ctnnb1 - beta-catenin
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Publication
Journal: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology
October/13/2019
Abstract
The purpose of the present study is to report 2 cases of odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid, a rare low-grade odontogenic carcinoma associated with facial deformity and bone loss, and to investigate the presence of pathogenic mutations in these samples. By using a next-generation sequencing approach, we sequenced a panel of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes commonly mutated in human cancer. Microscopic features of both cases revealed solid areas of malignant odontogenic tumor with a large amount of dentinoid material. We identified pathogenic mutations in the genes CTNNB1 and APC, both of which are part of the Wnt-signaling pathway. Consistent with Wnt-signaling activation, both tumors showed strong β-catenin accumulation in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei. The molecular profile of odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid may help in its diagnosis, as well as in the identification of potential molecular targets for therapy in the future.
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
July/19/2019
Abstract
Knowledge of key drivers and therapeutic targets in mucosal melanoma is limited due to the paucity of comprehensive mutation data on this rare tumor type. To better understand the genomic landscape of mucosal melanoma, here we describe whole genome sequencing analysis of 67 tumors and validation of driver gene mutations by exome sequencing of 45 tumors. Tumors have a low point mutation burden and high numbers of structural variants, including recurrent structural rearrangements targeting TERT, CDK4 and MDM2. Significantly mutated genes are NRAS, BRAF, NF1, KIT, SF3B1, TP53, SPRED1, ATRX, HLA-A and CHD8. SF3B1 mutations occur more commonly in female genital and anorectal melanomas and CTNNB1 mutations implicate a role for WNT signaling defects in the genesis of some mucosal melanomas. TERT aberrations and ATRX mutations are associated with alterations in telomere length. Mutation profiles of the majority of mucosal melanomas suggest potential susceptibility to CDK4/6 and/or MEK inhibitors.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of pathology
June/6/2019
Abstract
Lymphoepithelioma-like hepatocellular carcinoma (LEL-HCC) is a distinct variant of HCC that is characterized by dense tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Patients with LEL-HCC also show better clinical outcomes compared to conventional HCC (c-HCC), which is commonly presented with low TIL. Emerging evidence has begun to highlight tumor-intrinsic genetic abnormalities in the tumor-host immune interfaces. However, genome-wide characterization of LEL-HCC remains largely unexplored. Here, we defined the genomic landscape of 12 LEL-HCC using whole-exome sequencing, and further underpinned those genetic alterations related to an immune active microenvironment by comparing findings to 15 c-HCC that were sequenced in parallel. Overall, the mutational load between LEL-HCC and c-HCC was similar. Interestingly, SNV incidences of specific genes (CTNNB1, AXIN1, NOTCH1, and NOTCH2) were significantly higher in c-HCC than LEL-HCC, suggesting a plausible link between activated Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways and immune avoidance. Marked focal amplification of chromosome 11q13.3 was prevalent in LEL-HCC. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, we further established oncogenes expressed from chromosome 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF19, and FGF4) to be strongly associated with the immune checkpoint signature (CD274, PDCD1, BTLA, CTLA4, HAVCR2, IDO1, and LAG3). Our results have illustrated for the first time the somatic landscape of LEL-HCC, and highlighted molecular alterations that could be exploited in combinatory therapy with checkpoint inhibitors in targeting HCC. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Publication
Journal: American journal of clinical pathology
February/4/2019
Abstract
CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations have shown independent prognostic value in endometrial cancer. We aimed to assess whether nuclear β-catenin expression is an accurate surrogate, as immunohistochemistry is cheaper, faster, and more widely applicable than sequencing.A systematic review was performed by searching electronic databases for all studies assessing the association between β-catenin immunohistochemical expression and CTNNB1 mutations. Meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy was performed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) on summary receiver operating characteristic curves.Fifteen observational studies with 1,158 endometrial carcinomas were included. Pooled estimates showed sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.85, LR+ = 4.57, LR- = 0.20, DOR = 27.16, and high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.91).Nuclear expression of β-catenin is an accurate immunohistochemical surrogate of CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations and thus might be considered in the risk stratification of endometrial cancer.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
December/6/2018
Abstract
Shen-Qi-Di-Huang decoction (SQDHD), a well-known herbal formula from China, has been widely used in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the pharmacological mechanisms of SQDHD have not been entirely elucidated. At first, we conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify the active constituents of SQDHD, determined their corresponding targets, and obtained known DN targets from several databases. A protein-protein interaction network was then built to explore the complex relations between SQDHD targets and those known to treat DN. Following the topological feature screening of each node in the network, 400 major targets of SQDHD were obtained. The pathway enrichment analysis results acquired from DAVID showed that the significant bioprocesses and pathways include oxidative stress, response to glucose, regulation of blood pressure, regulation of cell proliferation, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, and the apoptotic signaling pathway. More interestingly, five key targets of SQDHD, named AKT1, AR, CTNNB1, EGFR, and ESR1, were significant in the regulation of the above bioprocesses and pathways. This study partially verified and predicted the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of SQDHD on DN from a holistic perspective. This has laid the foundation for further experimental research and has expanded the rational application of SQDHD in clinical practice.
