atp8
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atp8 -ATP synthase F0 subunit 8
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Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome.
Journal: Nature
June/12/1981
Description

The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented. The genes for the 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II and III, ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome b and eight other predicted protein coding genes have been located. The sequence shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few noncoding bases between them, and in many cases the termination codons are not coded in the DNA but are created post-transcriptionally by polyadenylation of the mRNAs.

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Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA.
Journal: Nature genetics
October/18/1999
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The mitochondrial DNA molecular of Drosophila yakuba: nucleotide sequence, gene organization, and genetic code.
Journal: Journal of molecular evolution
February/13/1986
Description

The sequence of the 16,019 nucleotide-pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Drosophila yakuba is presented. This molecule contains the genes for two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, six identified proteins [cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II, and III (COI-III), and ATPase subunits 6 and 8] and seven presumptive proteins (URF1-6 and URF4L). Replication originates within a region of 1077 nucleotides that is 92.8% A + T and lacks any open reading frame larger than 123 nucleotides. An equivalent to the sequence found in all mammalian mtCDNAs that is associated with initiation of second-strand DNA synthesis is not present in D. yakuba mtDNA. Introns are absent from D. yakuba mitochondrial genes and there are few (0-31) intergenic nucleotides. The genes found in D. yakuba and mammalian mtDNAs are the same, but there are differences in their arrangement and in the relative proportions of the complementary strands of the molecule that serve as templates for transcription. Although the D. yakuba small and large mitochondrial rRNA genes are exceptionally low in G and C and are shorter than any other metazoan rRNA genes reported, they can be folded into secondary structures remarkably similar to the secondary structures proposed for mammalian mitochondrial rRNAs. D. yakuba mitochondrial tRNA genes, like their mammalian counterparts, are more variable in sequence than nonorganelle tRNAs. In mitochondrial protein genes ATG, ATT, ATA, and in one case (COI) ATAA appear to be used as translation initiation codons. The only termination codon found in these genes is TAA. In the D. yakuba mitochondrial genetic code, AGA, ATA, and TGA specify serine, isoleucine, and tryptophan, respectively. Fifty-nine types of sense condon are used in the D. yakuba mitochondrial protein genes, but 93.8% of all codons end in A or T. Codon-anticodon interactions may include both G-A and C-A pairing in the wobble position. Evidence is summarized that supports the hypothesis that A and T nucleotides are favored at all locations in the D. yakuba mtDNA molecule where these nucleotides are compatible with function.

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The complete nucleotide sequence of the Xenopus laevis mitochondrial genome.
Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry
September/15/1985
Description

The complete sequence of the 17,553-nucleotide Xenopus laevis mitochondrial genome has been determined. A comparison of this amphibian mitochondrial genomic sequence with those of the mammalian mitochondrial genomes reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The encoded genes for 22 tRNAs, two ribosomal RNAs, and 13 proteins (COI, COII, COIII, ATPase 6, cytochrome b, and eight additional unidentified reading frames) in the amphibian mitochondria are highly homologous to their mammalian counterparts. Although the amphibian mitochondrial genome contains a significantly larger displacement loop region than the mammalian mitochondrial genomes, there are several regions of sequence homology near the putative sites for heavy and light strand transcription initiation and heavy strand replication. The unique mitochondrial genetic code observed in the mammalian mitochondrial systems is similar to that of the X. laevis mitochondrial genome because of the presence of only 22 encoded tRNAs and the high degree of homology between the predicted protein sequences. However, the amphibian system exclusively utilizes AUG as the start codon in all 13 open reading frames and shows a preference for codons ending in U rather than ending in C. In addition, the X. laevis mitochondrial genome employs the encoded AGA stop codon once and the UAA stop codon three times and requires polyadenylation to provide the nine other UAA stop codons. These observations suggest that the mechanisms of replication, transcription, processing, and translation in mitochondria are highly conserved throughout higher vertebrates.

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The Ectocarpus genome and the independent evolution of multicellularity in brown algae.
Journal: Nature
July/14/2010
Description

Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are complex photosynthetic organisms with a very different evolutionary history to green plants, to which they are only distantly related. These seaweeds are the dominant species in rocky coastal ecosystems and they exhibit many interesting adaptations to these, often harsh, environments. Brown algae are also one of only a small number of eukaryotic lineages that have evolved complex multicellularity (Fig. 1). We report the 214 million base pair (Mbp) genome sequence of the filamentous seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye, a model organism for brown algae, closely related to the kelps (Fig. 1). Genome features such as the presence of an extended set of light-harvesting and pigment biosynthesis genes and new metabolic processes such as halide metabolism help explain the ability of this organism to cope with the highly variable tidal environment. The evolution of multicellularity in this lineage is correlated with the presence of a rich array of signal transduction genes. Of particular interest is the presence of a family of receptor kinases, as the independent evolution of related molecules has been linked with the emergence of multicellularity in both the animal and green plant lineages. The Ectocarpus genome sequence represents an important step towards developing this organism as a model species, providing the possibility to combine genomic and genetic approaches to explore these and other aspects of brown algal biology further.

