cox3 - cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3
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Publication
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
July/28/2018
Abstract
The amphi-Atlantic distributions exhibited by many thalassoid stygobiont (obligate subterranean) crustaceans have been explained by fragmentation by plate tectonics of ancestral shallow water marine populations. The amphipod stygobiont genus Pseudoniphargus is distributed across the Mediterranean region but also in the North Atlantic archipelagos of Bermuda, Azores, Madeira and the Canaries. We used species delimitation methods and mitogenome phylogenetic analyses to clarify the species diversity and evolutionary relationships within the genus and timing their diversification. Analyses included samples from the Iberian Peninsula, northern Morocco, the Balearic, Canarian, Azores and Madeira archipelagoes plus Bermuda. In most instances, morphological and molecular-based species delimitation analyses yielded consistent results. Notwithstanding, in a few cases either incipient speciation with no involvement of detectable morphological divergence or species crypticism were the most plausible explanations for the disagreement found between morphological and molecular species delimitations. Phylogenetic analyses based on a robust calibrated mitochondrial tree suggested that Pseudoniphargus lineages have a younger age than for other thalassoid amphipods displaying a disjunct distribution embracing both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. A major split within the family was estimated to occur at the Paleocene, when a lineage from Northern Iberian Peninsula diverged from the rest of pseudoniphargids. Species diversification in the peri-Mediterranean area was deduced to occur in early Miocene to Tortonian times, while in the Atlantic islands it started in the Pliocene. Our results show that the current distribution pattern of Pseudoniphargus resulted from a complex admix of relatively ancient vicariance events and several episodes of long- distance dispersal.
Publication
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
July/28/2018
Abstract
The relationship between morphology and inheritance is of perennial interest in evolutionary biology and palaeontology. Using three marine snail genera Penion, Antarctoneptunea and Kelletia, we investigate whether systematics based on shell morphology accurately reflect evolutionary lineages indicated by molecular phylogenetics. Members of these gastropod genera have been a taxonomic challenge due to substantial variation in shell morphology, conservative radular and soft tissue morphology, few known ecological differences, and geographical overlap between numerous species. Sampling all sixteen putative taxa identified across the three genera, we infer mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA phylogenetic relationships within the group, and compare this to variation in adult shell shape and size. Results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that each genus is monophyletic, although the status of some phylogenetically derived and likely more recently evolved taxa within Penion is uncertain. The recently described species P. lineatus is supported by genetic evidence. Morphology, captured using geometric morphometric analysis, distinguishes the genera and matches the molecular phylogeny, although using the same dataset, species and phylogenetic subclades are not identified with high accuracy. Overall, despite abundant variation, we find that shell morphology accurately reflects genus-level classification and the corresponding deep phylogenetic splits identified in this group of marine snails.
Publication
Journal: Journal of molecular evolution
August/29/2001
Abstract
We describe here the complete sequence (58,507 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Pylaiella littoralis (Ectocarpales). This molecule displays an AT content of 62.0% and contains seventy-nine genes, most of them (73) encoded on one strand. They include the usual mitochondrial set of protist genes and a number of rarer genes. Among these, several ribosomal protein genes and the rn5 were identified. Twenty-four tRNA genes are present in this genome, insufficient to decode all genes. The other conspicuous features of this molecule are: a large (3018 nucleotides) in-frame insertion of unknown function in the cox2 gene; the presence of two different lineages of group II introns, including complete reverse transcriptase-like genes, one in the cox1 and the other in the rnl gene; the concomitant occurrence of a T7-like RNA polymerase and of several well-conserved alpha-proteobacterial-type promoters; and a small nad11 gene, coding for the first domain only of this NADH dehydrogenase subunit. Altogether, the mitochondrial genome of P. littoralis exhibits both alpha-proteobacterial characteristics and evidences of the independent integration of several exogenous DNA fragments.
