ctnnb1 - beta-catenin
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Publication
Journal: Nature
January/30/2007
Abstract
Molecular approaches to understanding the functional circuitry of the nervous system promise new insights into the relationship between genes, brain and behaviour. The cellular diversity of the brain necessitates a cellular resolution approach towards understanding the functional genomics of the nervous system. We describe here an anatomically comprehensive digital atlas containing the expression patterns of approximately 20,000 genes in the adult mouse brain. Data were generated using automated high-throughput procedures for in situ hybridization and data acquisition, and are publicly accessible online. Newly developed image-based informatics tools allow global genome-scale structural analysis and cross-correlation, as well as identification of regionally enriched genes. Unbiased fine-resolution analysis has identified highly specific cellular markers as well as extensive evidence of cellular heterogeneity not evident in classical neuroanatomical atlases. This highly standardized atlas provides an open, primary data resource for a wide variety of further studies concerning brain organization and function.
Publication
Journal: Science
April/22/1997
Abstract
Inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene initiates colorectal neoplasia. One of the biochemical activities associated with the APC protein is down-regulation of transcriptional activation mediated by beta-catenin and T cell transcription factor 4 (Tcf-4). The protein products of mutant APC genes present in colorectal tumors were found to be defective in this activity. Furthermore, colorectal tumors with intact APC genes were found to contain activating mutations of beta-catenin that altered functionally significant phosphorylation sites. These results indicate that regulation of beta-catenin is critical to APC's tumor suppressive effect and that this regulation can be circumvented by mutations in either APC or beta-catenin.
Publication
Journal: Science
April/22/1997
Abstract
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein binds to beta-catenin, a protein recently shown to interact with Tcf and Lef transcription factors. The gene encoding hTcf-4, a Tcf family member that is expressed in colonic epithelium, was cloned and characterized. hTcf-4 transactivates transcription only when associated with beta-catenin. Nuclei of APC-/- colon carcinoma cells were found to contain a stable beta-catenin-hTcf-4 complex that was constitutively active, as measured by transcription of a Tcf reporter gene. Reintroduction of APC removed beta-catenin from hTcf-4 and abrogated the transcriptional transactivation. Constitutive transcription of Tcf target genes, caused by loss of APC function, may be a crucial event in the early transformation of colonic epithelium.
Publication
Journal: Nature
December/29/2005
Abstract
Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), together with a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across breeds. The dog is of particular interest because it provides important evolutionary information and because existing breeds show great phenotypic diversity for morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. We use sequence comparison with the primate and rodent lineages to shed light on the structure and evolution of genomes and genes. Notably, the majority of the most highly conserved non-coding sequences in mammalian genomes are clustered near a small subset of genes with important roles in development. Analysis of SNPs reveals long-range haplotypes across the entire dog genome, and defines the nature of genetic diversity within and across breeds. The current SNP map now makes it possible for genome-wide association studies to identify genes responsible for diseases and traits, with important consequences for human and companion animal health.
Publication
Journal: Nature
September/18/1996
Abstract
The cytoplasmic proteins beta-catenin of vertebrates and armadillo of Drosophila have two functions: they link the cadherin cell-adhesion molecules to the cytoskeleton, and they participate in the wnt/wingless signal pathway. Here we show, in a yeast two-hybrid screen, that the architectural transcription factor LEF-1 (for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor) interacts with beta-catenin. In mammalian cells, coexpressed LEF-1 and beta-catenin form a complex that is localized to the nucleus and can be detected by immunoprecipitation. Moreover, LEF-1 and beta-catenin form a ternary complex with DNA that splays an altered DNA bend. Microinjection of LEF-1 into XenoPus embryos induces axis duplication, which is augmented by interaction with beta-catenin. Thus beta-catenin regulates gene expression by direct interaction with transcription factors such as LEF-1, providing a molecular mechanism for the transmission of signals, from cell-adhesion components or wnt protein to the nucleus.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation
January/21/2004
Abstract
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a central mechanism for diversifying the cells found in complex tissues. This dynamic process helps organize the formation of the body plan, and while EMT is well studied in the context of embryonic development, it also plays a role in the genesis of fibroblasts during organ fibrosis in adult tissues. Emerging evidence from studies of renal fibrosis suggests that more than a third of all disease-related fibroblasts originate from tubular epithelia at the site of injury. This review highlights recent advances in the process of EMT signaling in health and disease and how it may be attenuated or reversed by selective cytokines and growth factors.
