ctnnb1
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ctnnb1 -beta-catenin
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Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain.
Journal: Nature
January/29/2007
Description

Molecular approaches to understanding the functional circuitry of the nervous system promise new insights into the relationship between genes, brain and behaviour. The cellular diversity of the brain necessitates a cellular resolution approach towards understanding the functional genomics of the nervous system. We describe here an anatomically comprehensive digital atlas containing the expression patterns of approximately 20,000 genes in the adult mouse brain. Data were generated using automated high-throughput procedures for in situ hybridization and data acquisition, and are publicly accessible online. Newly developed image-based informatics tools allow global genome-scale structural analysis and cross-correlation, as well as identification of regionally enriched genes. Unbiased fine-resolution analysis has identified highly specific cellular markers as well as extensive evidence of cellular heterogeneity not evident in classical neuroanatomical atlases. This highly standardized atlas provides an open, primary data resource for a wide variety of further studies concerning brain organization and function.

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Pubmed
Activation of beta-catenin-Tcf signaling in colon cancer by mutations in beta-catenin or APC.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
April/21/1997
Description

Inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene initiates colorectal neoplasia. One of the biochemical activities associated with the APC protein is down-regulation of transcriptional activation mediated by beta-catenin and T cell transcription factor 4 (Tcf-4). The protein products of mutant APC genes present in colorectal tumors were found to be defective in this activity. Furthermore, colorectal tumors with intact APC genes were found to contain activating mutations of beta-catenin that altered functionally significant phosphorylation sites. These results indicate that regulation of beta-catenin is critical to APC's tumor suppressive effect and that this regulation can be circumvented by mutations in either APC or beta-catenin.

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Pubmed
Constitutive transcriptional activation by a beta-catenin-Tcf complex in APC-/- colon carcinoma.
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
April/21/1997
Description

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein binds to beta-catenin, a protein recently shown to interact with Tcf and Lef transcription factors. The gene encoding hTcf-4, a Tcf family member that is expressed in colonic epithelium, was cloned and characterized. hTcf-4 transactivates transcription only when associated with beta-catenin. Nuclei of APC-/- colon carcinoma cells were found to contain a stable beta-catenin-hTcf-4 complex that was constitutively active, as measured by transcription of a Tcf reporter gene. Reintroduction of APC removed beta-catenin from hTcf-4 and abrogated the transcriptional transactivation. Constitutive transcription of Tcf target genes, caused by loss of APC function, may be a crucial event in the early transformation of colonic epithelium.

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Pubmed
Functional interaction of beta-catenin with the transcription factor LEF-1.
Journal: Nature
September/17/1996
Description

The cytoplasmic proteins beta-catenin of vertebrates and armadillo of Drosophila have two functions: they link the cadherin cell-adhesion molecules to the cytoskeleton, and they participate in the wnt/wingless signal pathway. Here we show, in a yeast two-hybrid screen, that the architectural transcription factor LEF-1 (for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor) interacts with beta-catenin. In mammalian cells, coexpressed LEF-1 and beta-catenin form a complex that is localized to the nucleus and can be detected by immunoprecipitation. Moreover, LEF-1 and beta-catenin form a ternary complex with DNA that splays an altered DNA bend. Microinjection of LEF-1 into XenoPus embryos induces axis duplication, which is augmented by interaction with beta-catenin. Thus beta-catenin regulates gene expression by direct interaction with transcription factors such as LEF-1, providing a molecular mechanism for the transmission of signals, from cell-adhesion components or wnt protein to the nucleus.

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Pubmed
Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog.
Journal: Nature
December/28/2005
Description

Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), together with a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across breeds. The dog is of particular interest because it provides important evolutionary information and because existing breeds show great phenotypic diversity for morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. We use sequence comparison with the primate and rodent lineages to shed light on the structure and evolution of genomes and genes. Notably, the majority of the most highly conserved non-coding sequences in mammalian genomes are clustered near a small subset of genes with important roles in development. Analysis of SNPs reveals long-range haplotypes across the entire dog genome, and defines the nature of genetic diversity within and across breeds. The current SNP map now makes it possible for genome-wide association studies to identify genes responsible for diseases and traits, with important consequences for human and companion animal health.

