atp8 - ATP synthase F0 subunit 8
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Publication
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
July/28/2018
Abstract
The amphi-Atlantic distributions exhibited by many thalassoid stygobiont (obligate subterranean) crustaceans have been explained by fragmentation by plate tectonics of ancestral shallow water marine populations. The amphipod stygobiont genus Pseudoniphargus is distributed across the Mediterranean region but also in the North Atlantic archipelagos of Bermuda, Azores, Madeira and the Canaries. We used species delimitation methods and mitogenome phylogenetic analyses to clarify the species diversity and evolutionary relationships within the genus and timing their diversification. Analyses included samples from the Iberian Peninsula, northern Morocco, the Balearic, Canarian, Azores and Madeira archipelagoes plus Bermuda. In most instances, morphological and molecular-based species delimitation analyses yielded consistent results. Notwithstanding, in a few cases either incipient speciation with no involvement of detectable morphological divergence or species crypticism were the most plausible explanations for the disagreement found between morphological and molecular species delimitations. Phylogenetic analyses based on a robust calibrated mitochondrial tree suggested that Pseudoniphargus lineages have a younger age than for other thalassoid amphipods displaying a disjunct distribution embracing both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. A major split within the family was estimated to occur at the Paleocene, when a lineage from Northern Iberian Peninsula diverged from the rest of pseudoniphargids. Species diversification in the peri-Mediterranean area was deduced to occur in early Miocene to Tortonian times, while in the Atlantic islands it started in the Pliocene. Our results show that the current distribution pattern of Pseudoniphargus resulted from a complex admix of relatively ancient vicariance events and several episodes of long- distance dispersal.
Publication
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
July/28/2018
Abstract
The relationship between morphology and inheritance is of perennial interest in evolutionary biology and palaeontology. Using three marine snail genera Penion, Antarctoneptunea and Kelletia, we investigate whether systematics based on shell morphology accurately reflect evolutionary lineages indicated by molecular phylogenetics. Members of these gastropod genera have been a taxonomic challenge due to substantial variation in shell morphology, conservative radular and soft tissue morphology, few known ecological differences, and geographical overlap between numerous species. Sampling all sixteen putative taxa identified across the three genera, we infer mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA phylogenetic relationships within the group, and compare this to variation in adult shell shape and size. Results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that each genus is monophyletic, although the status of some phylogenetically derived and likely more recently evolved taxa within Penion is uncertain. The recently described species P. lineatus is supported by genetic evidence. Morphology, captured using geometric morphometric analysis, distinguishes the genera and matches the molecular phylogeny, although using the same dataset, species and phylogenetic subclades are not identified with high accuracy. Overall, despite abundant variation, we find that shell morphology accurately reflects genus-level classification and the corresponding deep phylogenetic splits identified in this group of marine snails.
Publication
Journal: Journal of molecular evolution
August/29/2001
Abstract
We describe here the complete sequence (58,507 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Pylaiella littoralis (Ectocarpales). This molecule displays an AT content of 62.0% and contains seventy-nine genes, most of them (73) encoded on one strand. They include the usual mitochondrial set of protist genes and a number of rarer genes. Among these, several ribosomal protein genes and the rn5 were identified. Twenty-four tRNA genes are present in this genome, insufficient to decode all genes. The other conspicuous features of this molecule are: a large (3018 nucleotides) in-frame insertion of unknown function in the cox2 gene; the presence of two different lineages of group II introns, including complete reverse transcriptase-like genes, one in the cox1 and the other in the rnl gene; the concomitant occurrence of a T7-like RNA polymerase and of several well-conserved alpha-proteobacterial-type promoters; and a small nad11 gene, coding for the first domain only of this NADH dehydrogenase subunit. Altogether, the mitochondrial genome of P. littoralis exhibits both alpha-proteobacterial characteristics and evidences of the independent integration of several exogenous DNA fragments.
