bdnf - brain derived neurotrophic factor
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Pubmed
Journal: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
December/3/2008
Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts as an anorexigenic factor in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the adult rat brain stem. The DVC contains the premotoneurons controlling swallowing, a motor component of feeding behavior. Although rats with transected midbrain do not seek out food, they are able to swallow and to ingest food. Because BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptors are expressed in the DVC, this study hypothesized that BDNF could modify the activity of premotoneurons involved in swallowing. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded with electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. We show that a microinjection of BDNF in the swallowing network induced a rapid, transient, and dose-dependant inhibition of rhythmic swallowing. This BDNF effect appeared to be mediated via TrkB activation, since it no longer occurred when TrkB receptors were antagonized by K-252a. Interestingly, swallowing was inhibited when subthreshold doses of BDNF and GABA were coinjected, suggesting a synergistic interaction between these two signaling substances. Moreover, BDNF no longer had an inhibitory effect on swallowing when coinjected with bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. This blockade of BDNF inhibitory effect on swallowing was reversible, since it reappeared when BDNF was injected 15 min after bicuculline. Finally, we show that stimulation of SLN induced a decrease in BDNF protein within the DVC. Together, our results strongly suggest that BDNF inhibits swallowing via modulation of the GABAergic signaling within the central pattern generator of swallowing.
Pubmed
Journal: Chemosphere
March/23/2017
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the potential association between low-level prenatal manganese (Mn) exposure and 1-year-old children's neurodevelopment quotient (DQ) by using the Gesell Developmental Inventory (GDI) (motor, adaptive, language, and social domains) and explored the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Mn-induced cognitive impairments. A total of 377 mothers were recruited from a prospective birth cohort in rural northern China. Cord serum concentrations of Mn and BDNF were measured and children's DQ was evaluated. The median serum Mn concentration was 3.4 μg/L. After adjusting for confounding factors, Mn level was significantly associated with gross motor scores (β = -6.0, 95% CI: -11.8 to -0.2, p < 0.05) and personal-social scores (β = -4.2, 95% CI: -8.4 to 0.1, p < 0.05). BDNF level was positively correlated with personal-social score (β = 0.7, 95% CI: 0-1.4, p < 0.05). A significant correlation was found between Mn and BDNF (r = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.03, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the interaction between cord serum Mn and BDNF was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, elevated low-level prenatal Mn exposure impaired infant's neurodevelopment, and BDNF plays an important role in cognitive impairment, especially in the personal-social ability.
Pubmed
Journal: Genetics
January/31/2010
Abstract
In the mouse Pax6 function is critical in a dose-dependent manner for proper eye development. Pax6 contiguous gene deletions were shown to be homozygous lethal at an early embryonic stage. Heterozygotes express belly spotting and extreme microphthalmia. The eye phenotype is more severe than in heterozygous Pax6 intragenic null mutants, raising the possibility that deletions are functionally different from intragenic null mutations or that a region distinct from Pax6 included in the deletions affects eye phenotype. We recovered and identified the exact regions deleted in three new Pax6 deletions. All are homozygous lethal at an early embryonic stage. None express belly spotting. One expresses extreme microphthalmia and two express the milder eye phenotype similar to Pax6 intragenic null mutants. Analysis of Pax6 expression levels and the major isoforms excluded the hypothesis that the deletions expressing extreme microphthalmia are directly due to the action of Pax6 and functionally different from intragenic null mutations. A region distinct from Pax6 containing eight genes was identified for belly spotting. A second region containing one gene (Rcn1) was identified for the extreme microphthalmia phenotype. Rcn1 is a Ca(+2)-binding protein, resident in the endoplasmic reticulum, participates in the secretory pathway and expressed in the eye. Our results suggest that deletion of Rcn1 directly or indirectly contributes to the eye phenotype in Pax6 contiguous gene deletions.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of chemical neuroanatomy
February/11/2017
Abstract
Intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a major neuropathological hallmark of taupathies such as Alzheimer's disease. Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of PP2A, leading to abnormal tau phosphorylation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is selectively downregulated in AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of OKA induced tau hyperphosphorylation on secreted and cellular levels of BDNF in primary cortical neurons that were treated with 25nM OKA. Tau phosphorylation at threonine 231 (Thr231) sites was assessed by Western blot using antibodies against phospho-Thr231. Non-phosphorylated tau protein was detected with the Tau-1 antibody. Levels of BDNF secreted to the culture medium were determined by ELISA at the 8th and 24th hours of treatment. Cellular localization and protein expression of BDNF and tau were assessed by immunofluorescent labeling and fluorescent intensity measurements at 24h of treatment. Tau hyperphosphorylation was confirmed with increase in Thr231 and the decrease in Tau-1 signals after 8h of OKA treatment, compared with the control groups, secreted BDNF levels in the OKA-treated group were significantly lower after 24h of treatment but were not significantly different at 8h of treatment. BDNF immunoreactivity was seen in cytoplasm and neurites of the neurons in control group. BDNF immunoreactivity significantly decreased in the OKA treated group and this attenuation was significant especially at neurites. Our results suggest that the decrease in BDNF secretion and the BDNF expression might depend on the disruption of microtubule structure caused by tau hyperphosphorylation.