Publication
Journal: Developmental biology
November/29/2018
Abstract
The highly conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2) exhibits a dynamic expression pattern in lung epithelium throughout embryonic development. Using a conditional gene targeting approach to delete Grhl2 in the developing lung epithelium, our results demonstrate that Grhl2 plays multiple roles in lung morphogenesis that are essential for respiratory function. Loss of Grhl2 leads to impaired ciliated cell differentiation and perturbed formation of terminal saccules. Critically, a substantial increase in Sox9-positive distal tip progenitor cells was observed following loss of Grhl2, suggesting that Grhl2 plays an important role in branching morphogenesis. Gene transcription profiling of Grhl2-deficient lung epithelial cells revealed a significant down regulation of Elf5, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. Furthermore, ChIP and comparative genomic analyzes confirmed that Elf5 is a direct transcriptional target of Grhl2. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that Grhl2 controls normal lung morphogenesis by tightly regulating the activity of distal tip progenitor cells.
Publication
Journal: eLife
November/13/2018
Abstract
Abnormalities of the arterial valve leaflets, predominantly bicuspid aortic valve, are the commonest congenital malformations. Although many studies have investigated the development of the arterial valves, it has been assumed that, as with the atrioventricular valves, endocardial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is the predominant mechanism. We show that arterial is distinctly different from atrioventricular valve formation. Whilst the four septal valve leaflets are dominated by NCC and EndMT-derived cells, the intercalated leaflets differentiate directly from Tnnt2-Cre+/Isl1+ progenitors in the outflow wall, via a Notch-Jag dependent mechanism. Further, when this novel group of progenitors are disrupted, development of the intercalated leaflets is disrupted, resulting in leaflet dysplasia and bicuspid valves without raphe, most commonly affecting the aortic valve. This study thus overturns the dogma that heart valves are formed principally by EndMT, identifies a new source of valve interstitial cells, and provides a novel mechanism for causation of bicuspid aortic valves without raphe.
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
November/13/2018
Abstract
Many epithelial stem cell populations follow a pattern of stochastic stem cell divisions called 'neutral drift'. It is hypothesised that neutral competition between stem cells protects against the acquisition of deleterious mutations. Here we use a Porcupine inhibitor to reduce Wnt secretion at a dose where intestinal homoeostasis is maintained despite a reduction of Lgr5+ stem cells. Functionally, there is a marked acceleration in monoclonal conversion, so that crypts become rapidly derived from a single stem cell. Stem cells located further from the base are lost and the pool of competing stem cells is reduced. We tested whether this loss of stem cell competition would modify tumorigenesis. Reduction of Wnt ligand secretion accelerates fixation of Apc-deficient cells within the crypt leading to accelerated tumorigenesis. Therefore, ligand-based Wnt signalling influences the number of stem cells, fixation speed of Apc mutations and the speed and likelihood of adenoma formation.
Publication
Journal: Endocrinology
October/5/2018
Abstract
The process by which the somatotrope lineage emerges in the developing pituitary is regulated by the activity of specific signaling and transcription factors expressed during development. We set out to understand the contribution of FOXO1 to that process by using a mouse model in which FOXO1 is prematurely expressed in the pituitary primordium. Expression of FOXO1 in the oral ectoderm as early as embryonic day (e)9.5 resulted in pituitary gland hypoplasia and reduced expression of anterior lobe hormone transcripts at e18.5. Of note, the relative numbers of somatotropes and thyrotropes were also decreased at e18.5. LHX3 and PITX2, markers of pituitary identity, were present in a reduced number of cells during the formation of the Rathke pouch. Thus, premature expression of FOXO1 may affect adoption of pituitary identity during differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the timing of FOXO1 activation affects its role in pituitary gland organogenesis and somatotrope differentiation.
