atp8 - ATP synthase F0 subunit 8
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Publication
Journal: Nature
August/25/1983
Abstract
The sequence of a 4,869 base-pair fragment of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA is presented. It contains genes for cytochrome oxidase subunits I, II and III, ATPase subunit 6 and six tRNAs together with two unassigned reading frames. The gene organization differs from that of mammalian mitochondrial DNAs. Evidence is provided for a genetic code in which AGA codes for serine and the quadruplet ATAA is used in initiation of translation.
Publication
Journal: Nature Methods
October/21/2010
Abstract
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways form the backbone of signal transduction in the mammalian cell. Here we applied a systematic experimental and computational approach to map 2,269 interactions between human MAPK-related proteins and other cellular machinery and to assemble these data into functional modules. Multiple lines of evidence including conservation with yeast supported a core network of 641 interactions. Using small interfering RNA knockdowns, we observed that approximately one-third of MAPK-interacting proteins modulated MAPK-mediated signaling. We uncovered the Na-H exchanger NHE1 as a potential MAPK scaffold, found links between HSP90 chaperones and MAPK pathways and identified MUC12 as the human analog to the yeast signaling mucin Msb2. This study makes available a large resource of MAPK interactions and clone libraries, and it illustrates a methodology for probing signaling networks based on functional refinement of experimentally derived protein-interaction maps.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
August/1/2002
Abstract
The strict orthology of mitochondrial (mt) coding sequences has promoted their use in phylogenetic analyses at different levels. Here we present the results of a mitogenomic study (i.e., analysis based on the set of protein-coding genes from complete mt genomes) of 60 mammalian species. This number includes 11 new mt genomes. The sampling comprises all but one of the traditional eutherian orders. The previously unrepresented order Dermoptera (flying lemurs) fell within Primates as the sister group of Anthropoidea, making Primates paraphyletic. This relationship was strongly supported. Lipotyphla ("insectivores") split into three distinct lineages: Erinaceomorpha, Tenrecomorpha, and Soricomorpha. Erinaceomorpha was the basal eutherian lineage. Sirenia (dugong) and Macroscelidea (elephant shrew) fell within the African clade. Pholidota (pangolin) joined the Cetferungulata as the sister group of Carnivora. The analyses identified monophyletic Pinnipedia with Otariidae (sea lions, fur seals) and Odobenidae (walruses) as sister groups to the exclusion of Phocidae (true seals).
Publication
Journal: Gene
May/6/2008
Abstract
The entire mitochondrial genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Spinghidae) was sequenced -- a circular molecular 15516 bp in size. The arrangement of the protein coding genes (PCGs) was the same as that found in the ancestral insect, however Manduca possessed the derived tRNA arrangement of CR-M-I-Q which has been found in all Lepidoptera sequenced to date. Additionally, Manduca, like all lepidopteran mt genomes, has numerous large intergenic spacer regions and microsatellite-like repeat regions. Nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased, and the lepidopterans have the second most biased nucleotide composition of the insect orders after Hymenoptera. Secondary structural features of the PCGs identified in other Lepidoptera were present but highly modified by the presence of microsatellite-like repeat regions which may significantly alter their function in the post-transcriptional modification of pre-mRNAs. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of Manduca are presented and are similar to those proposed for other insect orders. Conserved regions were identified within non-translated spacer regions which correspond to sites for the origin and termination of replication and transcription. Comparisons of gene variability across the order suggest that the mitochondrial genes most frequently used in phylogenetic analysis of the Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2, are amongst the least variable genes in the genome and phylogenetic resolution could be improved by using alternative, higher variability genes such as nad2, nad3, nad4 and nad5.