Pubmed
Journal: Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research
July/1/2015
Abstract
To explore the neural mechanisms mediating aging-related visual function declines, we compared the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high affinity receptor-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) between young and old adult cats. Nissl staining was used to display neurons in each layer of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). The BDNF- and TrkB receptor-immunoreactive neurons were labeled immunohistochemically, observed under optical microscope and photographed. Their neuronal density and immunoreactive intensity were measured. Results showed that the mean density of the Nissl stained neurons in each LGN layer were comparable between old and young adult cats, and their BDNF and TrkB proteins were widely expressed in all LGN layers. However, compared with young adult cats, both the density and optical absorbance intensity of BDNF- and TrkB-immunoreactive cells in each LGN layer in old cats were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that the decreased expressions of BDNF and TrkB proteins in the LGN may be an important factor inducing the compromised inhibition in the central visual nucleus and the functional visual decline in senescent individuals.
Pubmed
Journal: Neuroscience letters
April/28/2011
Abstract
Drugs of abuse like ethanol have the ability to stimulate forebrain dopaminergic pathways. Although the positive reinforcing properties of abused substances are largely attributed to their effects on dopamine transmission, alcohol addiction involves complex interactions between numerous molecular mediators. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is suggested to have a protective role in regulating the reinforcing effects of ethanol. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of an acute, systemic injection of ethanol (2 g/kg) on BDNF protein levels and extracellular dopamine concentrations, measured by in vivo microdialysis, in the caudate-putamen of wildtype and heterozygous BDNF mice. In both genotypes, the peak increase in extracellular dopamine following ethanol coincided temporally with a decrease in BDNF protein levels following a similar ethanol treatment. Moreover, the effect of ethanol to increase extracellular dopamine was blunted in heterozygous BDNF mice compared to wildtype mice. While the magnitude of decrease in BDNF protein induced by ethanol was similar between genotypes (two-fold), ethanol treatment induced significantly lower BDNF protein levels in heterozygous BDNF mice overall. These findings suggest the effects of ethanol are influenced by an interaction between BDNF and dopamine transmission, which may relate to the pathway through which BDNF regulates ethanol intake.
Pubmed
Journal: The FEBS journal
June/19/2007
Abstract
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) has recently been identified as a modulator of neuronal plasticity and can initiate conversion of the pro-form of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into its mature form. BDNF also increases t-PA gene expression implicating t-PA as a downstream effector of BDNF function. Here we demonstrate that BDNF-mediated induction of t-PA mRNA requires an increase in t-PA gene transcription. Reporter constructs harboring 9.5 kb of the human t-PA promoter conferred BDNF-responsiveness in transfected mouse primary cortical neurons. This regulation was recapitulated in HEK 293 cells coexpressing the TrkB neurotrophin receptor. t-PA promoter-deletion analysis revealed the presence of two BDNF-responsive domains, one located between -3.07 and -2.5 kb and the other within the proximal promoter. The upstream region was shown to confer BDNF responsiveness in a TrkB-dependent manner when attached to a heterologous promoter. We also identify homologous regions within the murine and bovine t-PA gene promoters and demonstrate that the equivalent upstream murine sequence functions as a BDNF-responsive enhancer when inserted 5' of the human proximal t-PA promoter. Hence, BDNF-mediated induction of t-PA transcription relies on conserved modular promoter elements including a novel upstream BDNF-responsive domain and the proximal t-PA gene promoter.
