cox3 - cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3
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Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
September/15/2016
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is 15,221 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.9%). All PCGs are initiated by classical ATN codon, with the exception of COI, which begins with TTA codon. Nine PCGs harbor the complete stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND4 and ND5 stop with incomplete codons, single T or TA. All tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A + T content of AT-rich region is 95.2%, same to the highest one in the known species in Pieridae.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
September/15/2016
Abstract
Ghost shrimps are burrowing decapods that serve as bioturbators and habitat providers in seafloor environments. The hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus, was collected from a hydrothermal vent in the Tonga Arc. This species has a mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of 15,924 bp in length with an AT content of 66.1%. The mitogenome was identical to the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity of the infraorder Axiidea. Paraglypturus tonganus showed 65.3-70.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenomes of other axiid shrimps. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Axiidea within the decapods.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
October/11/2016
Abstract
Anodonta arcaeformis is a Chinese common species. The complete F-type mitochondrial genome was first determined. The complete genome is 15,672 bp in length, with AT content 64.59%. All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were identified, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes. And a novel FORF (277 bp, 92aa) was found between tRNA(Glu) and ND2, which was considered to be involved in sex determination. The putative control region (270 bp) is located between ND5 and tRNAGln, with an A + T content of 70.07%. The gene order is identical to other species of Unionidae female mitochondrial except Gonideinae.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA
June/16/2016
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial sequence of the capped langur (Trachypithecus pileatus) has been determined using long amplification polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR). The total sequence length is 16,526 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 D-loop locus. The base composition of H-strand is 31.9% A, 29.1% T, 26.2% C and 12.8% G, with an AT content of 55.3%. The arrangement of genes in T. pileatus is identical to that of other primate species. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of T. pileatus presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the species' population genetics, helping to protect its genetic diversity and resolve phylogenetic relationships within the family.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
September/5/2001
Abstract
A recent study demonstrated that mitochondrial genomic (mitogenomic) data comprising nucleotide sequences from the concatenated protein-coding (no 3rd codon positions) plus transfer RNA (stem regions only) genes reproduced the expected phylogeny of teleosts with high statistical support. We reexamined the interrelationships of the five major, basal teleostean lineages (Osteoglossomorpha, Elopomorpha, Clupeomorpha, Ostariophysi, and Protacanthopterygii; given various rankings) using mitogenomic data for which five alternative phylogenetic hypotheses have been previously proposed on the basis of both morphological and molecular analyses. In addition to previously determined complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from eight basal teleosts and two outgroups, we determined the complete mtDNA sequences (excluding a portion of the control region) for two, purposefully chosen species of Osteoglossomorpha (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum and Pantodon buchholzi), and the data were subjected to maximumparsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses. The resultant tree topologies from the two methods were congruent, although they differed from any of the previously proposed hypotheses. Furthermore, the mitogenomic data confidently rejected all of these hypotheses with high statistical significance.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA
November/27/2014
Abstract
The mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus, belongs to a lepidopteran family Hesperiidae. The 15,530-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the species has the typical gene content of animals (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one major non-coding A+T-rich region). As typical in lepidopteran mitogenome E. montanus mitogenome also contained a high A/T content in the whole genome (81.7%) and the CGA (arginine) as the start codon for the COI gene. Unlike other lepidopteran species, including two sequenced skippers, the E. montanus mitogenome has a unique arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn), instead of the tRNA(Asn)-tRNA(Ser) found unanimously in other lepidopteran species, providing a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera. Such rearrangement probably was likely caused by duplication of gene block tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn) and subsequent random loss of tRNA(Asn) in the first copy and tRNA(Ser) in the second copy, resulting in the arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn).