Publication
Journal: EMBO Journal
September/2/1997
Abstract
beta-catenin is a central component of the cadherin cell adhesion complex and plays an essential role in the Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway. In the current model of this pathway, the amount of beta-catenin (or its invertebrate homolog Armadillo) is tightly regulated and its steady-state level outside the cadherin-catenin complex is low in the absence of Wingless/Wnt signal. Here we show that the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis system is involved in the regulation of beta-catenin turnover. beta-catenin, but not E-cadherin, p120(cas) or alpha-catenin, becomes stabilized when proteasome-mediated proteolysis is inhibited and this leads to the accumulation of multi-ubiquitinated forms of beta-catenin. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that substitution of the serine residues in the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylation consensus motif of beta-catenin inhibits ubiquitination and results in stabilization of the protein. This motif in beta-catenin resembles a motif in IkappaB (inhibitor of NFkappaB) which is required for the phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IkappaB via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We show that ubiquitination of beta-catenin is greatly reduced in Wnt-expressing cells, providing the first evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway may act downstream of GSK3beta in the regulation of beta-catenin.
Publication
Journal: Cell
May/6/2002
Abstract
Wnt regulation of beta-catenin degradation is essential for development and carcinogenesis. beta-catenin degradation is initiated upon amino-terminal serine/threonine phosphorylation, which is believed to be performed by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in complex with tumor suppressor proteins Axin and adnomatous polyposis coli (APC). Here we describe another Axin-associated kinase, whose phosphorylation of beta-catenin precedes and is required for subsequent GSK-3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin. This "priming" kinase is casein kinase Ialpha (CKIalpha). Depletion of CKIalpha inhibits beta-catenin phosphorylation and degradation and causes abnormal embryogenesis associated with excessive Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Our study uncovers distinct roles and steps of beta-catenin phosphorylation, identifies CKIalpha as a component in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, and has implications to pathogenesis/therapeutics of human cancers and diabetes.
Publication
Journal: Nature
June/18/2003
Abstract
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the ability to renew themselves and to give rise to all lineages of the blood; however, the signals that regulate HSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here we show that the Wnt signalling pathway has an important role in this process. Overexpression of activated beta-catenin expands the pool of HSCs in long-term cultures by both phenotype and function. Furthermore, HSCs in their normal microenvironment activate a LEF-1/TCF reporter, which indicates that HCSs respond to Wnt signalling in vivo. To demonstrate the physiological significance of this pathway for HSC proliferation we show that the ectopic expression of axin or a frizzled ligand-binding domain, inhibitors of the Wnt signalling pathway, leads to inhibition of HSC growth in vitro and reduced reconstitution in vivo. Furthermore, activation of Wnt signalling in HSCs induces increased expression of HoxB4 and Notch1, genes previously implicated in self-renewal of HSCs. We conclude that the Wnt signalling pathway is critical for normal HSC homeostasis in vitro and in vivo, and provide insight into a potential molecular hierarchy of regulation of HSC development.
Publication
Journal: Nature Reviews Cancer
May/12/2008
Abstract
The Wnt signalling pathway is an ancient system that has been highly conserved during evolution. It has a crucial role in the embryonic development of all animal species, in the regeneration of tissues in adult organisms and in many other processes. Mutations or deregulated expression of components of the Wnt pathway can induce disease, most importantly cancer. The first gene to be identified that encodes a Wnt signalling component, Int1 (integration 1), was molecularly characterized from mouse tumour cells 25 years ago. In parallel, the homologous gene Wingless in Drosophila melanogaster, which produces developmental defects in embryos, was characterized. Since then, further components of the Wnt pathway have been identified and their epistatic relationships have been defined. This article is a Timeline of crucial discoveries about the components and functions of this essential pathway.