Pubmed
Journal: Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
January/20/2010
Abstract
Our previous studies have demonstrated the effects of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on promoting proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells and inducing angiogenesis in MM in vitro. To further investigate whether the PI3K/Akt and MEK1/ERK pathway play a role in the BDNF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and to explore the further molecular mechanisms, two ways to establish human myeloma xenograft animal model were developed, their advantages and disadvantages were elucidated. The phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 were detected in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by Western blot. The angiogenic activity in vitro was evaluated by transwell migration assay and tubule formation assay. Cell proliferation was determined by crystal violet staining. Cell apoptosis was detected by FITC-Annexin-V/PI double staining and flow cytometry. The results showed that the BDNF activated the PI3K/Akt and MEK1/ERK pathway in the time-dependent manner. Ly294002 and PD98059 blocked the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 respond to BDNF. 100 ng/ml BDNF significantly increased HUVEC tube formation, migration and proliferation in vitro at a similar degree of 25 ng/ml VEGF. Furthermore, tube formation of HUVECs toward BDNF was significantly inhibited by 57% and 40% with 20 micromol/L Ly294002 and 20 micromol/L PD98059 treatment, respectively. At the same time, Ly294002 and PD98059 reduced the BDNF-induced migration of HUVECs by 74% and 36%, respectively. While BDNF-induced survival was only blocked by Ly294002 and BDNF-induced proliferation was only inhibited by PD98059. It is concluded that BDNF promotes angiogenesis of HUVECs in vitro. ERK and Akt are two crucial events in BDNF-mediated signal transduction leading to HUVECs angiogenesis by different mechanisms. Moreover, the latter is more important.
Pubmed
Journal: Brain research
January/14/2016
Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and is widely distributed in the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex. BDNF plays an important role in normal neural development, survival of existing neurons, and activity-dependent neuroplasticity. BDNF can also be neuroprotective and evoke neurogenesis in certain pathological conditions, such as cerebral ischemia. Neocortical layer I is an important region that can integrate feedforward and feedback information from other cortical areas and subcortical regions. In addition, it has recently been proposed as a possible source of neuronal progenitor cells after ischemia. Therefore, we investigated changes in the BDNF-immunoreactive cell population of neocortical layers I and II/III after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia in rats. In unaffected condition, the number of BDNF(+) cells in layer I was significantly less than in layer II/III in the cingulate cortex and in the motor and sensory areas. The increase in the number of BDNF(+) cells in layer I 8 days after MCAO was more remarkable than layer II/III, in all regions except the area of cingulate cortex farthest from the infarct core. Only BDNF(+)-Ox-42(+) cells showed a tendency to increase consistently toward the infarct core in both layers I and II/III, implying a major source of BDNF for response to ischemic injury. The present study suggests that some beneficial effects during recovery from ischemic injury, such as increased supportive microglia/macrophages, occur owing to a sensitive response of BDNF in layer I.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
September/27/2009
Abstract
Immature hippocampal synapses express presynaptic kainate receptors (KARs), which tonically inhibit glutamate release. Presynaptic maturation involves activity-dependent downregulation of the tonic KAR activity and consequent increase in release probability; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this developmental process are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a secreted protein implicated in developmental plasticity in several areas of the brain, controls presynaptic maturation by regulating KARs. Application of BDNF in neonate hippocampal slices resulted in increase in synaptic transmission that fully occluded the immature-type KAR activity in area CA1. Conversely, genetic ablation of BDNF was associated with delayed synaptic maturation and persistent presynaptic KAR activity, suggesting a role for endogenous BDNF in the developmental regulation of KAR function. In addition, our data suggests a critical role for BDNF TrkB signaling in fast activity-dependent regulation of KARs. Selective acute inhibition of TrkB receptors using a chemical-genetic approach prevented rapid change in synapse dynamics and loss of tonic KAR activity that is typically seen in response to induction of LTP at immature synapses. Together, these data show that BDNF-TrkB-dependent maturation of glutamatergic synapses is tightly associated with a loss of endogenous KAR activity. The coordinated action of these two receptor mechanisms has immediate physiological relevance in controlling presynaptic efficacy and transmission dynamics at CA3-CA1 synapses at a stage of development when functional contact already exists but transmission is weak.