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
October/15/2017
Abstract
The complete nucleotide sequence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii mitogenome (16 677 bp) has been determined, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one non-coding control region. The base composition is 28.04% A, 26.92% T, 18.94% G, 26.10% C, with an AT bias of 54.97%. The origin of light-strand replication (OL) is found between tRNAAsn and tRNACys, which has the potential to fold in a step-loop secondary structure with a stem formed by 11 pairs of nucleotides and a loop of 14 nucleotides. The phylogenetic analysis indicates close relationship between genus Gymnodiptychus and Diptychus.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
October/15/2017
Abstract
In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to deduce two complete mitogenomes of Cocos lemonpeel angelfish (Centropyge flavissima) and Eibl's angelfish (Centropyge eibli) for the first time. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 17 010 bp and 17 101 bp, showing 98.3% identity each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop contains 1302 bp in C. flavissima and 1392 bp in C. eibli and locates between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 45.2% for C. flavissima and 44.9% for C. eibli. Complete mitogenomes of C. flavissima and C. eibli provide essential and important DNA molecular data for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfishes.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
July/22/2010
Abstract
We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of anchovies (Engraulidae) based on the comparison of mitogenome sequences. Analyses support the Engraulidae's monophyly but its placement remains uncertain. Within the Engraulidae, our results are congruent with the current morphology-based hypothesis in dividing the Engraulidae into two subfamilies: the Coiliinae comprises exclusively Indo-Pacific genera, while the Engraulinae includes the widespread genus Engraulis, the so-called "New World anchovies" group and the two Indo-Pacific genera Encrasicholina and Stolephorus. Amazonsprattus belongs to the subfamily Engraulinae. Our results support at least three independent origins of miniaturization within the Clupeiformes.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA
December/16/2015
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genome of the pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus is first presented in this study. It is 16,692 bp in length and contains the 37 genes and 1 control region with the typical gene order and transcriptional direction in the vertebrates. The overall base composition is 32.1% A, 29.3% T, 25.3% C and 13.3% G. Totally, 27 bp overlaps and 25 bp short intergenic spaces are dispersal in the mitogenome. The tRNA-Ser2 (GCU) cannot be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure because of lacking the dihydrouridine arm. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were used in the 13 protein-coding genes.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
November/21/2010
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular biology and evolution
December/9/2004
Abstract
The mitochondrial genome has undergone radical changes in both the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta, yet little is known about the dynamics of mtDNA evolution in either of these lineages. In the Chlorophyta, which comprises four of the five recognized classes of green algae (Prasinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Chlorophyceae), the mitochondrial genome varies from 16 to 55 kb. This genome has retained a compact gene organization and a relatively complex gene repertoire ("ancestral" pattern) in the basal lineages represented by the Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae, whereas it has been reduced in size and gene complement and tends to evolve much more rapidly at the sequence level ("reduced-derived" pattern of evolution) in the Chlorophyceae and the lineage leading to the enigmatic chlorophyte Pedinomonas. To gain information about the evolutionary trends of mtDNA in the Ulvophyceae and also to gain insights into the phylogenetic relationships between ulvophytes and other chlorophytes, we have determined the mtDNA sequence of Pseudendoclonium akinetum. At 95,880 bp, Pseudendoclonium mtDNA is the largest green-algal mitochondrial genome sequenced to date and has the lowest gene density. These derived features are reminiscent of the "expanded" pattern exhibited by embryophyte mtDNAs, indicating that convergent evolution towards genome expansion has occurred independently in the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. With 57 conserved genes, the gene repertoire of Pseudendoclonium mtDNA is slightly smaller than those of the prasinophyte Nephroselmis olivacea and the trebouxiophyte Prototheca wickerhamii. This ulvophyte mtDNA contains seven group I introns, four of which have homologs in green-algal mtDNAs displaying an "ancestral" or a "reduced-derived" pattern of evolution. Like its counterpart in the chlorophycean green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, it features numerous small, dispersed repeats in intergenic regions and introns. Its overall rate of sequence evolution appears to be accelerated to an intermediary level as compared with the rates observed in "ancestral" and "reduced-derived" mtDNAs. In agreement with the finding that Pseudendoclonium mtDNA exhibits features typical of both the "ancestral" and "reduced-derived" patterns of evolution, phylogenetic analyses of seven mtDNA-encoded proteins revealed a sister-group relationship between this ulvophyte and chlorophytes displaying "reduced-derived" mtDNAs.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of molecular biology
April/17/1994
Abstract
The complete nucleotide sequence of the circular mitochondrial (mt) DNA of the chlorophyte alga Prototheca wickerhamii has been determined (55,328 base-pairs, A+T content 74.2%). The genes identified encode three subunits of the cytochome oxidase, apocytochrome b, nine subunits of the NADH dehydrogenase complex (nad1 to 7, nad4L and nad9), three ATPase subunits (atp6, atp9, atp1 (also referred to as atpA)), three ribosomal RNAs (5 S (rrn5), small subunit (srn) and large subunit (lrn) RNA), 26 tRNAs, and 13 ribosomal proteins. A total of five group I introns reside in lrn and cox1, two of which include intronic open reading frames (ORFs). Five free-standing ORFs longer than 60 codons are present. Three of these ORFs are counterparts to genes encoding proteins of unknown function in plant mitochondria (orf25 and orfB of angiosperms and orf244 of liverwort), whereas two of them are unique. Mitochondrial genes are encoded on both DNA strands in a way that suggests the existence of two transcription units, each including approximately one half of the mitochondrial genome. The two intergenic regions in which transcription is believed to initiate and terminate are about ten times longer than the other intergenic regions (1118 and 1993 nt versus 100 to 150 nt). A total of 29 recurring sequence motifs (30 to 200 nt long) have been found in intergenic regions. Nine different types of motifs are present, most of them arranged as tandem repeats. These motifs may be implicated in transcription, e.g. as signals for initiation, termination and/or processing. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of the cox1 gene strongly suggested that P. wickerhamii and plant mitochondrial genomes are monophyletic. The finding of plant-specific mitochondrial genes such as orf25, orf244, orfB and rrn5 in P. wickerhamii mitochondria corroborates this idea.