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Gene organization deduced from the complete sequence of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial DNA. A primitive form of plant mitochondrial genome.
Journal: Journal of molecular biology
February/18/1992
Description

Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of a liverwort Marchantia polymorpha by electron microscopy and restriction endonuclease mapping indicated that the liverwort mitochondrial genome was a single circular molecule of about 184,400 base-pairs. We have determined the complete sequence of the liverwort mitochondrial DNA and detected 94 possible genes in the sequence of 186,608 base-pairs. These included genes for three species of ribosomal RNA, 29 genes for 27 species of transfer RNA and 30 open reading frames (ORFs) for functionally known proteins (16 ribosomal proteins, 3 subunits of H(+)-ATPase, 3 subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, apocytochrome b protein and 7 subunits of NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Three ORFs showed similarity to ORFs of unknown function in the mitochondrial genomes of other organisms. Furthermore, 29 ORFs were predicted as possible genes by using the index of G + C content in first, second and third letters of codons (42.0 +/- 10.9%, 37.0 +/- 13.2% and 26.4 +/- 9.4%, respectively) obtained from the codon usages of identified liverwort genes. To date, 32 introns belonging to either group I or group II intron have been found in the coding regions of 17 genes including ribosomal RNA genes (rrn18 and rrn26), a transfer RNA gene (trnS) and a pseudogene (psi nad7). RNA editing was apparently lacking in liverwort mitochondria since the nucleotide sequences of the liverwort mitochondrial DNA were well-conserved at the DNA level.

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Pubmed
Sequence and gene organization of the chicken mitochondrial genome. A novel gene order in higher vertebrates.
Journal: Journal of molecular biology
May/30/1990
Description

The 16,775 base-pair mitochondrial genome of the white Leghorn chicken has been cloned and sequenced. The avian genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs and is organized in a very similar economical fashion. There are very few intergenic nucleotides and several instances of overlaps between protein or tRNA genes. The protein genes are highly similar to their mammalian and amphibian counterparts and are translated according to the same variant genetic code. Despite these highly conserved features, the chicken mitochondrial genome displays two distinctive characteristics. First, it exhibits a novel gene order, the contiguous tRNA(Glu) and ND6 genes are located immediately adjacent to the displacement loop region of the molecule, just ahead of the contiguous tRNA(Pro), tRNA(Thr) and cytochrome b genes, which border the displacement loop region in other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. This unusual gene order is conserved among the galliform birds. Second, a light-strand replication origin, equivalent to the conserved sequence found between the tRNA(Cys) and tRNA(Asn) genes in all vertebrate mitochondrial genomes sequenced thus far, is absent in the chicken genome. These observations indicate that galliform mitochondrial genomes departed from their mammalian and amphibian counterparts during the course of evolution of vertebrate species. These unexpected characteristics represent useful markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships at a higher taxonomic level.

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Pubmed
An ancestral mitochondrial DNA resembling a eubacterial genome in miniature.
Journal: Nature
June/18/1997
Description

Mitochondria, organelles specialized in energy conservation reactions in eukaryotic cells, have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts whose closest known relatives are the rickettsial group of alpha-proteobacteria. Because characterized mitochondrial genomes vary markedly in structure, it has been impossible to infer from them the initial form of the proto-mitochondrial genome. This would require the identification of minimally derived mitochondrial DNAs that better reflect the ancestral state. Here we describe such a primitive mitochondrial genome, in the freshwater protozoon Reclinomonas americana. This protist displays ultrastructural characteristics that ally it with the retortamonads, a protozoan group that lacks mitochondria. R. americana mtDNA (69,034 base pairs) contains the largest collection of genes (97) so far identified in any mtDNA, including genes for 5S ribosomal RNA, the RNA component of RNase P, and at least 18 proteins not previously known to be encoded in mitochondria. Most surprising are four genes specifying a multisubunit, eubacterial-type RNA polymerase. Features of gene content together with eubacterial characteristics of genome organization and expression not found before in mitochondrial genomes indicate that R. americana mtDNA more closely resembles the ancestral proto-mitochondrial genome than any other mtDNA investigated to date.

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Pubmed
A complete Neandertal mitochondrial genome sequence determined by high-throughput sequencing.
Journal: Cell
September/1/2008
Description

A complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence was reconstructed from a 38,000 year-old Neandertal individual with 8341 mtDNA sequences identified among 4.8 Gb of DNA generated from approximately 0.3 g of bone. Analysis of the assembled sequence unequivocally establishes that the Neandertal mtDNA falls outside the variation of extant human mtDNAs, and allows an estimate of the divergence date between the two mtDNA lineages of 660,000 +/- 140,000 years. Of the 13 proteins encoded in the mtDNA, subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain has experienced the largest number of amino acid substitutions in human ancestors since the separation from Neandertals. There is evidence that purifying selection in the Neandertal mtDNA was reduced compared with other primate lineages, suggesting that the effective population size of Neandertals was small.

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Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida.
Journal: Nature
December/11/2006
Description

Deuterostomes comprise vertebrates, the related invertebrate chordates (tunicates and cephalochordates) and three other invertebrate taxa: hemichordates, echinoderms and Xenoturbella. The relationships between invertebrate and vertebrate deuterostomes are clearly important for understanding our own distant origins. Recent phylogenetic studies of chordate classes and a sea urchin have indicated that urochordates might be the closest invertebrate sister group of vertebrates, rather than cephalochordates, as traditionally believed. More remarkable is the suggestion that cephalochordates are closer to echinoderms than to vertebrates and urochordates, meaning that chordates are paraphyletic. To study the relationships among all deuterostome groups, we have assembled an alignment of more than 35,000 homologous amino acids, including new data from a hemichordate, starfish and Xenoturbella. We have also sequenced the mitochondrial genome of Xenoturbella. We support the clades Olfactores (urochordates and vertebrates) and Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms). Analyses using our new data, however, do not support a cephalochordate and echinoderm grouping and we conclude that chordates are monophyletic. Finally, nuclear and mitochondrial data place Xenoturbella as the sister group of the two ambulacrarian phyla. As such, Xenoturbella is shown to be an independent phylum, Xenoturbellida, bringing the number of living deuterostome phyla to four.

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