Pubmed
Journal: Parkinsonism & related disorders
September/16/2012
Abstract
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. Although the p.G2385R allele of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been recently reported as a common genetic variant that increases the risk for typical PD exclusively among Asian population, its genetic modifiers is yet to be studied. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play an important role in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and its genetic polymorphism was associated with an increased risk for PD at an older age onset. The current case-control study was performed to investigate the interaction between LRRK2 p.G2385R and BDNF p.V66M in a Chinese PD cohort. A total of 464 PD patients and 549 controls were involved in this study. LRRK2 p.G2385R variant (odds ratio [OR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-5.15, p < 0.0001), not BDNF p.V66M alone significantly increased the risk of PD. However, the simultaneous presence of both LRRK2 and BDNF variants significantly enhanced the risk for PD (OR = 4.033; 95% CI = 2.188-7.435, p < 0.0001), particularly in patients with an onset age of older than 60 (OR = 6.439; 95% CI = 3.096-13.389, p < 0.0001). Our results further support that LRRK2 variants are an independent genetic risk factor for typical PD, but BDNF variants can greatly increase LRRK2-induced risk for patients with an onset age of older than 60 indicating an additive effect between the 2 genes, which might aid in studying the mechanism underlying LRRK2 parkinsonism and developing potential therapeutic strategies.
Pubmed
Journal: Neuroscience letters
March/11/2003
Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to a family of neurotrophic factors and has been demonstrated to promote the survival, differentiation, and maintenance of a broad variety of central nervous system neurons. Several reports have suggested that the BDNF gene is a plausible functional candidate gene underlying the predisposition for developing bipolar disorder (BPD). In the present study, we investigated the possible role of the BDNF gene in the etiology of BPD using a matched case-control association design in a Japanese population. There was no evidence for an allelic or genotypic association of two polymorphisms (-1360C>T and 196G>A) of the BDNF gene with BPD. Furthermore, no significant association was observed between these polymorphisms and either of two diagnostic subtypes (bipolars I and II disorder). The results suggest that the BDNF gene is unlikely to confer susceptibility to BPD.
Pubmed
Journal: Neuroscience letters
December/2/2014
Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of opiate addiction. Both increased and decreased serum BDNF levels have been reported in heroin addicts. Moreover, the role of BDNF in heroin-dependent patients during withdrawal has not been studied. This study aimed to explore the differences in serum BDNF levels of heroin addicts and healthy controls, and investigate the changes of serum BDNF levels in heroin addicts at baseline and at one month after heroin cessation. Seventy-two heroin-dependent patients and ninety age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We measured serum BDNF levels at baseline (both heroin addicts and healthy controls) and one month after heroin cessation (heroin addicts only). A total of 37 (51.4%) heroin addicts completed the one-month study. We found that baseline serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in heroin addicts compared to controls (F=36.5, p=0.001). There was no difference in serum BDNF levels among heroin addicts at baseline and one month after heroin cessation (F=1.101, p=0.301). These results indicate that BDNF may play a critical role in the course of opiate addiction and withdrawal.
