Gt(ROSA)26Sor - gene trap ROSA 26, Philippe Soriano
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Pubmed
Journal: Molecular and cellular neurosciences
November/20/2018
Abstract
The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of an adult mouse harbors a few million mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which are traditionally defined as mature by their expression of the olfactory marker protein (OMP). Mature OSNs differentiate in situ from stem cells at the base of the MOE. The consensus view is that mature OSNs have a defined lifespan and then undergo programmed cell death, and that the adult MOE maintains homeostasis by generating new mature OSNs from stem cells. But there is also evidence for mature OSNs that are long-lived. Thus far modern genetic tools have not been applied to quantify survival of a population of OSNs that are mature at a given point in time. Here, a genetic strategy was developed to label irreversibly OMP-expressing OSNs in mice. A gene-targeted OMP-CreERT2 strain was generated in which mature OSNs express an enzymatically inactive version of the Cre recombinase. The fusion protein CreERT2 becomes transiently active when exposed to tamoxifen, and in the presence of a Cre reporter in the genome such as tdRFP, CreERT2-expressing cells become irreversibly labeled. A cohort of mice was generated with the same day of birth by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, and injected tamoxifen in their mothers at E18.5 of gestation. I counted RFP immunoreactive cells in the MOE and vomeronasal organ of 36 tamoxifen-exposed OMP-CreERT2 × tdRFP mice from 7 age groups: postnatal day (PD)1.5, PD3.5, PD6.5, 3 weeks, 9 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Approximately 7.8% of perinatally labeled cells remain at 12 months, confirming that some mature OSNs are indeed long-lived. The survival curve of the population of perinatally labeled MOE cells can be modeled with a mean half-life of 26 days for the population as a whole, excluding the long-lived cells.
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Pubmed
Journal: Carcinogenesis
September/23/2018
Abstract
Unopposed oestrogen is responsible for approximately 80% of all the endometrial cancers. The relationship between unopposed oestrogen and endometrial cancer was indicated by the increase in the number of endometrial cancer cases due to the widespread use of oestrogen replacement therapy. Approximately 30% of the endometrial cancer patients have mutations in the Wnt signalling pathway. How the unbalanced ratios of ovarian hormones and the mutations in Wnt signalling pathway interact to cause endometrial cancer is currently unclear. To study this, we have developed a uterine epithelial cell-specific inducible cre mouse model and used 3D in vitro culture of human endometrial cancer cell lines. We showed that activating mutations in the Wnt signalling pathway for a prolonged period leads to endometrial hyperplasia but not endometrial cancer. Interestingly, unopposed oestrogen and activating mutations in Wnt signalling together drive the progression of endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial cancer. We have provided evidence that progesterone can be used as a targeted therapy against endometrial cancer cases presented with the activating mutations in Wnt signalling pathway.
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Pubmed
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
September/3/2018
Abstract
Recent reports have begun to elucidate mechanisms by which learning and experience produce white matter changes in the brain. We previously reported changes in white matter surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex in humans after 2-4 weeks of meditation training. We further found that low-frequency optogenetic stimulation of the anterior cingulate in mice increased time spent in the light in a light/dark box paradigm, suggesting decreased anxiety similar to what is observed following meditation training. Here, we investigated the impact of this stimulation at the cellular level. We found that laser stimulation in the range of 1-8 Hz results in changes to subcortical white matter projection fibers in the corpus callosum. Specifically, stimulation resulted in increased oligodendrocyte proliferation, accompanied by a decrease in the g-ratio within the corpus callosum underlying the anterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest that low-frequency stimulation can result in activity-dependent remodeling of myelin, giving rise to enhanced connectivity and altered behavior.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular and cellular biology
May/16/2016
Abstract
RNA-binding proteins participate in a complex array of posttranscriptional controls essential to cell type specification and somatic development. Despite their detailed biochemical characterizations, the degree to which each RNA-binding protein impacts mammalian embryonic development remains incompletely defined, and the level of functional redundancy among subsets of these proteins remains open to question. The poly(C) binding proteins, PCBPs (αCPs and hnRNP E proteins), are encoded by a highly conserved and broadly expressed gene family. The two major Pcbp isoforms, Pcbp2 and Pcbp1, are robustly expressed in a wide range of tissues and exert both nuclear and cytoplasmic controls over gene expression. Here, we report that Pcbp1-null embryos are rendered nonviable in the peri-implantation stage. In contrast, Pcbp2-null embryos undergo normal development until midgestation (12.5 to 13.5 days postcoitum), at which time they undergo a dramatic loss in viability associated with combined cardiovascular and hematopoietic abnormalities. Mice heterozygous for either Pcbp1 or Pcbp2 null alleles display a mild and nondisruptive defect in initial postpartum weight gain. These data reveal that Pcbp1 and Pcbp2 are individually essential for mouse embryonic development and have distinct impacts on embryonic viability and that Pcpb2 has a nonredundant in vivo role in hematopoiesis. These data further provide direct evidence that Pcbp1, a retrotransposed derivative of Pcpb2, has evolved an essential function(s) in the mammalian genome.