Publication
Journal: Molecular biology reports
May/24/2012
Abstract
Here we report the complete sequence of mitochondrial genomes for two sister taxa of freshwater teleosts, the recently derived Yarra pigmy perch Nannoperca obscura and the southern pigmy perch Nannoperca australis. These represent the first complete mitochondrial genomes for Percichthyidae (Perciformes), a family mostly distributed in Australia. The de novo genome assembly of 316,430 pyrosequencing reads from 454 libraries has produced the entire mitochondria for N. obscura and a nearly complete version for N. australis. The mtDNA genome from the latter was completed through the design of one primer set and standard Sanger sequencing for genome finishing, followed by the hybrid assembly of reads with MIRA software using N. obscura sequence as reference genome. The complete mitogenomes of N. obscura and N. australis are 16,496 and 16,494 bp in size, respectively. Both genomes contain 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. Several characteristics of mitochondria typically found in teleost fishes were detected, such as: (i) most genes found in the heavy strand, with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes; (ii) avoidance of G as the third base of codons; (iii) presence of gene overlapping; (iv) percentage of bases usage. We found only eight indels and 197 nucleotide substitutions between these Nannoperca mitogenomes, consistent with a previous hypothesis of recent speciation. The data reported here provide a resource for comparative analysis of recent evolution of mitochondrial genomes.
Publication
Journal: Gene
September/23/2007
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes, and a noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial genome of O. bidens reveals an alternative pattern of vertebrate mitochondrial evolution. For the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, the most frequently used codon generally ends with either A or C, with C preferred over A for most fourfold degenerate codon families; the relative synonymous codon usage of G-ending codons is greatly elevated in all categories. The codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes is remarkably different from the general pattern found previously in the relatively closely related zebrafish and most other vertebrate mitochondria. Nucleotide bias at third codon positions is the main cause of codon bias in the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, as it is biased particularly in favor of C over A. Bayesian analysis of 12 concatenated mitochondrial protein sequences for O. bidens and 46 other teleostean taxa supports the monophyly of Cypriniformes and Otophysi and results in a robust estimate of the otophysan phylogeny.
Publication
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
December/2/2018
Abstract
The insect order Hymenoptera presents marvelous morphological and ecological diversity. Higher-level hymenopteran relationships remain controversial, even after recent phylogenomic analyses, as their taxon sampling was limited. To shed light on the origin and diversification of Hymenoptera, in particular the poorly studied Parasitica, we undertook phylogenetic analyses of 40 newly and 43 previously sequenced mitochondrial genomes representing all major clades of Hymenoptera. Various Bayesian inferences using different data partitions and phylogenetic methods recovered similar phylogenetic trees with strong statistical support for almost all nodes. Novel findings of the mitogenomic phylogeny mainly affected the three infraorders Ichneumonomorpha, Proctotrupomorpha and Evaniomorpha, the latter of which was split into three clades. Basal relationships of Parasitica recovered Stephanoidea + (Gasteruptiidae + Aulacidae) as the sister group to Ichneumonomorpha + (Trigonalyoidea + Megalyroidea). This entire clade is sister to Proctotrupomorpha, and Ceraphronoidea + Evaniidae is sister to Aculeata (stinging wasps). Our divergence time analysis indicates that major hymenopteran lineages originated in the Mesozoic. The radiation of early apocritans may have been triggered by the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction; all extant families were present by the Cretaceous.
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Publication
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
September/13/2016
Abstract
The grey-backed thrush (Turdus hortulorum) is an endangered bird species, which is mainly distributed in northern China, Korean Peninsula and Vietnam. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of T. hortulorum is determined. The circle genome was 16,759 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop). The mtDNA of T. hortulorum is similar to the typical mtDNA of birds and other vertebrates.