Publication
Journal: Molecular biology reports
May/24/2012
Abstract
Here we report the complete sequence of mitochondrial genomes for two sister taxa of freshwater teleosts, the recently derived Yarra pigmy perch Nannoperca obscura and the southern pigmy perch Nannoperca australis. These represent the first complete mitochondrial genomes for Percichthyidae (Perciformes), a family mostly distributed in Australia. The de novo genome assembly of 316,430 pyrosequencing reads from 454 libraries has produced the entire mitochondria for N. obscura and a nearly complete version for N. australis. The mtDNA genome from the latter was completed through the design of one primer set and standard Sanger sequencing for genome finishing, followed by the hybrid assembly of reads with MIRA software using N. obscura sequence as reference genome. The complete mitogenomes of N. obscura and N. australis are 16,496 and 16,494 bp in size, respectively. Both genomes contain 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. Several characteristics of mitochondria typically found in teleost fishes were detected, such as: (i) most genes found in the heavy strand, with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes; (ii) avoidance of G as the third base of codons; (iii) presence of gene overlapping; (iv) percentage of bases usage. We found only eight indels and 197 nucleotide substitutions between these Nannoperca mitogenomes, consistent with a previous hypothesis of recent speciation. The data reported here provide a resource for comparative analysis of recent evolution of mitochondrial genomes.
Publication
Journal: Gene
September/23/2007
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes, and a noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial genome of O. bidens reveals an alternative pattern of vertebrate mitochondrial evolution. For the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, the most frequently used codon generally ends with either A or C, with C preferred over A for most fourfold degenerate codon families; the relative synonymous codon usage of G-ending codons is greatly elevated in all categories. The codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes is remarkably different from the general pattern found previously in the relatively closely related zebrafish and most other vertebrate mitochondria. Nucleotide bias at third codon positions is the main cause of codon bias in the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, as it is biased particularly in favor of C over A. Bayesian analysis of 12 concatenated mitochondrial protein sequences for O. bidens and 46 other teleostean taxa supports the monophyly of Cypriniformes and Otophysi and results in a robust estimate of the otophysan phylogeny.
Publication
Journal: Gene
September/29/2011
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (15,551bp) was determined and analyzed in this study. The circular genome contained 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and an A+T-rich region. The initiation codons of COI and ND1 were 'ATCA' and 'GTG', respectively. ND2 gene used the truncated termination codon 'T'. All the tRNA genes had the typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNA(Ser(AGN)) gene, which was found with the absence of a DHU arm. In addition, a tRNA-like secondary structure (tRNA(Met)) was found in the A+T-rich region. The great difference was that the length of L. sativae A+T-rich region was 597bp shorter than that of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess). Meanwhile, some minor differences such as 'TATA' block were also observed in L. sativae in contrast to 'TACA' block in L. trifolii. There were also some essential structure elements such as 'TATA' block, 'G(A)(n)T' block, poly-T stretch and stem-and-loop structure in the A+T-rich region of L. sativae mitochondrial genome.
Publication
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
December/2/2018
Abstract
The insect order Hymenoptera presents marvelous morphological and ecological diversity. Higher-level hymenopteran relationships remain controversial, even after recent phylogenomic analyses, as their taxon sampling was limited. To shed light on the origin and diversification of Hymenoptera, in particular the poorly studied Parasitica, we undertook phylogenetic analyses of 40 newly and 43 previously sequenced mitochondrial genomes representing all major clades of Hymenoptera. Various Bayesian inferences using different data partitions and phylogenetic methods recovered similar phylogenetic trees with strong statistical support for almost all nodes. Novel findings of the mitogenomic phylogeny mainly affected the three infraorders Ichneumonomorpha, Proctotrupomorpha and Evaniomorpha, the latter of which was split into three clades. Basal relationships of Parasitica recovered Stephanoidea + (Gasteruptiidae + Aulacidae) as the sister group to Ichneumonomorpha + (Trigonalyoidea + Megalyroidea). This entire clade is sister to Proctotrupomorpha, and Ceraphronoidea + Evaniidae is sister to Aculeata (stinging wasps). Our divergence time analysis indicates that major hymenopteran lineages originated in the Mesozoic. The radiation of early apocritans may have been triggered by the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction; all extant families were present by the Cretaceous.