Pubmed
Journal: Development (Cambridge, England)
September/4/2017
Abstract
Building the topographic map in the mammalian olfactory bulb is explained by a model based on two axes along which sensory neurons are guided: one dorsoventral and one anteroposterior. This latter axis relies on specific expression levels of Nrp1. To evaluate the role of this receptor in this process, we used an in vivo genetic approach to decrease or suppress Nrp1 in specific neuronal populations and at different time points during axonal targeting. We observed, in neurons that express the M71 or M72 odorant receptors, that Nrp1 inactivation leads to two distinct wiring alterations, depending on the time at which Nrp1 expression is altered: first, a surprising dorsal shift of the M71 and M72 glomeruli, which often fuse with their contralateral counterparts, and second the formation of anteriorized glomeruli. The two phenotypes are partly recapitulated in mice lacking the Nrp1 ligand Sema3A and in mice whose sensory neurons express an Nrp1 mutant unable to bind Sema3A. Using a mosaic conditional approach, we show that M71 axonal fibers can bypass the Nrp1 signals that define their target area, since they are hijacked and coalesce with Nrp1-deficient M71-expressing axons that target elsewhere. Together, these findings show drastically different axonal targeting outcomes dependent on the timing at which Nrp1/Sema3A signaling is altered.
Pubmed
Journal: PloS one
February/14/2018
Abstract
Presence of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is predictive of progressive decline in kidney function, independent of its underlying cause. Injury to the renal microvasculature is a major factor in the progression of fibrosis and identification of factors that regulate endothelium in fibrosis is desirable as they might be candidate targets for treatment of kidney diseases. The current study investigates how loss of Angipoietin-1 (Angpt1), a ligand for endothelial tyrosine-kinase receptor Tek (also called Tie2), affects tubulointerstitial fibrosis and renal microvasculature. Inducible Angpt1 knockout mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) to induce fibrosis, and kidneys were collected at different time points up to 10 days after obstruction. Staining for aSMA showed that Angpt1 deficient kidneys had significantly more fibrosis compared to wildtype mice 3, 6, and 10 days after UUO. Further investigation 3 days after UUO showed a significant increase of Col1a1 and vimentin in Angpt1 deficient mice, as well as increased gene expression of Tgfb1, Col1a1, Fn1, and CD44. Kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim1/Havcr1) was significantly more increased in Angpt1 deficient mice 1 and 3 days after UUO, suggesting a more severe injury early in the fibrotic process in Angpt1 deficient mice. Staining for endomucin showed that capillary rarefaction was evident 3 days after UUO and Angpt1 deficient mice had significantly less capillaries 6 and 10 days after UUO compared to UUO kidneys in wildtype mice. RNA sequencing revealed downregulation of several markers for endothelial cells 3 days after UUO, and that Angpt1 deficient mice had a further downregulation of Emcn, Plvap, Pecam1, Erg, and Tek. Our results suggest that loss of Angpt1 is central in capillary rarefaction and fibrogenesis and propose that manipulations to maintain Angpt1 levels may slow down fibrosis progression.
Pubmed
Journal: Cell stem cell
November/19/2018
Abstract
Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.