Publication
Journal: Developmental Cell
June/23/2005
Abstract
Chondrocytes and osteoblasts are two primary cell types in the skeletal system that are differentiated from common mesenchymal progenitors. It is believed that osteoblast differentiation is controlled by distinct mechanisms in intramembranous and endochondral ossification. We have found that ectopic canonical Wnt signaling leads to enhanced ossification and suppression of chondrocyte formation. Conversely, genetic inactivation of beta-catenin, an essential component transducing the canonical Wnt signaling, causes ectopic formation of chondrocytes at the expense of osteoblast differentiation during both intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Moreover, inactivation of beta-catenin in mesenchymal progenitor cells in vitro causes chondrocyte differentiation under conditions allowing only osteoblasts to form. Our results demonstrate that beta-catenin is essential in determining whether mesenchymal progenitors will become osteoblasts or chondrocytes regardless of regional locations or ossification mechanisms. Controlling Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a common molecular mechanism underlying chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation and specification of intramembranous and endochondral ossification.
Publication
Journal: EMBO Journal
January/4/2000
Abstract
Ectopic expression of certain Wnt genes in mouse mammary tissue is tumorigenic, and mutations that stabilize beta-catenin are found in various human cancers including colorectal cancer. To determine the role of stabilized beta-catenin in intestinal tumorigenesis in mice, we constructed by embryonic stem (ES) cell-mediated homologous recombination, a mutant beta-catenin allele whose exon 3 was sandwiched by loxP sequences. When the germline heterozygotes were crossed with mice expressing Cre recombinase in the intestines, the serines and threonine encoded by exon 3 and to be phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) were deleted in the offspring intestines, which caused adenomatous intestinal polyps resembling those in Apc(Delta716) knockout mice. Some nascent microadenomas were also found in the colon. These results present experimental genetic evidence that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway can cause intestinal and colonic tumors.
Publication
Journal: Development (Cambridge)
July/12/2001
Abstract
beta-Catenin is a central component of both the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex and the Wnt signaling pathway. We have investigated the role of beta-catenin during brain morphogenesis, by specifically inactivating the beta-catenin gene in the region of Wnt1 expression. To achieve this, mice with a conditional ('floxed') allele of beta-catenin with required exons flanked by loxP recombination sequences were intercrossed with transgenic mice that expressed Cre recombinase under control of Wnt1 regulatory sequences. beta-Catenin gene deletion resulted in dramatic brain malformation and failure of craniofacial development. Absence of part of the midbrain and all of the cerebellum is reminiscent of the conventional Wnt1 knockout (Wnt1(-/-)), suggesting that Wnt1 acts through beta-catenin in controlling midbrain-hindbrain development. The craniofacial phenotype, not observed in embryos that lack Wnt1, indicates a role for beta-catenin in the fate of neural crest cells. Analysis of neural tube explants shows that (beta-catenin is efficiently deleted in migrating neural crest cell precursors. This, together with an increased apoptosis in cells migrating to the cranial ganglia and in areas of prechondrogenic condensations, suggests that removal of beta-catenin affects neural crest cell survival and/or differentiation. Our results demonstrate the pivotal role of beta-catenin in morphogenetic processes during brain and craniofacial development.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
July/22/2008
Abstract
Bmi1 plays an essential part in the self-renewal of hematopoietic and neural stem cells. To investigate its role in other adult stem cell populations, we generated a mouse expressing a tamoxifen-inducible Cre from the Bmi1 locus. We found that Bmi1 is expressed in discrete cells located near the bottom of crypts in the small intestine, predominantly four cells above the base of the crypt (+4 position). Over time, these cells proliferate, expand, self-renew and give rise to all the differentiated cell lineages of the small intestine epithelium. The induction of a stable form of beta-catenin in these cells was sufficient to rapidly generate adenomas. Moreover, ablation of Bmi1(+) cells using a Rosa26 conditional allele, expressing diphtheria toxin, led to crypt loss. These experiments identify Bmi1 as an intestinal stem cell marker in vivo. Unexpectedly, the distribution of Bmi1-expressing stem cells along the length of the small intestine suggested that mammals use more than one molecularly distinguishable adult stem cell subpopulation to maintain organ homeostasis.