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Publication
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
September/13/2016
Abstract
The grey-backed thrush (Turdus hortulorum) is an endangered bird species, which is mainly distributed in northern China, Korean Peninsula and Vietnam. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of T. hortulorum is determined. The circle genome was 16,759 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop). The mtDNA of T. hortulorum is similar to the typical mtDNA of birds and other vertebrates.
Publication
Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR
September/14/2016
Abstract
We sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome of Hypsugo alaschanicus (Vespertilionidae) to provide more data for comparative mitogenomics of the genus Hypsugo. The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is a circular molecule of 17,300 bp, consisting of a control region and a typically conserved set of 37 vertebrate genes containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is AT-biased, with a nucleotide composition of 34.1 A, 30.9 T, 22.4 C, and 12.6% G. In the 13 mitochondrial PCGs of H. alaschanicus, the start codon ATG is used in all PCGs, except Nd2 and Nd3 (which use ATT), and Nd5 (which uses ATA). Eight PCGs (Nd1, Cox1, Cox2, Atp8, Atp6, Nd4L, Nd5, and Nd6) use TAA as the stop codon, while the stop codon AGA occurs only in Cytb. Incomplete stop codons (T--) are used in the other four PCGs (Cox3, Nd2, Nd3, and Nd4). These findings contribute to our understanding of the nucleotide composition and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes of the genus Hypsugo, and provide more data for comparative mitogenomics and higher phylogeny in the family Vespertilionidae.
Publication
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
September/17/2016
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Megalobrama skolkovii was first presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,620 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA gens (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA) and a control region (D-loop), with the gene identical to that of typical vertebrates. The overall base composition of the light strand are 31.23% A, 24.73% T, 16.16% G and 27.88% C. Two copies of tandem repeat sequence was found in the control region.
Publication
Journal: Genome research
April/4/2007
Abstract
Inbred mouse strains have been maintained for more than 100 years, and they are thought to be a mixture of four different mouse subspecies. Although genealogies have been established, female inbred mouse phylogenies remain unexplored. By a phylogenetic analysis of newly generated complete mitochondrial DNA sequence data in 16 strains, we show here that all common inbred strains descend from the same Mus musculus domesticus female wild ancestor, and suggest that they present a different mitochondrial evolutionary process than their wild relatives with a faster accumulation of replacement substitutions. Our data complement forthcoming results on resequencing of a group of priority strains, and they follow recent efforts of the Mouse Phenome Project to collect and make publicly available information on various strains.
Publication
Journal: Experimental & molecular medicine
January/28/2009
Abstract
Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with variable clinical symptoms. Here, from the sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome, we report a Korean MELAS family harboring two homoplasmic missense mutations, which were reported 9957T>C (Phe251Leu) transition mutation in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (COX3) gene and a novel 13849A>C (Asn505His) transversion mutation in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene. Neither of these mutations was found in 205 normal controls. Both mutations were identified from the proband and his mother, but not his father. The patients showed cataract symptom in addition to MELAS phenotype. We believe that the 9957T>C mutation is pathogenic, however, the 13849A>C mutation is of unclear significance. It is likely that the 13849A>C mutation might function as the secondary mutation which increase the expressivity of overlapping phenotypes of MELAS and cataract. This study also demonstrates the importance of full sequencing of mtDNA for the molecular genetic understanding of mitochondrial disorders.
Publication
Journal: BMC genomics
February/18/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida.
RESULTS
The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida.
CONCLUSIONS
The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.