Publication
Journal: Nature
February/10/2014
Abstract
Excavations of a complex of caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain have unearthed hominin fossils that range in age from the early Pleistocene to the Holocene. One of these sites, the 'Sima de los Huesos' ('pit of bones'), has yielded the world's largest assemblage of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils, consisting of at least 28 individuals dated to over 300,000 years ago. The skeletal remains share a number of morphological features with fossils classified as Homo heidelbergensis and also display distinct Neanderthal-derived traits. Here we determine an almost complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos and show that it is closely related to the lineage leading to mitochondrial genomes of Denisovans, an eastern Eurasian sister group to Neanderthals. Our results pave the way for DNA research on hominins from the Middle Pleistocene.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
January/17/2001
Abstract
We determined the complete mtDNA sequence of the centipede Lithobius forficatus and found that only one of the 22 inferred tRNA genes encodes a fully paired aminoacyl acceptor stem. The other 21 genes encode tRNAs with up to five mismatches in these stems, and some of these overlap extensively with the downstream genes. Because a well-paired acceptor stem is required for proper tRNA functioning, RNA editing in the products of these genes was suspected. We investigated this hypothesis by studying cDNA sequences from eight tRNAs and found the editing of up to 5 nt at their 3' ends. This editing appears to occur by a novel mechanism with the 5' end of the acceptor stem being used as a template for the de novo synthesis of the 3' end, presumably by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In addition, unusual secondary structures for several tRNAs were found, including those lacking a TPsiC (T) or a dihydrouridine (D) arm, and having an unusual number of base pairs in the acceptor or anticodon stems.
Publication
Journal: Current Biology
April/14/2003
Abstract
Molecular phylogenies support a common ancestry between animals (Metazoa) and Fungi, but the evolutionary descent of the Metazoa from single-celled eukaryotes (protists) and the nature and taxonomic affiliation of these ancestral protists remain elusive. We addressed this question by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes from taxonomically diverse protists to generate a large body of molecular data for phylogenetic analyses. Trees inferred from multiple concatenated mitochondrial protein sequences demonstrate that animals are specifically affiliated with two morphologically dissimilar unicellular protist taxa: Monosiga brevicollis (Choanoflagellata), a flagellate, and Amoebidium parasiticum (Ichthyosporea), a fungus-like organism. Statistical evaluation of competing evolutionary hypotheses confirms beyond a doubt that Choanoflagellata and multicellular animals share a close sister group relationship, originally proposed more than a century ago on morphological grounds. For the first time, our trees convincingly resolve the currently controversial phylogenetic position of the Ichthyosporea, which the trees place basal to Choanoflagellata and Metazoa but after the divergence of Fungi. Considering these results, we propose the new taxonomic group Holozoa, comprising Ichthyosporea, Choanoflagellata, and Metazoa. Our findings provide insight into the nature of the animal ancestor and have broad implications for our understanding of the evolutionary transition from unicellular protists to multicellular animals.
Publication
Journal: Plant Physiology
January/12/2005
Abstract
The NB mitochondrial genome found in most fertile varieties of commercial maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) was sequenced. The 569,630-bp genome maps as a circle containing 58 identified genes encoding 33 known proteins, 3 ribosomal RNAs, and 21 tRNAs that recognize 14 amino acids. Among the 22 group II introns identified, 7 are trans-spliced. There are 121 open reading frames (ORFs) of at least 300 bp, only 3 of which exist in the mitochondrial genome of rice (Oryza sativa). In total, the identified mitochondrial genes, pseudogenes, ORFs, and cis-spliced introns extend over 127,555 bp (22.39%) of the genome. Integrated plastid DNA accounts for an additional 25,281 bp (4.44%) of the mitochondrial DNA, and phylogenetic analyses raise the possibility that copy correction with DNA from the plastid is an ongoing process. Although the genome contains six pairs of large repeats that cover 17.35% of the genome, small repeats (20-500 bp) account for only 5.59%, and transposable element sequences are extremely rare. MultiPip alignments show that maize mitochondrial DNA has little sequence similarity with other plant mitochondrial genomes, including that of rice, outside of the known functional genes. After eliminating genes, introns, ORFs, and plastid-derived DNA, nearly three-fourths of the maize NB mitochondrial genome is still of unknown origin and function.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
February/13/2006
Abstract