Pubmed
Journal: The European journal of neuroscience
November/16/2009
Abstract
X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is an anti-apoptotic protein enhancing cell survival. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also promotes neuronal viability but the links between XIAP and BDNF have remained unclear. We show here that the overexpression of XIAP increases BDNF in transgenic mice and cultured rat hippocampal neurons, whereas downregulation of XIAP by silencing RNA decreased BDNF. XIAP also stimulated BDNF signaling, as shown by increased phosphorylation of the TrkB receptor and the downstream molecule, cAMP response element-binding protein. The mechanism involved nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and blocking of NF-kappaB signaling inhibited the increased activities of BDNF promoters I and IV by XIAP. In neuronal cultures XIAP also upregulated interleukin (IL)-6, which is an NF-kappaB-responsive gene. The addition of IL-6 elevated whereas incubation with IL-6-blocking antibodies reduced BDNF in the neurons. BDNF itself activated NF-kappaB in the neurons at higher concentrations. The data show that XIAP has trophic effects on hippocampal neurons by increasing BDNF and TrkB activity. The results reveal a cytokine network in the brain involving BDNF, IL-6 and XIAP interconnected via the NF-kappaB system.
Pubmed
Journal: International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
March/26/2017
Abstract
The actions and responses of hypothalamic appetite regulatory factors change markedly during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period in order to maintain appropriate metabolic and nutritional conditions. In this study, we examined the developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a potent anorectic factor and the changes in the sensitivity of the hypothalamic expression of this factor to fasting during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period. Under fed conditions, hypothalamic BDNF mRNA expression decreased during development in both male and female rats. Similarly, the serum levels of leptin, which is a positive regulator of hypothalamic BDNF expression, also tended to fall during the developmental period. The serum leptin level and the hypothalamic BDNF mRNA level were found to be positively correlated in both sexes under the fed conditions. Hypothalamic BDNF mRNA expression was decreased by 24h fasting (separating the rats from their mothers) in the early neonatal period (postnatal day 10) in both males and females, but no such changes were seen at postnatal day 20. Twenty-four hours' fasting (food deprivation) did not affect hypothalamic BDNF mRNA expression in the pre-pubertal period (postnatal day 30). On the other hand, the rats' serum leptin levels were decreased by 24h fasting (separating the rats from their mothers at postnatal day 10 and 20, and food deprivation at postnatal day 30) throughout the early neonatal to pre-pubertal period. The correlation between serum leptin and hypothalamic BDNF mRNA levels was not significant under the fasted conditions. It can be speculated that leptin partially regulates hypothalamic BDNF mRNA levels, but only in fed conditions. Such changes in hypothalamic BDNF expression might play a role in maintaining appropriate metabolic and nutritional conditions and promoting normal physical development. In addition, because maternal separation induces a negative energy balance and short- and long-term stress responses, it is also possible that reductions in hypothalamic BDNF mRNA levels in the early neonatal period (postnatal day 10) may be partially induced by stress responses of the maternal deprivation.
Pubmed
Journal: Neuroscience research
July/28/2008
Abstract
High-frequency stimulation (HFS) induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at inhibitory synapses of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in developing rat visual cortex. This LTP requires postsynaptic Ca2+ rise for induction, while the maintenance mechanism is present at the presynaptic site, suggesting presynaptic LTP expression and the necessity of retrograde signaling. We investigated whether the supposed signal is mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is expressed in pyramidal neurons but not inhibitory interneurons. LTP did not occur when HFS was applied in the presence of the Trk receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a in the perfusion medium. HFS produced LTP when bath application of K252a was started after HFS or when K252a was loaded into postsynaptic cells. LTP did not occur in the presence of TrkB-IgG scavenging BDNF or function-blocking anti-BDNF antibody in the medium. In cells loaded with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, the addition of BDNF to the medium enabled HFS to induce LTP without affecting baseline synaptic transmission. These results suggest that BDNF released from postsynaptic cells activates presynaptic TrkB, leading to LTP. Because BDNF, expressed activity dependently, regulates the maturation of cortical inhibition, inhibitory LTP may contribute to this developmental process, and hence experience-dependent functional maturation of visual cortex.