Pubmed
Journal: Genome research
September/26/2002
Abstract
Here we describe a high-throughput screen to isolate transcripts with spatially restricted patterns of expression in early embryos. Our approach utilizes robotic automation for rapid analysis of sequence-selected cDNAs in a whole-mount in situ hybridization assay. We determined the spatial distribution of a random collection of 778 different genes from an embryonic cDNA library and show that a significant fraction of these exhibit patterned profiles of expression. In addition, gene ontology studies revealed groups of gene products exhibiting shared expression patterns, providing new insights into the largely overlooked effector molecules that function in development. As described in this paper, automated hybridization to whole-mount embryos in situ proved to be straightforward and provided us with a very powerful method for the global survey of gene expression in early embryos. From the perspective of biological significance, our finding that many spatially restricted transcripts correspond to loci encoding novel transcripts that have not been previously identified in nearly saturating genetic screens for maternal effect and zygotic lethals is particularly notable.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA
March/29/2016
Abstract
Costaria costata, with great commercial and industrial value, typically grows in low intertidal and subtidal retgions in East Asia. The complete mitochondrial genome of C. costata is determined as circular-mapping and AT-rich (65%). The 37,461 bp mitochondrial genome consists of 25 tRNAs, 38 genes (including ORFs) and 3 ribosome genes. The gene arrangement and component are identical to those of Laminaria mitochondrial genomes, which show highly conservative evolution in mitochondrial genomes within the Laminariales. Moreover, the C. costata mitogenome makes full use of nucleotide and genetic information by large amounts of gene overlappings for better adapting the evolution of small genomes.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
September/15/2016
Abstract
Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is an invasive canopy-forming brown alga, expanding its presence from Northeast Asia to North America and Europe. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. muticum is characterized as a circular molecule of 34,720 bp. The overall AT content of S. muticum mitogenome is 63.41%. This mitogenome contains 65 genes typically found in brown algae, including 3 ribosomal RNA genes, 25 transfer RNA genes, 35 protein-coding genes, and 2 conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The gene order of mitogenome for S. muticum is identical to that for Sargassum horneri, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis. Phylogenetic analyses based on 35 protein-coding genes reveal that S. muticum has a close evolutionary relationship with S. horneri and a distant relationship with Dictyota dichotoma, supporting current taxonomic systems. The present investigation provides new molecular data for studies of S. muticum population diversity as well as comparative genomics in the Phaeophyceae.