Publication
Journal: Developmental Cell
June/23/2005
Abstract
Inactivation of beta-catenin in mesenchymal progenitors prevents osteoblast differentiation; inactivation of Lrp5, a gene encoding a likely Wnt coreceptor, results in low bone mass (osteopenia) by decreasing bone formation. These observations indicate that Wnt signaling controls osteoblast differentiation and suggest that it may regulate bone formation in differentiated osteoblasts. Here, we study later events and find that stabilization of beta-catenin in differentiated osteoblasts results in high bone mass, while its deletion from differentiated osteoblasts leads to osteopenia. Surprisingly, histological analysis showed that these mutations primarily affect bone resorption rather than bone formation. Cellular and molecular studies showed that beta-catenin together with TCF proteins regulates osteoblast expression of Osteoprotegerin, a major inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation. These findings demonstrate that beta-catenin, and presumably Wnt signaling, promote the ability of differentiated osteoblasts to inhibit osteoclast differentiation; thus, they broaden our knowledge of the functions Wnt proteins have at various stages of skeletogenesis.
Publication
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine
November/27/2012
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The causes of intellectual disability remain largely unknown because of extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity.
METHODS
We evaluated patients with intellectual disability to exclude known causes of the disorder. We then sequenced the coding regions of more than 21,000 genes obtained from 100 patients with an IQ below 50 and their unaffected parents. A data-analysis procedure was developed to identify and classify de novo, autosomal recessive, and X-linked mutations. In addition, we used high-throughput resequencing to confirm new candidate genes in 765 persons with intellectual disability (a confirmation series). All mutations were evaluated by molecular geneticists and clinicians in the context of the patients' clinical presentation.
RESULTS
We identified 79 de novo mutations in 53 of 100 patients. A total of 10 de novo mutations and 3 X-linked (maternally inherited) mutations that had been previously predicted to compromise the function of known intellectual-disability genes were found in 13 patients. Potentially causative de novo mutations in novel candidate genes were detected in 22 patients. Additional de novo mutations in 3 of these candidate genes were identified in patients with similar phenotypes in the confirmation series, providing support for mutations in these genes as the cause of intellectual disability. We detected no causative autosomal recessive inherited mutations in the discovery series. Thus, the total diagnostic yield was 16%, mostly involving de novo mutations.
CONCLUSIONS
De novo mutations represent an important cause of intellectual disability; exome sequencing was used as an effective diagnostic strategy for their detection. (Funded by the European Union and others.).
Publication
Journal: Science
August/12/2002
Abstract
Transgenic mice expressing a stabilized beta-catenin in neural precursors develop enlarged brains with increased cerebral cortical surface area and folds resembling sulci and gyri of higher mammals. Brains from transgenic animals have enlarged lateral ventricles lined with neuroepithelial precursor cells, reflecting an expansion of the precursor population. Compared with wild-type precursors, a greater proportion of transgenic precursors reenter the cell cycle after mitosis. These results show that beta-catenin can function in the decision of precursors to proliferate or differentiate during mammalian neuronal development and suggest that beta-catenin can regulate cerebral cortical size by controlling the generation of neural precursor cells.
Publication
Journal: Cell
July/5/2001
Abstract
beta-Catenin is an essential molecule in Wnt/wingless signaling, which controls decisive steps in embryogenesis. To study the role of beta-catenin in skin development, we introduced a conditional mutation of the gene in the epidermis and hair follicles using Cre/loxP technology. When beta-catenin is mutated during embryogenesis, formation of placodes that generate hair follicles is blocked. We show that beta-catenin is required genetically downstream of tabby/downless and upstream of bmp and shh in placode formation. If beta-catenin is deleted after hair follicles have formed, hair is completely lost after the first hair cycle. Further analysis demonstrates that beta-catenin is essential for fate decisions of skin stem cells: in the absence of beta-catenin, stem cells fail to differentiate into follicular keratinocytes, but instead adopt an epidermal fate.