Pubmed
Journal: Nature communications
November/6/2017
Abstract
Only one out of 10 drugs in development passes clinical trials. Many fail because experimental animal models poorly predict human xenobiotic metabolism. Human liver chimeric mice are a step forward in this regard, as the human hepatocytes in chimeric livers generate human metabolites, but the remaining murine hepatocytes contain an expanded set of P450 cytochromes that form the major class of drug-metabolizing enzymes. We therefore generated a conditional knock-out of the NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (Por) gene combined with Il2rg - /- /Rag2 - /- /Fah - /- (PIRF) mice. Here we show that homozygous PIRF mouse livers are readily repopulated with human hepatocytes, and when the murine Por gene is deleted (<5%), they predominantly use human cytochrome metabolism. When given the anticancer drug gefitinib or the retroviral drug atazanavir, the Por-deleted humanized PIRF mice develop higher levels of the major human metabolites than current models. Humanized, murine Por-deficient PIRF mice can thus predict human drug metabolism and should be useful for preclinical drug development.Human liver chimeric mice are increasingly used for drug testing in preclinical development, but express residual murine p450 cytochromes. Here the authors generate mice lacking the Por gene in the liver, and show that human cytochrome metabolism is used following repopulation with human hepatocytes.
Pubmed
Journal: Nature neuroscience
August/21/2014
Abstract
Postnatal and adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis is believed to be primarily controlled by neural stem cell (NSC)-intrinsic mechanisms, interacting with extracellular and niche-driven cues. Although behavioral experiments and disease states have suggested possibilities for higher level inputs, it is unknown whether neural activity patterns from discrete circuits can directly regulate SVZ neurogenesis. We identified a previously unknown population of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(+) neurons residing in the rodent SVZ neurogenic niche. These neurons showed morphological and functional differences from neighboring striatal counterparts and released acetylcholine locally in an activity-dependent fashion. Optogenetic inhibition and stimulation of subependymal ChAT(+) neurons in vivo indicated that they were necessary and sufficient to control neurogenic proliferation. Furthermore, whole-cell recordings and biochemical experiments revealed direct SVZ NSC responses to local acetylcholine release, synergizing with fibroblast growth factor receptor activation to increase neuroblast production. These results reveal an unknown gateway connecting SVZ neurogenesis to neuronal activity-dependent control and suggest possibilities for modulating neuroregenerative capacities in health and disease.
Pubmed
Journal: Cancer research
May/2/2006
Abstract
Cancer immunotherapy based on vaccination with defined tumor antigens has not yet shown strong clinical efficacy, despite promising results in preclinical models. This discrepancy might result from the fact that available preclinical models rely on transplantable tumors, which do not recapitulate the long-term host-tumor interplay that occurs in patients during progressive tumor development and results in tumor tolerance. To create a faithful preclinical model for cancer immunotherapy, we generated a transgenic mouse strain developing autologous melanomas expressing a defined tumor antigen recognized by T cells. We chose the antigen encoded by P1A, a well-characterized murine cancer germ line gene. To transform melanocytes, we aimed at simultaneously activating the Ras pathway and inactivating tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf, thereby reproducing two genetic events frequently observed in human melanoma. The melanomas are induced by s.c. injection of 4-OH-tamoxifen (OHT). By activating a CreER recombinase expressed from a melanocyte-specific promoter, this treatment induces the loss of the conditional Ink4a/Arf gene in melanocytes. Because the CreER gene itself is also flanked by loxP sites, the activation of CreER also induces the deletion of its own coding sequence and thereby allows melanocyte-specific expression of genes H-ras and P1A, which are located downstream on the same transgene. All melanomas induced in those mice with OHT show activation of the Ras pathway and deletion of gene Ink4a/Arf. In addition, these melanomas express P1A and are recognized by P1A-specific T lymphocytes. This model will allow to characterize the interactions between the immune system and naturally occurring tumors and thereby to optimize immunotherapy approaches targeting a defined tumor antigen.