Pubmed
Journal: Nucleic acids research
July/7/1983
Abstract
Genes for tRNAgly and tRNAserUCN have been identified within sequences of mtDNA of Drosophila yakuba. The tRNAgly gene lies between the genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III and URF3, and all three of these genes are contained in the same strand of the mtDNA molecule. The tRNAserUCN gene is adjacent to the URF1 gene. These genes are contained in opposite strands of the mtDNA molecule and their 3' ends overlap. The structures of the tRNAgly and tRNAserUCN genes, and of the four tRNA genes of D. yakuba mtDNA reported earlier (tRNAile, tRNAgln, tRNAf-met and tRNAval) are compared to each other, to non-organelle tRNAs, and to corresponding mammalian mitochondrial tRNA genes. Within 19 nucleotides upstream from the 5' terminal nucleotide of each of the Drosophila mitochondrial tRNAgly, tRNAserUCN, tRNAile, tRNAgln and tRNAf-met genes occurs the sequence 5'TTTATTAT, or a sequence differing from it by one nucleotide substitution. Upstream from this octanucleotide sequence, and separated from it by 3, 4 and 11 nucleotides, respectively, in the 5' flanking regions of the tRNAile, tRNAserUCN and tRNAgly genes occurs the sequence 5'GATGAG.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
September/17/2014
Abstract
Phylogenetic trees are a starting point for the study of further evolutionary and ecological questions. We show that for avian evolutionary relationships, improved taxon sampling, longer sequences and additional data sets are giving stability to the prediction of the grouping of pelecaniforms and ciconiiforms, thus allowing inferences to be made about long-term niche occupancy. Here we report the phylogeny of the pelecaniform birds and their water-carnivore allies using complete mitochondrial genomes, and show that the basic groupings agree with nuclear sequence phylogenies, even though many short branches are not yet fully resolved. In detail, we show that the Pelecaniformes (minus the tropicbird) and the Ciconiiformes (storks, herons and ibises) form a natural group within a seabird water-carnivore clade. We find pelicans are the closest relatives of the shoebill (in a clade with the hammerkop), and we confirm that tropicbirds are not pelecaniforms. In general, the group appears to be an adaptive radiation into an 'aquatic carnivore' niche that it has occupied for 60-70 million years. From an ecological and life history perspective, the combined pelecaniform-ciconiform group is more informative than focusing on differences in morphology. These findings allow a start to integrating molecular evolution and macroecology.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular biology and evolution
August/29/2005
Abstract
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of multicellular animals (Metazoa) is typically a small ( approximately 16 kbp), circular-mapping molecule that encodes 37 tightly packed genes. The structures of mtDNA-encoded transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are usually highly unorthodox, and proteins are translated with multiple deviations from the standard genetic code. In contrast, mtDNA of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest unicellular relative of animals, is four times larger, contains 1.5 times as many genes, and lacks mentioned peculiarities of animal mtDNA. To investigate the evolutionary transition that led to the specific organization of metazoan mtDNA, we determined complete mitochondrial sequences from the demosponges Geodia neptuni and Tethya actinia, two representatives of the most basal animal phylum, the Porifera. We found that poriferan mtDNAs resemble those of other animals in their compact organization, lack of introns, and a well-conserved animal-like gene order. Yet, they contain several extra genes, encode bacterial-like rRNAs and tRNAs, and use a minimally derived genetic code. Our findings suggest that the evolution of the typical metazoan mtDNA has been a multistep process in which the compact genome organization and the reduced gene content were established prior to the reduction of tRNA and rRNA structures and the introduction of multiple changes of the translation code.
Pubmed
Journal: Gene
June/19/2011
Abstract
Crocodylus is the largest genus within the Order Crocodylia consisting of eleven species. This paper reports the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three Crocodylus species, Crocodylus moreletii, Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus palustris, and compares the newly obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences with other crocodilians, available in the public databases. The mitochondrial genomes of C. moreletii, C. johnstoni and C. palustris are 16,827 bp, 16,851 bp and 16,852 bp in length, respectively. These mitochondrial genomes consist of 13 protein coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding region. The mitochondrial genomes of all the Crocodylus species, studied herein show identical characteristics in terms of nucleotide composition and codon usage, suggestive of the existence of analogous evolutionary patterns within the genus, Crocodylus. The synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates for all the protein coding genes of Crocodylus were observed in between 0.001 and 0.275 which reveal the prevalence of purifying selection in these genes. The phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial DNA data substantiate the previously established crocodilian phylogeny. This study provides a better understanding of the crocodilian mitochondrial genome and the data described herein will prove useful for future studies concerning crocodilian mitochondrial genome evolution.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
July/26/2006
Abstract
Complete DNA sequences have been determined for the mitochondrial genomes of the crinoids Phanogenia gracilis (15892 bp) and Gymnocrinus richeri (15966 bp). The mitochondrial genetic map of the stalkless feather star P. gracilis is identical to that of the comatulid feather star Florometra serratissima (Scouras, A., Smith, M.J., 2001. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18, 61-73). The mitochondrial gene order of the stalked crinoid G. richeri differs from that of F. serratissima and P. gracilis by the transposition of the nad4L protein gene. The G. richeri nad4L mitochondrial map position is unique among metazoa and is likely a derived feature in this stalked crinoid. Nucleotide compositional analyses of protein genes encoded on the major sense strand confirm earlier conclusions regarding a crinoid-distinctive T over C bias. All three crinoids exhibit high T levels in third codon positions, whereas other echinoderm classes favor A or C in the third codon position. The nucleotide bias is reflected in the relative synonymous codon usage patterns of crinoids versus other echinoderms. We suggest that the nucleotide bias of crinoids, in comparison to other echinoderms, indicates that a physical inversion of the origin of replication has occurred in the crinoid lineage. Evolutionary rate tests support the use of the cytochrome b (cob) gene in molecular phylogenetic analyses of echinoderms. A consensus echinoderm tree was generated based on cytochrome b nucleotide alignments that placed the asteroids as a sister group to a clade containing the ophiuroids and the (echinoids+holothuroids) with the crinoids basal to the rest of the echinoderm classes: [Crinoid,(Asteroid,(Ophiuroid,(Echinoid,Holothuroid)))].