Publication
Journal: Cell
January/24/2006
Abstract
Spatial and functional organization of cells in tissues is determined by cell-cell adhesion, thought to be initiated through trans-interactions between extracellular domains of the cadherin family of adhesion proteins, and strengthened by linkage to the actin cytoskeleton. Prevailing dogma is that cadherins are linked to the actin cytoskeleton through beta-catenin and alpha-catenin, although the quaternary complex has never been demonstrated. We test this hypothesis and find that alpha-catenin does not interact with actin filaments and the E-cadherin-beta-catenin complex simultaneously, even in the presence of the actin binding proteins vinculin and alpha-actinin, either in solution or on isolated cadherin-containing membranes. Direct analysis in polarized cells shows that mobilities of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and alpha-catenin are similar, regardless of the dynamic state of actin assembly, whereas actin and several actin binding proteins have higher mobilities. These results suggest that the linkage between the cadherin-catenin complex and actin filaments is more dynamic than previously appreciated.
Publication
Journal: Science
May/7/1998
Abstract
Control of stability of beta-catenin is central in the wnt signaling pathway. Here, the protein conductin was found to form a complex with both beta-catenin and the tumor suppressor gene product adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Conductin induced beta-catenin degradation, whereas mutants of conductin that were deficient in complex formation stabilized beta-catenin. Fragments of APC that contained a conductin-binding domain also blocked beta-catenin degradation. Thus, conductin is a component of the multiprotein complex that directs beta-catenin to degradation and is located downstream of APC. In Xenopus embryos, conductin interfered with wnt-induced axis formation.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
December/13/2011
Abstract
The MYC transcription factor is a master regulator of diverse cellular functions and has been long considered a compelling therapeutic target because of its role in a range of human malignancies. However, pharmacologic inhibition of MYC function has proven challenging because of both the diverse mechanisms driving its aberrant expression and the challenge of disrupting protein-DNA interactions. Here, we demonstrate the rapid and potent abrogation of MYC gene transcription by representative small molecule inhibitors of the BET family of chromatin adaptors. MYC transcriptional suppression was observed in the context of the natural, chromosomally translocated, and amplified gene locus. Inhibition of BET bromodomain-promoter interactions and subsequent reduction of MYC transcript and protein levels resulted in G(1) arrest and extensive apoptosis in a variety of leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. Exogenous expression of MYC from an artificial promoter that is resistant to BET regulation significantly protected cells from cell cycle arrest and growth suppression by BET inhibitors. MYC suppression was accompanied by deregulation of the MYC transcriptome, including potent reactivation of the p21 tumor suppressor. Treatment with a BET inhibitor resulted in significant antitumor activity in xenograft models of Burkitt's lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia. These findings demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of MYC is achievable through targeting BET bromodomains. Such inhibitors may have clinical utility given the widespread pathogenetic role of MYC in cancer.
Publication
Journal: Cell
January/24/2006
Abstract
Epithelial cell-cell junctions, organized by adhesion proteins and the underlying actin cytoskeleton, are considered to be stable structures maintaining the structural integrity of tissues. Contrary to the idea that alpha-catenin links the adhesion protein E-cadherin through beta-catenin to the actin cytoskeleton, in the accompanying paper we report that alpha-catenin does not bind simultaneously to both E-cadherin-beta-catenin and actin filaments. Here we demonstrate that alpha-catenin exists as a monomer or a homodimer with different binding properties. Monomeric alpha-catenin binds more strongly to E-cadherin-beta-catenin, whereas the dimer preferentially binds actin filaments. Different molecular conformations are associated with these different binding states, indicating that alpha-catenin is an allosteric protein. Significantly, alpha-catenin directly regulates actin-filament organization by suppressing Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, likely by competing with the Arp2/3 complex for binding to actin filaments. These results indicate a new role for alpha-catenin in local regulation of actin assembly and organization at sites of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
July/2/2012
Abstract
Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 × 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
Publication
Journal: Science
July/5/1996
Abstract
The adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) is mutated in most colon cancers. The APC protein binds to the cellular adhesion molecule beta-catenin, which is a mammalian homolog of ARMADILLO, a component of the WINGLESS signaling pathway in Drosophila development. Here it is shown that when beta-catenin is present in excess, APC binds to another component of the WINGLESS pathway, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), a mammalian homolog of Drosophila ZESTE WHITE 3. APC was a good substrate for GSK3 beta in vitro, and the phosphorylation sites were mapped to the central region of APC. Binding of beta-catenin to this region was dependent on phosphorylation by GSK3 beta.
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