Publication
Journal: Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
November/14/2017
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
β-catenin is an integral component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and its mutations are an autosomal recessive cause of colorectal cancer (CRC), medulloblastoma (MDB), and ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, little is known about its function in lung cancers.
METHODS
We first knocked down β-catenin by siRNA to investigate its effects on lung cancer cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Then we verified the interaction between β-catenin and CREB binding protein (CBP) by immunofluoresence and co-immunoprecipition assays. Finally, the expression of β-catenin and CBP in human lung adenocarcinoma specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry assay.
RESULTS
β-catenin knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis and suppressed cell migration in A549 and H460 cells accompanied by the decreased expression of Myc, PCNA, VEGF, CD44, MMP-9, MMP-13 and activated bax/caspase-3 pathway. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipition and immunofluoresence analyses revealed that CBP interacted with β-catenin and contributed to β-catenin-mediated lung cancer cell growth. Abolishment of their interaction by the Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor ICG-001 remarkably suppressed cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry assay of tissue microarrays from patients with lung cancer indicated that both CBP and β-catenin were highly expressed in tumor tissues and predicted poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
CONCLUSIONS
Our study has provided new evidence for the role of β-catenin in promoting the growth of lung cancer cells through cooperation with CBP, and suggested that dual targeting of β-catenin and CBP could be a potential therapeutic strategy in lung cancer treatment.
Publication
Journal: Minerva medica
November/8/2017
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The present study was planned to study the expression of C-myc and β-catenin in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tissue. Furthermore, their relations to clinical features of the tumor and the survival prognosis were also studied. Additionally, correlation was evaluated between the expression of C-myc and β-catenin to provide the theoretical basis for the targeted therapy of TNBC.
METHODS
Sixty cases of patients diagnosed with TNBC for the first time were selected for the study. The immumo-histochemical staining was employed to detect the positive expression rates of C-myc and β-catenin in cancer tissues and normal mammary tissues 3 cm away from the carcinoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to test the gene amplification of C-myc in order to analyze the relation between C-myc and the protein expression of β-catenin. Further, kept the median follow-up time to 25.0 months in order to compare the survival prognosis.
RESULTS
The positive expression rates of C-myc and β-catenin in cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in precancerous normal tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression rates were related with the diameter of tumor, clinical staging, pathological grading and lymphatic metastasis (P<0.5). There were 33 cases that exhibited an increase in C-myc gene copy number and the gene amplification was observed to be 55% in total. On the other hand, patients with positive expression of C-myc and β-catenin protein exhibited a shortened disease-free survival without tumor with an increasing recurrence rate and lower survival rate (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
The present study concludes that the positive expression of C-myc and β-catenin in TNBC tissue might be closely correlated with clinical features of cancer and the survival prognosis.
Publication
Journal: Development (Cambridge, England)
September/24/2017
Abstract
In lung development, the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage. Subsequently, these epithelial cells change shape into the flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that form the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shape on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Wnt components is decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and that genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impairs air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage. Organ culture models also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induces apical constriction through apical actomyosin cytoskeletal organization. Mathematical modeling reveals that apical constriction induces bud formation and that loss of apical constriction is required for the formation of an air sac-like structure. We identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (Mark1) as a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling and show that it is required for apical cytoskeletal organization and bud formation. These results suggest that Wnt signaling is required for bud formation by inducing apical constriction during the pseudoglandular stage, whereas loss of Wnt signaling is necessary for air sac formation in the canalicular-saccular stages.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
April/24/2017
Abstract
Mild hypothermia is thought to be one of the most effective therapies for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injuries. Our previous research revealed that mild hypothermia inhibits the activation of caspase-3 and protects against oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury in hippocampal neurons. However, the mechanisms behind the activation of caspase-3 remain unclear. The aims of this study were to determine whether the protective effects of mild hypothermia were exerted through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that, under OGD/R conditions, the pathway was down regulated, but mild hypothermia induced the reactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which had been suppressed by OGD/R injury. Mild hypothermia also caused the down regulation of the expression of apoptosis promoting proteins (Bax cleaved caspase-3), up-regulated the expression of apoptosis inhibiting proteins (Bcl-2), and ameliorated OGD/R injury-induced apoptosis. The protective effects of mild hypothermia were blocked by DKK1 (an antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway). Taken together, these results indicate that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mediates the protective effects of mild hypothermia against OGD/R-induced apoptosis. Our study provides evidence that mild hypothermia reactivates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is suppressed by OGD/R injury, in hippocampal neurons and protects neurons from OGD/R-induced apoptosis via the reactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, ultimately suggesting that mild hypothermia could have therapeutic effects on OGD/R-induced apoptosis.