Publication
Journal: Parasitology
August/16/2007
Abstract
Taxonomic revision by molecular phylogeny is needed to categorize members of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae). We have reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of E. oligarthrus, E. vogeli, E. multilocularis, E. shiquicus, E. equinus, E. ortleppi, E. granulosus sensu stricto and 3 genotypes of E. granulosus sensu lato (G6, G7 and G8) from their complete mitochondrial genomes. Maximum likelihood and partitioned Bayesian analyses using concatenated data sets of nucleotide and amino acid sequences depicted phylogenetic trees with the same topology. The 3 E. granulosus genotypes corresponding to the camel, pig, and cervid strains were monophyletic, and their high level of genetic similarity supported taxonomic species unification of these genotypes into E. canadensis. Sister species relationships were confirmed between E. ortleppi and E. canadensis, and between E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus, regardless of the analytical approach employed. The basal positions of the phylogenetic tree were occupied by the neotropical endemic species, E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli, whose definitive hosts are derived from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge. Host-parasite co-evolution comparisons suggest that the ancestral homeland of Echinococcus was North America or Asia, depending on whether the ancestral definitive hosts were canids or felids.
Publication
Journal: Parasitology international
October/1/2007
Abstract
The complete sequence of the Taenia saginata mitochondrial genome was determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The mitochondrial genome was 13,670 bp long, contained 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). It did not encode the atp8 gene. Overlapping regions were found between nad4L and nad4, nad1 and trnN, and cox1 and trnT. The ATG initiation codon was used for 10 protein-coding genes, and the GTG initiation codon was used for the remaining 2 genes (nad4 and atp6). The size of the protein-coding genes of the three human Taenia tapeworms did not vary, except for Taenia solium nad1 (891 aa) and nad4 (1212 aa) and Taenia asiatica cox2 (576 aa). The tRNA genes were 57-75 bp long, and the predicted secondary structures of 18 of these genes had typical clover-leaf shapes with paired dihydrouridine (DHU) arms. The genes in all human Taenia tapeworms for the two mitochondrial rRNA subunits rrnL and rrnS are separated by trnC. The putative T. saginata rrnL and rrnS are 972 and 732 bp long, respectively. The non-coding regions of the mt genome of T. saginata consisted of 2 regions: a short non-coding region (SNR, 66 nucleotides) and a long non-coding region (LNR, 159 nucleotides). The overall sequence difference in the full mitochondrial genome between T. saginata and T. asiatica was 4.6%, while T. solium differed by 11%. In conclusion, the complete sequence of the T. saginata mitochondrial genome will serve as a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of the parasitic cestodes.
Publication
Journal: Journal of biotechnology
November/27/2011
Abstract
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) CBS7435 is the parental strain of commonly used P. pastoris recombinant protein production hosts making it well suited for improving the understanding of associated genomic features. Here, we present a 9.35 Mbp high-quality genome sequence of P. pastoris CBS7435 established by a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing. An automatic annotation of the genome sequence yielded 5007 protein-coding genes, 124 tRNAs and 29 rRNAs. Moreover, we report the complete DNA sequence of the first mitochondrial genome of a methylotrophic yeast. Fifteen genes encoding proteins, 2 rRNA and 25 tRNA loci were identified on the 35.7 kbp circular, mitochondrial DNA. Furthermore, the architecture of the putative alpha mating factor protein of P. pastoris CBS7435 turned out to be more complex than the corresponding protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Publication
Journal: Gene
October/2/2014
Abstract
The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths.
Publication
Journal: Insect molecular biology
June/4/2006
Abstract
The arrangement of genes in the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of most insects is the same, or near-identical, to that inferred to be ancestral for insects. We sequenced the entire mt genome of the small pigeon louse, Campanulotes bidentatus compar, and part of the mt genomes of nine other species of lice. These species were from six families and the three main suborders of the order Phthiraptera. There was no variation in gene arrangement among species within a family but there was much variation in gene arrangement among the three suborders of lice. There has been an extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice!