In this study, mitochondrial sequences were used to investigate the relationships among the major lineages of Arthropoda. The data matrix used for the analyses includes 84 taxa and 3918 nucleotides representing six mitochondrial protein-coding genes (atp6 and 8, cox1-3, and nad2). The analyses of nucleotide composition show that a reverse strand-bias, i.e., characterized by an excess of T relative to A nucleotides and of G relative to C nucleotides, was independently acquired in six different lineages of Arthropoda: (1) the honeybee mite (Varroa), (2) Opisthothelae spiders (Argiope, Habronattus, and Ornithoctonus), (3) scorpions (Euscorpius and Mesobuthus), (4) Hutchinsoniella (Cephalocarid), (5) Tigriopus (Copepod), and (6) whiteflies (Aleurodicus and Trialeurodes). Phylogenetic analyses confirm that these convergences in nucleotide composition can be particularly misleading for tree reconstruction, as unrelated taxa with reverse strand-bias tend to group together in MP, ML, and Bayesian analyses. However, the use of a specific model for minimizing effects of the bias, the "Neutral Transition Exclusion" (NTE) model, allows Bayesian analyses to rediscover most of the higher taxa of Arthropoda. Furthermore, the analyses of branch lengths suggest that three main factors explain accelerated rates of substitution: (1) genomic rearrangements, including duplication of the control region and gene translocation, (2) parasitic lifestyle, and (3) small body size. The comparisons of Bayesian Bootstrap percentages show that the support for many nodes increases when taxa with long branches are excluded from the analyses. It is therefore recommended to select taxa and genes of the mitochondrial genome for inferring phylogenetic relationships among arthropod lineages. The phylogenetic analyses support the existence of a major dichotomy within Arthropoda, separating Pancrustacea and Paradoxopoda. Basal relationships between Pancrustacean lineages are not robust, and the question of Hexapod monophyly or polyphyly cannot be answered with the available mitochondrial sequences. Within Paradoxopoda, Chelicerata and Myriapoda are each found to be monophyletic, and Endeis (Pycnogonida) is, surprisingly, associated with Acari.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Human Evolution
July/4/2005
Abstract
Accurate divergence date estimates improve scenarios of primate evolutionary history and aid in interpretation of the natural history of disease-causing agents. While molecule-based estimates of divergence dates of taxa within the superfamily Hominoidea (apes and humans) are common in the literature, few such estimates are available for the Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys), the sister taxon of the hominoids in the primate infraorder Catarrhini. To help fill this gap, we have sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a representative of three cercopithecoid tribes, Cercopithecini (Chlorocebus aethiops), Colobini (Colobus guereza), and Presbytini (Trachypithecus obscurus), and analyzed these new data together with other catarrhine mtDNA genomes available in public databases. Molecular divergence date estimates are dependent on calibration points gleaned from the paleontological record. We defined criteria for the selection of good calibration points and identified three points meeting these criteria: Homo-Pan, 6.0 Ma; Pongo-hominines, 14.0 Ma; hominoid/cercopithecoid, 23.0 Ma. Because a uniform molecular clock does not fit the catarrhine mtDNA data, we estimated divergence dates using a penalized likelihood and a Bayesian method, both of which take into account the effects of rate differences on lineages, phylogenetic tree structure, and multiple calibration points. The penalized likelihood method applied to the coding regions of the mtDNA genome yielded the following divergence date estimates, with approximate 95% confidence intervals: cercopithecine-colobine, 16.2 (14.4-17.9) Ma; colobin-presbytin, 10.9 (9.6-12.3) Ma; cercopithecin-papionin, 11.6 (10.3-12.9) Ma; and Macaca-Papio, 9.8 (8.6-10.9) Ma. Within the hominoids, the following dates were inferred: hylobatid-hominid, 16.8 (15.0-18.5) Ma; Gorilla-Homo+Pan, 8.1 (7.1-9.0) Ma; Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus-P. p. abelii, 4.1 (3.5-4.7) Ma; and Pan troglodytes-P. paniscus, 2.4 (2.0-2.7) Ma. These dates were similar to those found using penalized likelihood on other subsets of the data, but slightly younger than several of the Bayesian estimates.
Publication
Journal: Insect Molecular Biology
May/5/1997
Abstract
The entire 15,363 bp mitochondrial genome was cloned and sequenced from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. With respect to the protein-coding genes, rRNA genes and the control region, the gene order was identical to that reported for other insects. There were significant differences, however, in the position and orientation of specific tRNA loci. The overall nucleotide composition was heavily biased towards adenine and thymine, which accounted for 77.6% of all nucleotides. Comparisons were made with the mitochondrial genomes of other insects on the basis genome size and organization, DNA and putative amino acid sequence data, nucleotide substitutions, codon usage and bias, and patterns of AT enrichment.