Publication
Journal: Oncotarget
April/2/2017
Abstract
The eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is significant for cancer therapy and prevention. In this study, we evaluated WM130, a novel derivative of matrine, for its effect on CSCs using human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, their sphere cells, and sorted EpCAM+ cells. We revealed that WM130 could not only inhibit proliferation and colony formation of HCC cells, but also suppress the expression of some stemness-related genes and up-regulate some mature hepatocyte marker genes, indicating a promotion of differentiation from CSCs to hepatocytes. WM130 also suppressed the proliferation of doxorubicin-resistant hepatoma cells, and markedly reduced the cells with CSC biomarker EpCAM. Moreover, WM130 suppressed HCC spheres, not only primary spheres but also subsequent spheres, indicating an inhibitory effect on self-renewal capability of CSCs. Interestingly, WM130 exhibited a remarkable inhibitory preference on HCC spheres and EpCAM+ cells rather than their parental HCC cells and EpCAM- cells respectively. In vivo, WM130 inhibited HCC xenograft growth, decreased the number of sphere-forming cells, and remarkably decreased the levels of EpCAM mRNA and protein in tumor xenografts. Better inhibitory effect was achieved by WM130 in combination with doxorubicin. Further mechanism study revealed that WM130 inhibited AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that WM130 remarkably inhibits hepatic CSCs, and this effect may via the down-regulation of the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. These findings provide a strong rationale for the use of WM130 as a novel drug candidate in HCC therapy.
Publication
Journal: Oncotarget
February/23/2017
Abstract
Mutations in β-catenin are traditionally described as late events in thyroid cancer progression. However, the functional implications of β-catenin dysregulation in the context of tumor initiating events remain unclear. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the two main oncogenic drivers in thyroid cancer, RAS and BRAF, could activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Expression of HRASV12 but not BRAFV600E in thyroid cells induced β-catenin nuclear localization, increased β-catenin-dependent transcriptional activity and inhibited GSK3β. In a panel of human thyroid cancer cell lines representative of the main genetic events in thyroid cancer, β-catenin activation was highly dependent on PI3K/AKT activity through its phosphorylation at S552, but not on MAPK. Silencing of β-catenin expression in cell lines led to a dramatic reduction in proliferation due to an induction of senescence, which was concordant with a reduction in tumor size in nude mice. Moreover, β-catenin silencing suppressed the expression of EMT-related genes and reduced the invasive capacity of the tumor cells. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that RAS-driven tumors induce PI3K/AKT-dependent β-catenin activation.
Publication
Journal: Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
August/10/2016
Abstract
Non-gustatory filiform papillae play critical roles in helping to grip food, drawing food to the esophagus, cleaning the mouth, and spreading saliva. The molecular mechanisms of filiform tongue papillae development however are not fully understood.
We found Ikkα and Irf6 expression in developing tongue epithelium, and describe here specific tongue abnormalities in mice with mutation of these genes, indicating a role for Ikkα and Irf6 in filiform papillae development. Ikkα and Irf6 mutant tongues showed ectopic vertical epithelium at the midline, while lateral sides of mutant tongues adhered to the oral mucosa. Both the ectopic median vertical epithelium and adhered epithelium exhibited the presence of filiform tongue papillae, whereas epithelium between the median vertical epithelium and adhered tongue showed a loss of filiform tongue papillae. Timing of filiform papillae development was found to be slightly different between the midline and lateral regions of the wild-type tongue.