Pubmed
Journal: Mechanisms of development
January/31/2010
Abstract
The notochord develops from notochord progenitor cells (NPCs) and functions as a major signaling center to regulate trunk and tail development. NPCs are initially specified in the node by Wnt and Nodal signals at the gastrula stage. However, the underlying mechanism that maintains the NPCs throughout embryogenesis to contribute to the posterior extension of the notochord remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt signaling in the NPCs is essential for posterior extension of the notochord. Genetic labeling revealed that the Noto-expressing cells in the ventral node contribute the NPCs that reside in the tail bud. Robust Wnt signaling in the NPCs was observed during posterior notochord extension. Genetic attenuation of the Wnt signal via notochord-specific beta-catenin gene ablation resulted in posterior truncation of the notochord. In the NPCs of such mutant embryos, the expression of notochord-specific genes was down-regulated, and an endodermal marker, E-cadherin, was observed. No significant alteration of cell proliferation or apoptosis of the NPCs was detected. Taken together, our data indicate that the NPCs are derived from Noto-positive node cells, and are not fully committed to a notochordal fate. Sustained Wnt signaling is required to maintain the NPCs' notochordal fate.
Pubmed
Journal: Cell
January/17/2007
Abstract
Neural stem cells are retained in the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), a specialized neurogenic niche with unique cytoarchitecture and cell-cell contacts. Although the SVZ stem cells continuously regenerate, how they and the niche respond to local changes is unclear. Here we generated nestin-creER(tm) transgenic mice with inducible Cre recombinase in the SVZ and removed Numb/Numblike, key regulators of embryonic neurogenesis from postnatal SVZ progenitors and ependymal cells. This resulted in severe damage to brain lateral ventricle integrity and identified roles for Numb/Numblike in regulating ependymal wall integrity and SVZ neuroblast survival. Surprisingly, the ventricular damage was eventually repaired: SVZ reconstitution and ventricular wall remodeling were mediated by progenitors that escaped Numb deletion. Our results show a self-repair mechanism in the mammalian brain and may have implications for both niche plasticity in other areas of stem cell biology and the therapeutic use of neural stem cells in neurodegenerative diseases.
Pubmed
Journal: Neuroscience
April/28/2018
Abstract
In the primary visual cortex (V1), neuronal responses to stimuli within the receptive field (RF) are modulated by stimuli in the RF surround. A common effect of surround modulation is surround suppression, which is dependent on the feature difference between stimuli within and surround the RF and is suggested to be involved in the perceptual phenomenon of figure-ground segregation. In this study, we examined the relationship between feature-specific surround suppression of V1 neurons and figure detection behavior based on figure-ground feature difference. We trained freely moving mice to perform a figure detection task using figure and ground gratings that differed in spatial phase. The performance of figure detection increased with the figure-ground phase difference, and was modulated by stimulus contrast. Electrophysiological recordings from V1 in head-fixed mice showed that the increase in phase difference between stimuli within and surround the RF caused a reduction in surround suppression, which was associated with an increase in V1 neural discrimination between stimuli with and without RF-surround phase difference. Consistent with the behavioral performance, the sensitivity of V1 neurons to RF-surround phase difference could be influenced by stimulus contrast. Furthermore, inhibiting V1 by optogenetically activating either parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-expressing inhibitory neurons both decreased the behavioral performance of figure detection. Thus, the phase-specific surround suppression in V1 represents a neural correlate of figure detection behavior based on figure-ground phase discontinuity.
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Pubmed
Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
July/27/2008
Abstract
T lymphocyte development and function are tightly regulated by the intrinsic death pathway through members of the Bcl-2 family. Genetic studies have demonstrated that the Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 is an important anti-apoptotic protein in the development of multiple cell types including T lymphocytes. However, the expression pattern and anti-apoptotic roles of Mcl-1 in T lymphocytes at different developmental stages remain to be fully determined. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of Mcl-1 in different populations of T cells at the single-cell level and found that Mcl-1 protein is constitutively expressed in all T cell populations and up-regulated upon TCR stimulation. We then investigated the role of Mcl-1 in the survival of these different populations by conditionally deleting Mcl-1 at various T cell stages. Our results show that Mcl-1 is required for the survival of double-negative and single-positive thymocytes as well as naive and activated T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Mcl-1 functions together with Bcl-xL to promote double-positive thymocyte survival. Thus, Mcl-1 is a critical anti-apoptotic factor for the survival of T cells at multiple stages in vivo.