Publication
Journal: Animal genetics
October/21/2009
Abstract
The evolutionary relationship between the domestic bactrian camel and the extant wild two-humped camel and the factual origin of the domestic bactrian camel remain elusive. We determined the sequence of mitochondrial cytb gene from 21 camel samples, including 18 domestic camels (three Camelus bactrianus xinjiang, three Camelus bactrianus sunite, three Camelus bactrianus alashan, three Camelus bactrianus red, three Camelus bactrianus brown and three Camelus bactrianus normal) and three wild camels (Camelus bactrianus ferus). Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that the extant wild two-humped camel may not share a common ancestor with the domestic bactrian camel and they are not the same subspecies at least in their maternal origins. Molecular clock analysis based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences indicated that the sub-speciation of the two lineages had begun in the early Pleistocene, about 0.7 million years ago. According to the archaeological dating of the earliest known two-humped camel domestication (5000-6000 years ago), we could conclude that the extant wild camel is a separate lineage but not the direct progenitor of the domestic bactrian camel. Further phylogenetic analysis suggested that the bactrian camel appeared monophyletic in evolutionary origin and that the domestic bactrian camel could originate from a single wild population. The data presented here show how conservation strategies should be implemented to protect the critically endangered wild camel, as it is the last extant form of the wild tribe Camelina.
Authors
Publication
Journal: International journal of biological sciences
July/10/2012
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were determined and analyzed. The circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for C. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for C. suppressalis. Both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. Notably, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in the two mitogenomes had the truncated termination codons T, T, and TA, respectively, but the nad5 gene was found to use T as the termination codon only in the C. medinalis mitogenome. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the C. medinalis mitogenome were very different from those in other pyralid moth mitogenomes. Most of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures. However, the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of the trnS1(AGN) gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Forty-nine helices in six domains, and 33 helices in three domains were present in the secondary structures of the rrnL and rrnS genes of the two mitogenomes, respectively. There were four major intergenic spacers, except for the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 12 bp in the two mitogenomes. The A+T-rich region contained an 'ATAGT(A)'-like motif followed by a poly-T stretch in the two mitogenomes. In addition, there were a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 25-bp repeat element, and a microsatellite '(TA)(13)' observed in the A+T-rich region of the C. medinalis mitogenome. A poly-T motif, a duplicated 31-bp repeat element, and a 19-bp triplication were found in the C. suppressalis mitogenome. However, there are many differences in the A+T-rich regions between the C. suppressalis mitogenome sequence in the present study and previous reports. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of these insects were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. These molecular-based phylogenies support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Pyralidae.
Publication
Journal: Malaria journal
August/20/2019
Abstract
Parasites from the genus Plasmodium, the aetiological agent of malaria in humans, can also infect non-human primates (NHP), increasing the potential risk of zoonotic transmission with its associated global public health concerns. In Colombia, there are no recent studies on Plasmodium spp. infecting free-ranging NHP. Thus, this study aimed to determine the diversity of Plasmodium species circulating in fragmented forests in central Colombia, both in Anopheles mosquitoes and in the four sympatric NHP in the region (Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor, Alouatta seniculus and Aotus griseimembra), in order to evaluate the risk of infection to humans associated with the presence of sylvatic hosts and vectors infected with Plasmodium spp.Overall, there were collected 166 fecal samples and 25 blood samples from NHP, and 442 individuals of Anopheles spp. DNA extraction, nested PCR using mitochondrial (cox3 gene) and ribosomal (18S rDNA) primers, electrophoresis and sequencing were conducted in order to identify Plasmodium spp. from the samples.Plasmodium falciparum was detected in two fecal samples of Alouatta seniculus, while Plasmodium vivax/simium infected Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor and Alouatta seniculus. Co-infections with P. vivax/simium and Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum were found in three individuals. The highest prevalence from blood samples was found for Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum in two Alouatta seniculus while Plasmodium vivax/simium was most prevalent in fecal samples, infecting four individuals of Alouatta seniculus. Seven Anopheles species were identified in the study site: Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula, Anopheles (An.) malefactor, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi, Anopheles (Nys.) triannulatus, Anopheles (An.) neomaculipalpus, Anopheles (Nys.) braziliensis and Anopheles (Nys.) nuneztovari. Infection with P. vivax/simium was found in An. nuneztovari, An. neomaculipalpus, and An. triannulatus. Furthermore, An. oswaldoi and An. triannulatus were found infected with P. malariae/brasilianum. The effect of fragmentation and distance to the nearest town measured in five forests with different degrees of fragmentation was not statistically significant on the prevalence of Plasmodium in NHP, but forest fragmentation did have an effect on the Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) in Anopheles mosquitoes.The presence of Plasmodium spp. in NHP and Anopheles spp. in fragmented forests in Colombia has important epidemiological implications in the human-NHP interface and the associated risk of malaria transmission.