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Pubmed
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its implications for fibrosis.
Journal: The Journal of clinical investigation
January/20/2004
Description

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a central mechanism for diversifying the cells found in complex tissues. This dynamic process helps organize the formation of the body plan, and while EMT is well studied in the context of embryonic development, it also plays a role in the genesis of fibroblasts during organ fibrosis in adult tissues. Emerging evidence from studies of renal fibrosis suggests that more than a third of all disease-related fibroblasts originate from tubular epithelia at the site of injury. This review highlights recent advances in the process of EMT signaling in health and disease and how it may be attenuated or reversed by selective cytokines and growth factors.

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Pubmed
beta-catenin is a target for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
Journal: The EMBO journal
September/1/1997
Description

beta-catenin is a central component of the cadherin cell adhesion complex and plays an essential role in the Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway. In the current model of this pathway, the amount of beta-catenin (or its invertebrate homolog Armadillo) is tightly regulated and its steady-state level outside the cadherin-catenin complex is low in the absence of Wingless/Wnt signal. Here we show that the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis system is involved in the regulation of beta-catenin turnover. beta-catenin, but not E-cadherin, p120(cas) or alpha-catenin, becomes stabilized when proteasome-mediated proteolysis is inhibited and this leads to the accumulation of multi-ubiquitinated forms of beta-catenin. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that substitution of the serine residues in the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylation consensus motif of beta-catenin inhibits ubiquitination and results in stabilization of the protein. This motif in beta-catenin resembles a motif in IkappaB (inhibitor of NFkappaB) which is required for the phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IkappaB via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We show that ubiquitination of beta-catenin is greatly reduced in Wnt-expressing cells, providing the first evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway may act downstream of GSK3beta in the regulation of beta-catenin.

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Pubmed
Control of beta-catenin phosphorylation/degradation by a dual-kinase mechanism.
Journal: Cell
May/5/2002
Description

Wnt regulation of beta-catenin degradation is essential for development and carcinogenesis. beta-catenin degradation is initiated upon amino-terminal serine/threonine phosphorylation, which is believed to be performed by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in complex with tumor suppressor proteins Axin and adnomatous polyposis coli (APC). Here we describe another Axin-associated kinase, whose phosphorylation of beta-catenin precedes and is required for subsequent GSK-3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin. This "priming" kinase is casein kinase Ialpha (CKIalpha). Depletion of CKIalpha inhibits beta-catenin phosphorylation and degradation and causes abnormal embryogenesis associated with excessive Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Our study uncovers distinct roles and steps of beta-catenin phosphorylation, identifies CKIalpha as a component in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, and has implications to pathogenesis/therapeutics of human cancers and diabetes.

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Pubmed
A role for Wnt signalling in self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells.
Journal: Nature
June/17/2003
Description

Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the ability to renew themselves and to give rise to all lineages of the blood; however, the signals that regulate HSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here we show that the Wnt signalling pathway has an important role in this process. Overexpression of activated beta-catenin expands the pool of HSCs in long-term cultures by both phenotype and function. Furthermore, HSCs in their normal microenvironment activate a LEF-1/TCF reporter, which indicates that HCSs respond to Wnt signalling in vivo. To demonstrate the physiological significance of this pathway for HSC proliferation we show that the ectopic expression of axin or a frizzled ligand-binding domain, inhibitors of the Wnt signalling pathway, leads to inhibition of HSC growth in vitro and reduced reconstitution in vivo. Furthermore, activation of Wnt signalling in HSCs induces increased expression of HoxB4 and Notch1, genes previously implicated in self-renewal of HSCs. We conclude that the Wnt signalling pathway is critical for normal HSC homeostasis in vitro and in vivo, and provide insight into a potential molecular hierarchy of regulation of HSC development.

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Authors(9)
Pubmed
Wnt signalling and its impact on development and cancer.
Journal: Nature reviews. Cancer
May/11/2008
Description

The Wnt signalling pathway is an ancient system that has been highly conserved during evolution. It has a crucial role in the embryonic development of all animal species, in the regeneration of tissues in adult organisms and in many other processes. Mutations or deregulated expression of components of the Wnt pathway can induce disease, most importantly cancer. The first gene to be identified that encodes a Wnt signalling component, Int1 (integration 1), was molecularly characterized from mouse tumour cells 25 years ago. In parallel, the homologous gene Wingless in Drosophila melanogaster, which produces developmental defects in embryos, was characterized. Since then, further components of the Wnt pathway have been identified and their epistatic relationships have been defined. This article is a Timeline of crucial discoveries about the components and functions of this essential pathway.

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