Pubmed
Journal: Neuroscience letters
July/27/2008
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the relation between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and volumetric measurements for the medial temporal lobe structures (amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus) and prefrontal sub-regions (the superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and straight gyrus) in a Japanese sample of 33 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy subjects. For the controls, the Met carriers had significantly smaller parahippocampal and left superior frontal gyri than the Val homozygotes. The schizophrenia patients carrying the Met allele had a significantly smaller right parahippocampal gyrus than those with the Val/Val genotype, but the genotype did not affect the prefrontal regions in schizophrenia patients. These findings might reflect different genotypic effects of BDNF on brain morphology in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, implicating the possible role of the brain morphology as an endophenotype for future genetic studies in schizophrenia.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of cellular biochemistry
September/14/2017
Abstract
Previously, we reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration by inducing periodontal ligament cell proliferation in vivo. In addition, the down growth of gingival epithelial cells, which comprises a major obstacle to the regeneration, was not observed. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of BDNF on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells and human gingival epithelial cells (OBA9 cells) and to explore the molecular mechanism in vitro. HPL cells dominantly expressed a BDNF receptor, TrkB, and BDNF increased cell proliferation and ERK phosphorylation. However, its proliferative effect was diminished by a MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and TrkB siRNA transfection. Otherwise, OBA9 cells showed a higher expression level of p75, which is a pan-neurotrophin receptor, than that of HPL cells. BDNF facilitated not cell proliferation but cell apoptosis and JNK phosphorylation in OBA9 cells. A JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and p75 siRNA transfection attenuated the BDNF-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, OBA9 cells pretreated with SP600125 or p75 siRNA showed cell proliferation by BDNF stimulation, though it was reduced by U0126 and TrkB siRNA. Interestingly, overexpression of p75 in HPL cells upregulated cell apoptosis and JNK phosphorylation by BDNF treatment. These results indicated that TrkB-ERK signaling regulates BDNF-induced cell proliferation, whereas p75-JNK signaling plays roles in cell apoptotic and cytostatic effect of BDNF. Overall, BDNF activates periodontal ligament cells proliferation and inhibits the gingival epithelial cells growth via the distinct pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1543-1555, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pubmed
Journal: Brain research bulletin
April/4/2012
Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity of the central and peripheral nervous system. In chronic pain, plastic changes in dorsal horn neurons contribute to a phenomenon of hypersensitivity to pain sensation that is maintained over time, known as central sensitization. This process is accompanied by BDNF overexpression, but the role of BDNF in the generation and maintenance of the hyperalgesic phenomenon is still unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate if exogenous BDNF administered to the rat spinal cord, in addition to trigger pain, participates in the maintenance of the central sensitization process (i.e., pain persistence) and to determine if the pain generated is comparable to that observed in a neuropathic pain model. Results showed that a single intrathecal injection of 0.003 ng of BDNF was able to decrease the nociceptive threshold (Randall-Selitto test) in normal rats, for at least a 42-day period. Furthermore, the hyperalgesia generated was comparable to that observed in rats with a 42-day history of mononeuropathy. Increasing the dose or administering additional doses of BDNF resulted neither in additional effectiveness in reducing the pain threshold nor in the prolongation of the hyperalgesic effect, thus showing that central sensitization induced by BDNF is a dose-independent, all-or-none process. It is concluded that BDNF alone is sufficient for generating a long-lasting neural excitability change in the spinal cord via tyrosine kinase B receptor signaling, similar to that observed in chronic pain models such as neuropathy.
Pubmed
Journal: Neuroscience
April/5/2012
Abstract
Neuropathic pain management is challenging for physicians and a vexing problem for basic researchers. Recent studies reveal that activated spinal astrocytes may play a vital role in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. We have found increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, a hallmark of reactive gliosis, and elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the dorsal horn in a rat model of allodynia induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The high GFAP expression and mechanical allodynia that SNL induces were prevented by the intrathecal injection of the BDNF-sequestering fusion protein TrkB/Fc. Additionally, mechanical allodynia and GFAP overexpression was induced by the spinal administration of exogenous BDNF to naive rats, and exogenous BDNF given together with fluorocitrate, an astrocytic metabolism inhibitor, inhibited allodynia and GFAP upregulation. Exogenous BDNF also activated the astrocytes directly when tested in vitro. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of BDNF-stimulated astrocytes also induced mechanical allodynia in naive rats. All of these results indicate that astrocytes activated by BDNF might contribute to mechanical allodynia development in neuropathic pain in rats.