Pubmed
Journal: Developmental biology
April/9/2015
Abstract
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that coordinates polarized cell behavior to regulate tissue morphogenesis during vertebrate gastrulation, neurulation and organogenesis. In Xenopus and zebrafish, PCP signaling is activated by non-canonical Wnts such as Wnt11, and detailed understanding of Wnt11 expression has provided important clues on when, where and how PCP may be activated to regulate tissue morphogenesis. To explore the role of Wnt11 in mammalian development, we established a Wnt11 expression and lineage map with high spatial and temporal resolution by creating and analyzing a tamoxifen-inducible Wnt11-CreER BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mouse line. Our short- and long-term lineage tracing experiments indicated that Wnt11-CreER could faithfully recapitulate endogenous Wnt11 expression, and revealed for the first time that cells transiently expressing Wnt11 at early gastrulation were fated to become specifically the progenitors of the entire endoderm. During mid-gastrulation, Wnt11-CreER expressing cells also contribute extensively to the endothelium in both embryonic and extraembryonic compartments, and the endocardium in all chambers of the developing heart. In contrast, Wnt11-CreER expression in the myocardium starts from late-gastrulation, and occurs in three transient, sequential waves: first in the precursors of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium from E7.0 to 8.0; subsequently in the right ventricular (RV) myocardium from E8.0 to 9.0; and finally in the superior wall of the outflow tract (OFT) myocardium from E8.5 to 10.5. These results provide formal genetic proof that the majority of the endocardium and myocardium diverge by mid-gastrulation in the mouse, and suggest a tight spatial and temporal control of Wnt11 expression in the myocardial lineage to coordinate with myocardial differentiation in the first and second heart field progenitors to form the LV, RV and OFT. The insights gained from this study will also guide future investigations to decipher the role of non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling in endoderm development, vasculogenesis and heart formation.
Pubmed
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
November/21/2013
Abstract
Rodents can discriminate odors in one breath, and mammalian olfaction research has thus focused on the first breath. However, sensory representations dynamically change during and after stimuli. To investigate these dynamics, we recorded spike trains from the olfactory bulb of awake, head-fixed mice and found that some mitral cells' odor representations changed following the first breath and others continued after odor cessation. Population analysis revealed that these postodor responses contained odor- and concentration-specific information--an odor afterimage. Using calcium imaging, we found that most olfactory glomerular activity was restricted to the odor presentation, implying that the afterimage is not primarily peripheral. The odor afterimage was not dependent on odorant physicochemical properties. To artificially induce aftereffects, we photostimulated mitral cells using channelrhodopsin and recorded centrally maintained persistent activity. The strength and persistence of the afterimage was dependent on the duration of both artificial and natural stimulation. In summary, we show that the odor representation evolves after the first breath and that there is a centrally maintained odor afterimage, similar to other sensory systems. These dynamics may help identify novel odorants in complex environments.
Pubmed
Journal: Thrombosis and haemostasis
May/17/2011
Abstract
The availability of mice with tissue-specific expression of recombinase Cre is the limiting step for a successful gene targeting by the Cre-LoxP methodology. This work aimed at generating transgenic mice with restricted expression of recombinase Cre in megakaryocytes and platelets, driven by the promoter of the αIIb gene (mαIIb-cre). Mice oocytes were microinjected with a 4.1 Kb construct comprising a 2.7 Kb promoter fragment of the glycoprotein αIIb gene, linked to the Cre-cDNA and followed by the polyA tail of the SV40. We found four mice with positive DNA genotype and three probable sites of genomic integration of the transgene. Only two of the founders showed presence of Cre-mRNA and production of Cre protein, restricted to megakaryocytes. The activity of Cre in mediating gene targeting was assessed by crossing mαIIb-cre mice to Cre-reporter mice (ROSA26-lacZ). The activity of β-galactosidase, detected only in megakaryocytes, was sufficient to generate intense staining of X-Gal in hepatic haematopoietic islands of 14.5 dpc fetuses, in bone marrow megakaryocytes and platelets from adult mice as well as in vitro cultured megakaryocytes differentiated from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Moreover, the recombinase activity was sufficient to produce the specific gene targeting of a floxed CD40L allele in megakaryocytes. The mαIIb-cre transgenic mice with restricted production of Cre in megakaryocytes, offers a selective, alternative, new tool for the genetic analysis of platelet pathophysiology.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
March/12/2014
Abstract