Filiform papillae thus develop through distinct molecular mechanisms between the regions of tongue dorsum in the medio-lateral axis, with some filiform papillae developing under the control of Ikkα and Irf6. Developmental Dynamics 245:937-946, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in neuroscience
March/1/2015
Abstract
In the adult the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain is lined by the ependymal cells, which are joined by gap junctions. These intercellular connections do not provide a diffusional restrain between the two compartments. However, during development this interface, initially consisting of neuroepithelial cells and later radial glial cells, is characterized by "strap" junctions, which limit the exchange of different sized molecules between cerebrospinal fluid and the brain parenchyma. Here we provide a systematic study of permeability properties of this inner cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier during mouse development from embryonic day, E17 until adult. Results show that at fetal stages exchange across this barrier is restricted to the smallest molecules (286Da) and the diffusional restraint is progressively removed as the brain develops. By postnatal day P20, molecules the size of plasma proteins (70 kDa) diffuse freely. Transcriptomic analysis of junctional proteins present in the cerebrospinal fluid-brain interface showed expression of adherens junctional proteins, actins, cadherins and catenins changing in a development manner consistent with the observed changes in the permeability studies. Gap junction proteins were only identified in the adult as was claudin-11. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize at the cellular level some of the adherens junctional proteins of genes identified from transcriptomic analysis. N-cadherin, β - and α-catenin immunoreactivity was detected outlining the inner CSF-brain interface from E16; most of these markers were not present in the adult ependyma. Claudin-5 was present in the apical-most part of radial glial cells and in endothelial cells in embryos, but only in endothelial cells including plexus endothelial cells in adults. Claudin-11 was only immunopositive in the adult, consistent with results obtained from transcriptomic analysis. These results provide information about physiological, molecular and morphological-related permeability changes occurring at the inner cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier during brain development.
Publication
Journal: Biology open
December/5/2012
Abstract
Hox genes encode transcription factors controlling complex developmental processes in various organs. Little is known, however, about how HOX proteins control cell fate. Herein, we demonstrate that the goblet cell metaplasia observed in lung airways from Hoxa5(-/-) mice originates from the transdifferentiation of Clara cells. Reduced CC10 expression in Hoxa5(-/-) embryos indicates that altered cell specification occurs prior to birth. The loss of Hoxa5 function does not preclude airway repair after naphthalene exposure, but the regenerated epithelium presents goblet cell metaplasia and less CC10-positive cells, demonstrating the essential role of Hoxa5 for correct differentiation. Goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5(-/-) mice is a FOXA2-independent process. However, it is associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Consistent with these findings, expression levels of activated NOTCH1 and the effector gene HEY2 are enhanced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vivo administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuates goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5(-/-) mice, highlighting the contribution of Notch signaling to the phenotype and suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy to inhibit goblet cell differentiation and mucus overproduction in airway diseases. In summary, the loss of Hoxa5 function in lung mesenchyme impacts on epithelial cell fate by modulating Notch signaling.
Publication
Journal: Organogenesis
June/26/2019
Abstract
Previous studies indicated that the elevated mesenchymal Wnt/β-catenin signaling deprived dental mesenchyme of odontogenic fate. By utilizing ex vivo or pharmacological approaches, Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the developing dental mesenchyme was suggested to suppress the odontogenic fate by disrupting the balance between Axin2 and Runx2. In our study, the Osr2-creKI; Ctnnb1ex3f mouse was used to explore how mesenchymal Wnt/β-catenin signaling suppressed the odontogenic fate in vivo. We found that all of the incisor and half of the molar germs of Osr2-creKI; Ctnnb1ex3fmice started to regress at E14.5 and almost disappeared at birth. The expression of Fgf3 and Msx1 was dramatically down-regulated in the E14.5 Osr2-creKI; Ctnnb1ex3f incisor and molar mesenchyme, while Runx2transcription was only diminished in incisor mesenchyme. Intriguingly, in the E14.5 Osr2-creKI; Ctnnb1ex3f incisor epithelium, the expression of Noggin was activated, while Shh was abrogated. Similarly, the Wnt and BMP antagonists, Ectodin and Noggin were also ectopically activated in the E14.5 Osr2-creKI; Ctnnb1ex3f molar epithelium. Recombination of E13.5 Osr2-creKI; Ctnnb1ex3f molar mesenchyme with E10.5 and E13.5 WT dental epithelia failed to develop tooth. Taken together, the mesenchymal Wnt/β-catenin signaling resulted in the loss of odontogenic fate in vivo not only by directly suppressing odontogenic genes expression but also by inducing Wnt and BMP antagonists in dental epithelium.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of clinical investigation
March/5/2019
Abstract
BRAF and CRAF are critical components of the MAPK signaling pathway which is activated in many cancer types. In approximately 1% of melanomas, BRAF or CRAF are activated through structural arrangements. We describe here a metastatic melanoma with a GOLGA4-RAF1 fusion and pathogenic variants in CTNNB1 and CDKN2A. Anti-CTLA4/anti-PD1 combination immunotherapy failed to control tumor progression. In the absence of other actionable variants the patient was administered MEK inhibitor therapy on the basis of its potential action against RAF1 fusions. This resulted in a profound and clinically significant response. We demonstrated that GOLGA4-RAF1 expression was associated with ERK activation, elevated expression of the RAS/RAF downstream co-effector ETV5, and a high Ki67 index. These findings provide a rationale for the dramatic response to targeted therapy. This study shows that thorough molecular characterization of treatment-resistant cancers can identify therapeutic targets and personalize management, leading to improved patient outcomes.