Publication
Journal: Genome Research
October/28/2010
Abstract
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) currently comprise a single, cosmopolitan species with a diverse diet. However, studies over the last 30 yr have revealed populations of sympatric "ecotypes" with discrete prey preferences, morphology, and behaviors. Although these ecotypes avoid social interactions and are not known to interbreed, genetic studies to date have found extremely low levels of diversity in the mitochondrial control region, and few clear phylogeographic patterns worldwide. This low level of diversity is likely due to low mitochondrial mutation rates that are common to cetaceans. Using killer whales as a case study, we have developed a method to readily sequence, assemble, and analyze complete mitochondrial genomes from large numbers of samples to more accurately assess phylogeography and estimate divergence times. This represents an important tool for wildlife management, not only for killer whales but for many marine taxa. We used high-throughput sequencing to survey whole mitochondrial genome variation of 139 samples from the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and southern oceans. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that each of the known ecotypes represents a strongly supported clade with divergence times ranging from approximately 150,000 to 700,000 yr ago. We recommend that three named ecotypes be elevated to full species, and that the remaining types be recognized as subspecies pending additional data. Establishing appropriate taxonomic designations will greatly aid in understanding the ecological impacts and conservation needs of these important marine predators. We predict that phylogeographic mitogenomics will become an important tool for improved statistical phylogeography and more precise estimates of divergence times.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
August/1/1989
Abstract
The 15,697-nucleotide sequence of Paracentrotus lividus mitochondrial DNA is reported. This genome codes for 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 12 mRNAs which specify 13 subunits of the mitochondrial inner membrane respiratory complexes. The gene arrangement differs from that of other animal species. The two ribosomal genes 16 S and 12 S are separated by a stretch of about 3.3 kilobase pairs which contains the ND1 and ND2 genes and a cluster of 15 tRNA genes. The ND4L coding sequence is not contained in the ND4 mRNA but has its own mRNA which maps between the tRNA(Arg) and the Co II genes. The main noncoding region, located in the tRNA gene cluster, is only 132 nucleotides long, but contains sequences homologous to the mammalian displacement loop. Other short noncoding sequences are interspersed in the genome: they contain a conserved AT consensus which probably has a role in transcription or RNA processing. As regards the mitochondrial genetic code, the codons AGA and AGG specify serine and are recognized by a tRNA with a GCU anticodon, whereas AUA and AAA code for isoleucine and asparagine rather than for methionine and lysine. Except for ND4L which starts with AUC and ATPase 8 which starts with GUG, AUG is used as the initiation codon. In 11 out of 13 cases the genes terminate with the canonical stop codons UAA or UAG. These observations suggest that during invertebrate evolution each lineage developed its own mechanism of mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription and of RNA processing and translation.
Publication
Journal: Genetics
September/13/1994
Abstract
The entire nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, was determined. Two major features distinguish this genome from those of other mammals. First, five tRNA genes around the origin of light strand replication are rearranged. Second, the anticodon of tRNA(Asp) is posttranscriptionally changed by an RNA editing process such that its coding capacity is altered. When the complete protein-coding region of the mitochondrial genome is used as an outgroup for placental mammals it can be shown that rodents represent an earlier branch among placental mammals than primates and artiodactyls and that artiodactyls share a common ancestor with carnivores. The overall rates of evolution of most of the mitochondrial genome of placentals are clock-like. Furthermore, the data indicate that the lineages leading to the mouse and rat may have diverged from each other as much as 35 million years ago.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
June/16/2009
Abstract
Documented cases of convergent molecular evolution due to selection are fairly unusual, and examples to date have involved only a few amino acid positions. However, because convergence mimics shared ancestry and is not accommodated by current phylogenetic methods, it can strongly mislead phylogenetic inference when it does occur. Here, we present a case of extensive convergent molecular evolution between snake and agamid lizard mitochondrial genomes that overcomes an otherwise strong phylogenetic signal. Evidence from morphology, nuclear genes, and most sites in the mitochondrial genome support one phylogenetic tree, but a subset of mostly amino acid-altering substitutions (primarily at the first and second codon positions) across multiple mitochondrial genes strongly supports a radically different phylogeny. The relevant sites generally evolved slowly but converged between ancient lineages of snakes and agamids. We estimate that approximately 44 of 113 predicted convergent changes distributed across all 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes are expected to have arisen from nonneutral causes-a remarkably large number. Combined with strong previous evidence for adaptive evolution in snake mitochondrial proteins, it is likely that much of this convergent evolution was driven by adaptation. These results indicate that nonneutral convergent molecular evolution in mitochondria can occur at a scale and intensity far beyond what has been documented previously, and they highlight the vulnerability of standard phylogenetic methods to the presence of nonneutral convergent sequence evolution.