Folding of the cortex and the persistence of radial glia (RG)-like cells called Bergmann glia (BG) are hallmarks of the mammalian cerebellum. Similar to basal RG in the embryonic neocortex, BG maintain only basal processes and continuously express neural stem cell markers. Past studies had focused on the function of BG in granule cell migration and how granule cell progenitors (GCP) regulate cerebellar foliation. The molecular control of BG generation and its role in cerebellar foliation are less understood. Here, we have analyzed the function of the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in mice by deleting its gene Ptpn11 in the entire cerebellum or selectively in the GCP lineage. Deleting Ptpn11 in the entire cerebellum by En1-cre blocks transformation of RG into BG but preserves other major cerebellar cell types. In the absence of BG, inward invagination of GCP persists but is uncoupled from the folding of the Purkinje cell layer and the basement membrane, leading to disorganized lamination and an absence of cerebellar folia. In contrast, removing Ptpn11 in the GCP lineage by Atoh1-cre has no effect on cerebellar development, indicating that Shp2 is not cell autonomously required in GCP. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ptpn11 interacts with Fgf8 and is essential for ERK activation in RG and nascent BG. Finally, expressing constitutively active MEK1 rescues BG formation and cerebellar foliation in Shp2-deficient cerebella. Our results demonstrate an essential role of Shp2 in BG specification via fibroblast growth factor/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling, and reveal a crucial function of BG in organizing cerebellar foliation.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
May/5/2015
Abstract
Cortical cells integrate synaptic input from multiple sources, but how these different inputs are distributed across individual neurons is largely unknown. Differences in input might account for diverse responses in neighboring neurons during behavior. We present a strategy for comparing the strengths of multiple types of input onto the same neuron. We developed methods for independent dual-channel photostimulation of synaptic inputs using ChR2 together with ReaChR, a red-shifted channelrhodopsin. We used dual-channel photostimulation to probe convergence of sensory information in the mouse primary motor cortex. Input from somatosensory cortex and thalamus converges in individual neurons. Similarly, inputs from distinct somatotopic regions of the somatosensory cortex are integrated at the level of single motor cortex neurons. We next developed a ReaChR transgenic mouse under the control of both Flp- and Cre-recombinases that is an effective tool for circuit mapping. Our approach to dual-channel photostimulation enables quantitative comparison of the strengths of multiple pathways across all length scales of the brain.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
February/18/2013
Abstract
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that controls energy balance by acting primarily in the CNS, but its action is lost in common forms of obesity due to central leptin resistance. One potential mechanism for such leptin resistance is an increased hypothalamic expression of Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3), a feedback inhibitor of the Jak-Stat pathway that prevents Stat3 activation. Ample studies have confirmed the important role of Socs3 in leptin resistance and obesity. However, the degree to which Socs3 participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis in nonobese conditions remains largely undetermined. In this study, using adult mice maintained under standard diet, we demonstrate that Socs3 deficiency in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) reduces food intake, protects against body weight gain, and limits adiposity, suggesting that Socs3 is necessary for normal body weight maintenance. Mechanistically, MBH Socs3-deficient mice display increased hindbrain sensitivity to endogenous, meal-related satiety signals, mediated by oxytocin signaling. Thus, oxytocin signaling likely mediates the effect of hypothalamic leptin on satiety circuits of the caudal brainstem. This provides an anatomical substrate for the effect of leptin on meal size, and more generally, a mechanism for how the brain controls short-term food intake as a function of the energetic stores available in the organism to maintain energy homeostasis. Any dysfunction in this pathway could potentially lead to overeating and obesity.
Pubmed
Journal: The EMBO journal
February/5/2007
Abstract
Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are critical attenuators of cytokine-mediated signalling in diverse tissues. To determine the importance of Socs3 in mammary development, we generated mice in which Socs3 was deleted in mammary epithelial cells. No overt phenotype was evident during pregnancy and lactation, indicating that Socs3 is not a key physiological regulator of prolactin signalling. However, Socs3-deficient mammary glands exhibited a profound increase in epithelial apoptosis and tissue remodelling, resulting in precocious involution. This phenotype was accompanied by augmented Stat3 activation and a marked increase in the level of c-myc. Moreover, induction of c-myc before weaning using an inducible transgenic model recapitulated the Socs3 phenotype, and elevated expression of likely c-myc target genes, E2F-1, Bax and p53, was observed. Our data establish Socs3 as a critical attenuator of pro-apoptotic pathways that act in the developing mammary gland and provide evidence that c-myc regulates apoptosis during involution.