Publication
Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR
September/14/2016
Abstract
We sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome of Hypsugo alaschanicus (Vespertilionidae) to provide more data for comparative mitogenomics of the genus Hypsugo. The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is a circular molecule of 17,300 bp, consisting of a control region and a typically conserved set of 37 vertebrate genes containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is AT-biased, with a nucleotide composition of 34.1 A, 30.9 T, 22.4 C, and 12.6% G. In the 13 mitochondrial PCGs of H. alaschanicus, the start codon ATG is used in all PCGs, except Nd2 and Nd3 (which use ATT), and Nd5 (which uses ATA). Eight PCGs (Nd1, Cox1, Cox2, Atp8, Atp6, Nd4L, Nd5, and Nd6) use TAA as the stop codon, while the stop codon AGA occurs only in Cytb. Incomplete stop codons (T--) are used in the other four PCGs (Cox3, Nd2, Nd3, and Nd4). These findings contribute to our understanding of the nucleotide composition and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes of the genus Hypsugo, and provide more data for comparative mitogenomics and higher phylogeny in the family Vespertilionidae.
Publication
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
September/17/2016
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Megalobrama skolkovii was first presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,620 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA gens (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA) and a control region (D-loop), with the gene identical to that of typical vertebrates. The overall base composition of the light strand are 31.23% A, 24.73% T, 16.16% G and 27.88% C. Two copies of tandem repeat sequence was found in the control region.
Publication
Journal: Genome research
April/4/2007
Abstract
Inbred mouse strains have been maintained for more than 100 years, and they are thought to be a mixture of four different mouse subspecies. Although genealogies have been established, female inbred mouse phylogenies remain unexplored. By a phylogenetic analysis of newly generated complete mitochondrial DNA sequence data in 16 strains, we show here that all common inbred strains descend from the same Mus musculus domesticus female wild ancestor, and suggest that they present a different mitochondrial evolutionary process than their wild relatives with a faster accumulation of replacement substitutions. Our data complement forthcoming results on resequencing of a group of priority strains, and they follow recent efforts of the Mouse Phenome Project to collect and make publicly available information on various strains.
Publication
Journal: BMC genomics
February/18/2009
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida.
RESULTS
The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida.
CONCLUSIONS
The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.
Publication
Journal: Journal of biotechnology
November/27/2011
Abstract
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) CBS7435 is the parental strain of commonly used P. pastoris recombinant protein production hosts making it well suited for improving the understanding of associated genomic features. Here, we present a 9.35 Mbp high-quality genome sequence of P. pastoris CBS7435 established by a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing. An automatic annotation of the genome sequence yielded 5007 protein-coding genes, 124 tRNAs and 29 rRNAs. Moreover, we report the complete DNA sequence of the first mitochondrial genome of a methylotrophic yeast. Fifteen genes encoding proteins, 2 rRNA and 25 tRNA loci were identified on the 35.7 kbp circular, mitochondrial DNA. Furthermore, the architecture of the putative alpha mating factor protein of P. pastoris CBS7435 turned out to be more complex than the corresponding protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Publication
Journal: Gene
October/2/2014
Abstract
The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths.
Publication
Journal: Insect molecular biology
June/4/2006
Abstract
The arrangement of genes in the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of most insects is the same, or near-identical, to that inferred to be ancestral for insects. We sequenced the entire mt genome of the small pigeon louse, Campanulotes bidentatus compar, and part of the mt genomes of nine other species of lice. These species were from six families and the three main suborders of the order Phthiraptera. There was no variation in gene arrangement among species within a family but there was much variation in gene arrangement among the three suborders of lice. There has been an extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice!