Publication
Journal: Yi chuan = Hereditas
August/23/2010
Abstract
We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of King Cobra(GenBank accession number: EU_921899) by Ex Taq-PCR, TA-cloning and primer-walking methods. This genome is very similar to other vertebrate, which is 17 267 bp in length and encodes 38 genes (including 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA and 23 transfer RNA genes) and two long non-coding regions. The duplication of tRNA-Ile gene forms a new mitochondrial gene rearrangement model. Eight tRNA genes and one protein genes were transcribed from L strand, and the other genes were transcribed genes from H strand. Genes on the H strand show a fairly similar content of Adenosine and Thymine respectively, whereas those on the L strand have higher proportion of A than T. Combined rDNA sequence data (12S+16S rRNA) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 21 snake species for which complete mitochondrial genome sequences were available in the public databases. This large data set and an appropriate range of outgroup taxa demonstrated that Elapidae is more closely related to colubridae than viperidae, which supports the traditional viewpoints.
Publication
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA
December/16/2015
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genome of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 16,790 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the putative origin of the light strand replication) with a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.26% for A, 29.00% for C, 16.23% for G and 24.51% for T, with a slight AT bias of 54.77%.
Publication
Journal: BMC evolutionary biology
March/4/2007
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The parasitic Platyhelminthes (Neodermata) contains three parasitic groups of flatworms, each having a unique morphology, and life style: Monogenea (primarily ectoparasitic), Trematoda (endoparasitic flukes), and Cestoda (endoparasitic tapeworms). The evolutionary origin of complex life cyles (multiple obligate hosts, as found in Trematoda and Cestoda) and of endo-/ecto-parasitism in these groups is still under debate and these questions can be resolved, only if the phylogenetic position of the Monogenea within the Neodermata clade is correctly estimated.
RESULTS
To test the interrelationships of the major parasitic flatworm groups, we estimated the phylogeny of the Neodermata using complete available mitochondrial genome sequences and a newly characterized sequence of a polyopisthocotylean monogenean Microcotyle sebastis. Comparisons of inferred amino acid sequences and gene arrangement patterns with other published flatworm mtDNAs indicate Monogenea are sister group to a clade of Trematoda+Cestoda.
CONCLUSIONS
Results confirm that vertebrates were the first host for stem group neodermatans and that the addition of a second, invertebrate, host was a single event occurring in the Trematoda+Cestoda lineage. In other words, the move from direct life cycles with one host to complex life cycles with multiple hosts was a single evolutionary event. In association with the evolution of life cycle patterns, our result supports the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of the Neodermata giving rise to the Monogenea adopted vertebrate ectoparasitism as its initial life cycle pattern and that the intermediate hosts of the Trematoda (molluscs) and Cestoda (crustaceans) were subsequently added into the endoparasitic life cycles of the Trematoda+Cestoda clade after the common ancestor of these branched off from the monogenean lineage. Complex life cycles, involving one or more intermediate hosts, arose through the addition of intermediate hosts and not the addition of a vertebrate definitive host. Additional evidence is required from monopisthocotylean monogeneans in order to confirm the monophyly of the group.
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