Pubmed
Journal: Cell death and differentiation
August/31/2015
Abstract
Loss-of-function studies have demonstrated the essential role of Notch in definitive embryonic mouse hematopoiesis. We report here the consequences of Notch gain-of-function in mouse embryo hematopoiesis, achieved by constitutive expression of Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) in angiopoietin receptor tyrosine kinase receptor-2 (Tie2)-derived enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP(+)) hematovascular progenitors. At E9.5, N1ICD expression led to the absence of the dorsal aorta hematopoietic clusters and of definitive hematopoiesis. The EGFP(+) transient multipotent progenitors, purified from E9.5 to 10.5 Tie2-Cre;N1ICD yolk sac (YS) cells, had strongly reduced hematopoietic potential, whereas they had increased numbers of hemogenic endothelial cells. Late erythroid cell differentiation stages and mature myeloid cells (Gr1(+), MPO(+)) were also strongly decreased. In contrast, EGFP(+) erythro-myeloid progenitors, immature and intermediate differentiation stages of YS erythroid and myeloid cell lineages, were expanded. Tie2-Cre;N1ICD YS had reduced numbers of CD41(++) megakaryocytes, and these produced reduced below-normal numbers of immature colonies in vitro and their terminal differentiation was blocked. Cells from Tie2-Cre;N1ICD YS had a higher proliferation rate and lower apoptosis than wild-type (WT) YS cells. Quantitative gene expression analysis of FACS-purified EGFP(+) YS progenitors revealed upregulation of Notch1-related genes and alterations in genes involved in hematopoietic differentiation. These results represent the first in vivo evidence of a role for Notch signaling in YS transient definitive hematopoiesis. Our results show that constitutive Notch1 activation in Tie2(+) cells hampers YS hematopoiesis of E9.5 embryos and demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates this process by balancing the proliferation and differentiation dynamics of lineage-restricted intermediate progenitors.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular immunology
January/25/2016
Abstract
The Runx1 transcription factor cooperates with or antagonizes other transcription factors and plays essential roles in the differentiation and function of T lymphocytes. Previous works showed that Runx1 is expressed in peripheral CD4(+) T cells which level declines after T cell receptor (TCR) activation, and artificial deletion of Runx1 causes autoimmune lung disease in mice. The present study addresses the mechanisms by which Runx1 contributes to the maintenance of peripheral CD4(+) T cell quiescence. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses were employed to compare the transcriptome of Runx1 -/- CD4(+) T cells to those of unstimulated and TCR-stimulated Runx1 +/- cells. The results identified genes whose expression was modulated similarly by Runx1 deletion and TCR activation. Among them, genes encoding cytokines, chemokines, and Jak/STAT signaling molecules were substantially induced. In Runx1-deleted T cells, simultaneous increases in Il-17A and Rorγc, a known master gene in TH17 differentiation, were observed. In addition, we observed that the loss of Runx1 reduced the transcription of genes encoding quiescence-associated transcription factors, including Foxp1, Foxo1, and Klf2. Interestingly, we identified consensus Runx1 binding sites at the promoter regions of Foxp1, Foxo1, and Klf2 genes, which can be enriched by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with an anti-Runx1 antibody. Therefore, we suggest that Runx1 may activate, directly or indirectly, the expression of quiescence-associated molecules and thereby contribute to the maintenance of quiescence in CD4(+) T cells.
Pubmed
Journal: Cancer research
August/8/2010
Abstract
Mouse studies indicate that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) impairs the proliferation of granule neuron precursors in the cerebellum, which are transformed to medulloblastoma by activation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Here, we show that Dex treatment also inhibits Shh-induced tumor growth, enhancing the survival of tumor-prone transgenic mice. We found that Nmyc was specifically required in granule cells for Shh-induced tumorigenesis and that Dex acted to reduce Nmyc protein levels. Moreover, we found that Dex-induced destabilization of Nmyc is mediated by activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, which targets Nmyc for proteasomal degradation. Together, our findings show that Dex antagonizes Shh signaling downstream of Smoothened in medulloblastoma.
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