Publication
Journal: Nature
March/7/2001
Abstract
The origin of the ratites, large flightless birds from the Southern Hemisphere, along with their flighted sister taxa, the South American tinamous, is central to understanding the role of plate tectonics in the distributions of modern birds and mammals. Defining the dates of ratite divergences is also critical for determining the age of modern avian orders. To resolve the ratite phylogeny and provide biogeographical data to examine these issues, we have here determined the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of any extinct taxa--two New Zealand moa genera--along with a 1,000-base-pair sequence from an extinct Madagascan elephant-bird. For comparative data, we also generated 12 kilobases of contiguous sequence from the kiwi, cassowary, emu and two tinamou genera. This large dataset allows statistically precise estimates of molecular divergence dates and these support a Late Cretaceous vicariant speciation of ratite taxa, followed by the subsequent dispersal of the kiwi to New Zealand. This first molecular view of the break-up of Gondwana provides a new temporal framework for speciation events within other Gondwanan biota and can be used to evaluate competing biogeographical hypotheses.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Biology and Evolution
February/2/2009
Abstract
The mitochondrial genome of grape (Vitis vinifera), the largest organelle genome sequenced so far, is presented. The genome is 773,279 nt long and has the highest coding capacity among known angiosperm mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). The proportion of promiscuous DNA of plastid origin in the genome is also the largest ever reported for an angiosperm mtDNA, both in absolute and relative terms. In all, 42.4% of chloroplast genome of Vitis has been incorporated into its mitochondrial genome. In order to test if horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has also contributed to the gene content of the grape mtDNA, we built phylogenetic trees with the coding sequences of mitochondrial genes of grape and their homologs from plant mitochondrial genomes. Many incongruent gene tree topologies were obtained. However, the extent of incongruence between these gene trees is not significantly greater than that observed among optimal trees for chloroplast genes, the common ancestry of which has never been in doubt. In both cases, we attribute this incongruence to artifacts of tree reconstruction, insufficient numbers of characters, and gene paralogy. This finding leads us to question the recent phylogenetic interpretation of Bergthorsson et al. (2003, 2004) and Richardson and Palmer (2007) that rampant HGT into the mtDNA of Amborella best explains phylogenetic incongruence between mitochondrial gene trees for angiosperms. The only evidence for HGT into the Vitis mtDNA found involves fragments of two coding sequences stemming from two closteroviruses that cause the leaf roll disease of this plant. We also report that analysis of sequences shared by both chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes provides evidence for a previously unknown gene transfer route from the mitochondrion to the chloroplast.
Publication
Journal: Genome Research
March/15/2011
Abstract
Point mutations result from errors made during DNA replication or repair, so they are usually expected to be homogeneous across all regions of a genome. However, we have found a region of chloroplast DNA in plants related to sweetpea (Lathyrus) whose local point mutation rate is at least 20 times higher than elsewhere in the same molecule. There are very few precedents for such heterogeneity in any genome, and we suspect that the hypermutable region may be subject to an unusual process such as repeated DNA breakage and repair. The region is 1.5 kb long and coincides with a gene, ycf4, whose rate of evolution has increased dramatically. The product of ycf4, a photosystem I assembly protein, is more divergent within the single genus Lathyrus than between cyanobacteria and other angiosperms. Moreover, ycf4 has been lost from the chloroplast genome in Lathyrus odoratus and separately in three other groups of legumes. Each of the four consecutive genes ycf4-psaI-accD-rps16 has been lost in at least one member of the legume "inverted repeat loss" clade, despite the rarity of chloroplast gene losses in angiosperms. We established that accD has relocated to the nucleus in Trifolium species, but were unable to find nuclear copies of ycf4 or psaI in Lathyrus. Our results suggest that, as well as accelerating sequence evolution, localized hypermutation has contributed to the phenomenon of gene loss or relocation to the nucleus.