Pubmed
Journal: Genetics
May/17/1995
Abstract
The complete nucleotide sequence of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mitochondrial genome has been determined. The lamprey genome is 16,201 bp in length and contains genes for 13 proteins, two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and two major noncoding regions. The order and transcriptional polarities of protein-coding genes are basically identical to those of other chordate mtDNAs, demonstrating that the common mitochondrial gene organization of vertebrates was established at an early stage of vertebrate evolution. The two major noncoding regions are separated by two tRNA genes. The first region probably functions as the control region because it contains distinctive conserved sequence blocks (CSB-II and III) common to other vertebrate control regions. The central conserved domain observed in other vertebrate control regions is not found in the lamprey, suggesting that it is a recently evolved functional domain in vertebrates. Noncoding segments are not found in the expected position of the origin of replication for the second strand, suggesting either that one of the tRNA genes has a dual function or that the second noncoding region may function as the second-strand origin. The base composition at the wobble positions of fourfold degenerate codon families is highly biased toward thymine (32.7%). Values of GC- and AT-skew are typical of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.
Pubmed
Journal: Zoological science
October/4/2010
Abstract
The complete sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the three new grasshopper species, Euchorthippus fusigeniculatus, Mekongiana xiangchengensis and Mekongiella xizangensis, consisting of 15772 bp, 15567 bp, and 15885 bp, respectively, were analyzed and compared to mtDNAs from other 19 Orthoptera species obtained from GenBank. The three mitochondrial genomes contain a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes. and an A+T-rich region in the same order as those of the other analyzed caeliferan species, but different from those of the ensiferan species by the rearrangement of trnD and trnK. The putative initiation codon for the cox1 gene is ATC in E. fusigeniculatus, CTG in M. xiangchengensis and CCG in M. xizangensis. All secondary structures of tRNA-Ser((AGN)) in the three species lack a DHU arm. In this study, we stressed the comparative analysis of the stem-loop secondary structure in A+T-rich region of all Orthoptera species available to date, and report new findings which may facilitate further investigation and better understanding of this secondary structure. Finally, we undertook a phylogenetic study of all Orthoptera species available from GenBank to date based on three different datasets using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. Our result showed that protein-coding genes (PCG) and amino acid sequences (PCG_PROT) provided good resolution of higher-level relationships within the Orthoptera, whereas ribosomal RNA genes (RIBO) perform poorly under different optimality criteria.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
October/25/2017
Abstract
A large number of diverse mitogenomic sequences can be obtained more easily and affordably via mitochondrial metagenomics, which generates high-throughput sequences directly from sheared DNA extractions and assembles mitogenomic sequences using a few bioinformatic processing steps. However, following de novo assembly analysis, the optimal DNA fragment insert size is unclear. In this study, four extracted Limenitidinae butterfly DNA samples were sonically fragmented, and two fragment size ranges (200-400 and 400-600 bp) of each sample were tagged with different barcodes, producing pyrosequencing datasets. The results show that the datasets generated from longer DNA insert fragments result in better coverage and more complete mitogenomic sequences, and the phylogenetic analysis shows high support at nodes, revealing that Athyma butterflies do not represent a monophyletic group. Therefore, we recommend using longer insert DNA fragment sizes to generate high-throughput datasets for obtaining complete mitogenomic sequences which can improve phylogenetic studies.
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