Publication
Journal: FEBS letters
December/4/2018
Abstract
The dorsal cell fate determination factor β-catenin and its antagonist, the ventral cell fate determination factor Xom, are expressed and distributed in a polarized fashion during early vertebrate embryogenesis. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis has been shown to control the abundance of both β-catenin and Xom. However, the mechanism of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in regulating dorsoventral patterning remains largely unclear. Our current study shows that Xom induces proteolysis of β-catenin through GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of Ser33/37 of β-catenin. Our findings reveal a novel pathway that regulates β-catenin stability, and suggest, for the first time, a critical function of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in balancing the integration of dorsal-ventral signals and the polarized distribution of β-catenin and Xom during dorsoventral axis formation.
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Publication
Journal: Nature communications
November/14/2018
Abstract
Age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia) is the leading cause for disability in aged population, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we identify a novel role for the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) in sarcopenia. Forced expression of Dkk3 in muscles in young mice leads to muscle atrophy. Conversely, reducing its expression in old muscles restores both muscle size and function. Dkk3 induces nuclear import of β-catenin and enhances its interaction with FoxO3, which in turn activates the transcription of E3 ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 and Trim63, driving muscle atrophy. These findings suggest that Dkk3 may be used as diagnostic marker and as therapeutic target for age-related muscle atrophy, and reveal a distinct transcriptional control of Fbxo32 and Trim63.
Publication
Journal: International journal of biological sciences
November/13/2018
Abstract
During early vertebrate embryogenesis, maternal Wnt/β-catenin signaling is thought to locally initiate expression of dorsal-specific genes. Here, eaf1 and eaf2 were identified as important maternal and zygotic modulators of Wnt signaling to initiate and specify ventral genes. Expression of ventral ved, vent, and vox was all obviously enhanced in either maternal or zygotic eaf1/2 morphants, and in both eaf1 heterozygous and homozygous mutants, but their expression was suppressed in embryos with over-expression of eaf1/2. Additionally, eaf1/2 were revealed to suppress ventral fates in embryos via Wnt/β-catenin1/Tcf signaling, complimentary to their roles in suppressing dorsal fates via Wnt/β-catenin2 signaling. Moreover, eaf1/2 were also revealed to obviously suppress the expression of axin2 induced by β-catenin2 rather than by β-catenin1, and the dorsal expression of axin2 in embryos was obviously suppressed by ectopic expression of eaf1/2. This study uncovers a novel dorsal-ventral patterning pathway, with eaf1 and eaf2 inhibiting ventral cells via suppressing Wnt/β-catenin1/Tcf signaling and inducing dorsal cells indirectly via suppressing β-catenin2-induced-axin2 on the dorsal side of embryos.
Publication
Journal: Cell metabolism
November/13/2018
Abstract
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has multiple roles in orchestrating whole-body energy homeostasis. In addition, VAT is now considered an immune site harboring an array of innate and adaptive immune cells with a direct role in immune surveillance and host defense. We report that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in VAT acquire a tolerogenic phenotype through upregulation of pathways involved in adipocyte differentiation. While activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cDC1 DCs induces IL-10 production, upregulation of the PPARγ pathway in cDC2 DCs directly suppresses their activation. Combined, they promote an anti-inflammatory milieu in vivo delaying the onset of obesity-induced chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Under long-term over-nutrition, changes in adipocyte biology curtail β-catenin and PPARγ activation, contributing to VAT inflammation.
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