Publication
Journal: Science
April/3/2003
Abstract
Recent morphological and molecular evidence has changed interpretations of arthropod phylogeny and evolution. Here we compare complete mitochondrial genomes to show that Collembola, a wingless group traditionally considered as basal to all insects, appears instead to constitute a separate evolutionary lineage that branched much earlier than the separation of many crustaceans and insects and independently adapted to life on land. Therefore, the taxon Hexapoda, as commonly defined to include all six-legged arthropods, is not monophyletic.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Biology and Evolution
March/13/2002
Abstract
We determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the millipedes Narceus annularus and Thyropygus sp. (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) and identified, in both genomes, all 37 genes typical for metazoan mtDNA. The arrangement of these genes is identical in the two millipedes, but differs from others found in arthropod mtDNAs in the location of at least four genes or gene blocks. This novel gene arrangement is unusual for animal mtDNA in that genes with identical transcriptional polarities are clustered in the genome, and the two clusters are separated by two noncoding regions. The only exception to this pattern is the gene for cysteine tRNA, which is located in the part of the genome that otherwise contains all genes with the opposite transcriptional polarity. We suggest that a mechanism involving complete mtDNA duplication followed by the loss of genes, predetermined by their transcriptional polarity and location in the genome, could generate this gene arrangement from the one ancestral for arthropods. The proposed mechanism has important implications for phylogenetic inferences that are drawn on the basis of gene arrangement comparisons.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
October/21/1992
Abstract
The phylogenetic relationships of the Recent cnidarian classes remain one of the classic problems in invertebrate zoology. We survey the structure of the mitochondrial genome in representatives of the four extant cnidarian classes and in the phylum Ctenophora. We find that all anthozoan species tested possess mtDNA in the form of circular molecules, whereas all scyphozoan, cubozoan, and hydrozoan species tested display mtDNA in the form of linear molecules. Because ctenophore and all other known metazoan mtDNA is circular, the shared occurrence of linear mtDNA in three of the four cnidarian classes suggests a basal position for the Anthozoa within the phylum.
Publication
Journal: Current Genetics
July/30/1990
Abstract
The complete 94,192 bp sequence of the mitochondrial genome from race s of Podospora anserina is presented (1 kb = 10(3) base pairs). Three regions unique to race A are also presented bringing the size of this genome to 100,314 bp. Race s contains 31 group I introns (33 in race A) and 2 group II introns (3 in race A). Analysis shows that the group I introns can be categorized according to families both with regard to secondary structure and their open reading frames. All identified genes are transcribed from the same strand. Except for the lack of ATPase 9, the Podospora genome contains the same genes as its fungal counterparts, N. crassa and A. nidulans. About 20% of the genome has not yet been identified. DNA sequence studies of several excision-amplification plasmids demonstrate a common feature to be the presence of short repeated sequences at both termini with a prevalence of GGCGCAAGCTC.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
October/2/2011
Abstract
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened with extinction because of a contagious cancer known as Devil Facial Tumor Disease. The inability to mount an immune response and to reject these tumors might be caused by a lack of genetic diversity within a dwindling population. Here we report a whole-genome analysis of two animals originating from extreme northwest and southeast Tasmania, the maximal geographic spread, together with the genome from a tumor taken from one of them. A 3.3-Gb de novo assembly of the sequence data from two complementary next-generation sequencing platforms was used to identify 1 million polymorphic genomic positions, roughly one-quarter of the number observed between two genetically distant human genomes. Analysis of 14 complete mitochondrial genomes from current and museum specimens, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear SNP markers in 175 animals, suggests that the observed low genetic diversity in today's population preceded the Devil Facial Tumor Disease disease outbreak by at least 100 y. Using a genetically characterized breeding stock based on the genome sequence will enable preservation of the extant genetic diversity in future Tasmanian devil populations.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
July/7/2003
Abstract
The basal actinopterygians comprise four major lineages (polypteriforms, acipenseriforms, lepisosteids, and Amia) and have been collectively called "ancient fish." We investigated the phylogeny of this group of fishes in relation to teleosts using mitochondrial genomic (mitogenomic) data, and compared this to the various alternative phylogenetic hypotheses that have been proposed previously. In addition to the previously determined complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 14 teleosts and two outgroups, we used newly determined mitogenomic sequences of 12 purposefully chosen species representing all the ancient fish lineages plus related teleosts. This data set comprised concatenated nucleotide sequences from 12 protein-coding genes (excluding the ND6 gene and third codon positions) and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes (stem regions only) and these data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses. The resultant trees from the three methods were well resolved and largely congruent, with most internal branches being supported by high statistical values. Mitogenomic data strongly supported not only the monophyly of the teleosts (osteoglossomorphs and above), but also a sister-group relationship between the teleosts and a clade comprising the acipenseriforms, lepisosteids, and Amia, with the polypteriforms occupying the most basal position in the actinopterygian phylogeny. Although the tree topology differed from any of the previously proposed hypotheses based on morphology, it exhibited congruence with a recently proposed novel hypothesis based on nuclear markers.
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