Authors
Pubmed
Journal: Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
April/17/2005
Abstract
The primary aim of our study was to determine whether the esophageal innervation (i.e., vagal and enteric) and the skeletal muscle-secreted neurotrophins have a role in smooth-to-skeletal muscle transdifferentiation and in the muscarinic-to-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor type transition. To that end, we used genetically engineered embryos and immunohistochemistry. We found that, in the absence of Myf5 and MyoD, the esophageal muscle cells failed to develop the striated phenotype of acetylcholine receptors. In addition, the development of vagal and enteric innervation was delayed in Myf5(-/-):MyoD(-/-) and NT-3(-/-) mutants, but it was reestablished 2 days before the end of gestation. The smooth muscle cells in the esophagus appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of cells and their ability to transdifferentiate was based on their competence to express neurotrophins and their receptors. Finally, our data suggest a role for NT-3 in the esophageal muscle transdifferentiation.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of physiology
June/3/2008
Abstract
The Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF) contributes essentially to respiratory pattern formation and adaptation of breathing to afferent information. Systems physiology suggests that these KF functions depend on NMDA receptors (NMDA-R). Recent investigations revealed postnatal changes in the modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the KF. Therefore, we investigated postnatal changes in NMDA-R subunit composition and postsynaptic modulation of NMDA-R-mediated currents by BDNF in KF slice preparations derived from three age groups (neonatal: postnatal day (P) 1-5; intermediate: P6-13; juvenile: P14-21). Immunohistochemistry showed a developmental up-regulation of the NR2D subunit. This correlated with a developmental increase in decay time of NMDA currents and a decline of desensitization in response to repetitive exogenous NMDA applications. Thus, developmental up-regulation of the NR2D subunit, which reduces the Mg(2+) block of NMDA-R, causes these specific changes in NMDA current characteristics. This may determine the NMDA-R-dependent function of the mature KF in the control of respiratory phase transition. Subsequent experiments revealed that bath-application of BDNF progressively potentiated these repetitively evoked NMDA currents only in intermediate and juvenile age groups. Pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), as a downstream component of the BDNF-tyrosine kinase B receptor (trkB) signalling, prevented BDNF-induced potentiation of NMDA currents. BDNF-induced potentiation of NMDA currents in later developmental stages might be essential for synaptic plasticity during the adaptation of the breathing pattern in response to peripheral/central commands. The lack of plasticity in neonatal neurones strengthens the hypothesis that the respiratory network becomes permissive for activity-dependent plasticity with ongoing postnatal development.
Pubmed
Journal: Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]
February/20/2013
Abstract
In clinical practice, we have found that cognitive impairment frequently occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but little is known about its pathophysiological mechanism. Given that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is affected by many factors such as smoking, infection, hypoperfusion and hypoxia, the present study was to explore the expression of BDNF in COPD rats. The rat COPD model was established by passive smoking and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats with the same age and gender ratios were divided into 4 groups: the control group (n = 6), the smoking group (n = 6), the LPS group (n = 6) and the smoking + LPS group (n = 6, COPD model). Level of BDNF in serum was measured by ELISA. And the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus was assessed using the immunohistochemistry and image analysis. The results showed that BDNF in the hippocampus and serum significantly increased in the smoking, LPS and smoking + LPS groups, compared to that in the control group. However, the expression of BDNF was less in the smoking + LPS group than that in the smoking or LPS group both in the hippocampus and serum. In conclusion, the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus and serum is highly increased in the COPD group. Smoking and intratracheal instillation of LPS induce the increase of BDNF level in the hippocampus and serum.
Pubmed
Journal: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
March/23/2015
Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin hypothesized to play an important role in mammalian sleep expression and regulation. In order to investigate the role of the truncated receptor for BDNF, TrkB.T1, in mammalian sleep, we examined sleep architecture and sleep regulation in adult mice constitutively lacking this receptor. We find that TrkB.T1 knockout mice have increased REM sleep time, reduced REM sleep latency, and reduced sleep continuity. These results demonstrate a novel role for the TrkB.T1 receptor in sleep expression and provide new insights into the relationship between BDNF, psychiatric illness, and sleep.
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