells are located in the ventromedial region of the spinal cord of mice and are also present in the human spinal cord. In the mouse, these cells are inhibitory, project axons to the contralateral spinal cord, terminate in close proximity to other commissural interneuron subtypes, and are essential for appropriate left-right alternation during locomotion. In addition to identifying WT1-expressing interneurons as a key component of the locomotor circuitry, this study provides insight into the manner in which several populations of molecularly defined interneurons are interconnected to generate coordinated motor activity on either side of the body during stepping.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we characterize WT1-expressing spinal interneurons in mice and demonstrate that they are commissurally projecting and inhibitory. Silencing of this neuronal population during a locomotor task results in a complete breakdown of left-right alternation, whereas flexor-extensor alternation was not significantly affected. Axons of WT1 neurons are shown to terminate nearby commissural interneurons, which coordinate motoneuron activity during locomotion, and presumably regulate their activity. Finally, the WT1 gene is shown to be present in the spinal cord of humans, raising the possibility of functional homology between these species. This study not only identifies a key component of the locomotor circuitry but also begins to unravel the connectivity among the growing number of molecularly defined interneurons that comprise this neural network.
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Publication
Journal: Molecular cell
May/3/2018
Abstract
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) consists of core subunits SUZ12, EED, RBBP4/7, and EZH1/2 and is responsible for mono-, di-, and tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3. Whereas two distinct forms exist, PRC2.1 (containing one polycomb-like protein) and PRC2.2 (containing AEBP2 and JARID2), little is known about their differential functions. Here, we report the discovery of a family of vertebrate-specific PRC2.1 proteins, "PRC2 associated LCOR isoform 1" (PALI1) and PALI2, encoded by the LCOR and LCORL gene loci, respectively. PALI1 promotes PRC2 methyltransferase activity in vitro and in vivo and is essential for mouse development. Pali1 and Aebp2 define mutually exclusive, antagonistic PRC2 subtypes that exhibit divergent H3K27-tri-methylation activities. The balance of these PRC2.1/PRC2.2 activities is required for the appropriate regulation of polycomb target genes during differentiation. PALI1/2 potentially link polycombs with transcriptional co-repressors in the regulation of cellular identity during development and in cancer.
Publication
Journal: Neuron
February/21/2018
Abstract
The spinal cord contains neural networks that enable regionally distinct motor outputs along the body axis. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how segment-specific motor computations are processed because the cardinal interneuron classes that control motor neurons appear uniform at each level of the spinal cord. V2a interneurons are essential to both forelimb and hindlimb movements, and here we identify two major types that emerge during development: type I neurons marked by high Chx10 form recurrent networks with neighboring spinal neurons and type II neurons that downregulate Chx10 and project to supraspinal structures. Types I and II V2a interneurons are arrayed in counter-gradients, and this network activates different patterns of motor output at cervical and lumbar levels. Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed type I and II V2a neurons are each comprised of multiple subtypes. Our findings uncover a molecular and anatomical organization of V2a interneurons reminiscent of the orderly way motor neurons are divided into columns and pools.
Publication
Journal: eLife
November/21/2017
Abstract
Acoustic communication is fundamental to social interactions among animals, including humans. In fact, deficits in voice impair the quality of life for a large and diverse population of patients. Understanding the molecular genetic mechanisms of development and function in the vocal apparatus is thus an important challenge with relevance both to the basic biology of animal communication and to biomedicine. However, surprisingly little is known about the developmental biology of the mammalian larynx. Here, we used genetic fate mapping to chart the embryological origins of the tissues in the mouse larynx, and we describe the developmental etiology of laryngeal defects in mice with disruptions in cilia-mediated Hedgehog signaling. In addition, we show that mild laryngeal defects correlate with changes in the acoustic structure of vocalizations. Together, these data provide key new insights into the molecular genetics of form and function in the mammalian vocal apparatus.
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