Publication
Journal: Animal genetics
October/21/2009
Abstract
The evolutionary relationship between the domestic bactrian camel and the extant wild two-humped camel and the factual origin of the domestic bactrian camel remain elusive. We determined the sequence of mitochondrial cytb gene from 21 camel samples, including 18 domestic camels (three Camelus bactrianus xinjiang, three Camelus bactrianus sunite, three Camelus bactrianus alashan, three Camelus bactrianus red, three Camelus bactrianus brown and three Camelus bactrianus normal) and three wild camels (Camelus bactrianus ferus). Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that the extant wild two-humped camel may not share a common ancestor with the domestic bactrian camel and they are not the same subspecies at least in their maternal origins. Molecular clock analysis based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences indicated that the sub-speciation of the two lineages had begun in the early Pleistocene, about 0.7 million years ago. According to the archaeological dating of the earliest known two-humped camel domestication (5000-6000 years ago), we could conclude that the extant wild camel is a separate lineage but not the direct progenitor of the domestic bactrian camel. Further phylogenetic analysis suggested that the bactrian camel appeared monophyletic in evolutionary origin and that the domestic bactrian camel could originate from a single wild population. The data presented here show how conservation strategies should be implemented to protect the critically endangered wild camel, as it is the last extant form of the wild tribe Camelina.
Authors
Publication
Journal: International journal of biological sciences
July/10/2012
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were determined and analyzed. The circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for C. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for C. suppressalis. Both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. Notably, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in the two mitogenomes had the truncated termination codons T, T, and TA, respectively, but the nad5 gene was found to use T as the termination codon only in the C. medinalis mitogenome. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the C. medinalis mitogenome were very different from those in other pyralid moth mitogenomes. Most of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures. However, the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of the trnS1(AGN) gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Forty-nine helices in six domains, and 33 helices in three domains were present in the secondary structures of the rrnL and rrnS genes of the two mitogenomes, respectively. There were four major intergenic spacers, except for the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 12 bp in the two mitogenomes. The A+T-rich region contained an 'ATAGT(A)'-like motif followed by a poly-T stretch in the two mitogenomes. In addition, there were a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 25-bp repeat element, and a microsatellite '(TA)(13)' observed in the A+T-rich region of the C. medinalis mitogenome. A poly-T motif, a duplicated 31-bp repeat element, and a 19-bp triplication were found in the C. suppressalis mitogenome. However, there are many differences in the A+T-rich regions between the C. suppressalis mitogenome sequence in the present study and previous reports. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of these insects were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. These molecular-based phylogenies support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Pyralidae.
Publication
Journal: Yi chuan = Hereditas
August/23/2010
Abstract
We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of King Cobra(GenBank accession number: EU_921899) by Ex Taq-PCR, TA-cloning and primer-walking methods. This genome is very similar to other vertebrate, which is 17 267 bp in length and encodes 38 genes (including 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA and 23 transfer RNA genes) and two long non-coding regions. The duplication of tRNA-Ile gene forms a new mitochondrial gene rearrangement model. Eight tRNA genes and one protein genes were transcribed from L strand, and the other genes were transcribed genes from H strand. Genes on the H strand show a fairly similar content of Adenosine and Thymine respectively, whereas those on the L strand have higher proportion of A than T. Combined rDNA sequence data (12S+16S rRNA) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 21 snake species for which complete mitochondrial genome sequences were available in the public databases. This large data set and an appropriate range of outgroup taxa demonstrated that Elapidae is more closely related to colubridae than viperidae, which supports the traditional viewpoints.
Publication
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA
December/16/2015
Abstract
The complete mitochondrial genome of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 16,790 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the putative origin of the light strand replication) with a typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.26% for A, 29.00% for C, 16.23% for G and 24.51% for T, with a slight AT bias of 54.77%.
Publication
Journal: BMC evolutionary biology
March/8/2007
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Fishes in the families Cichlidae and Labridae provide good probable examples of vertebrate adaptive radiations. Their spectacular trophic radiations have been widely assumed to be due to structural key innovation in pharyngeal jaw apparatus (PJA), but this idea has never been tested based on a reliable phylogeny. For the first step of evaluating the hypothesis, we investigated the phylogenetic positions of the components of the suborder Labroidei (including Pomacentridae and Embiotocidae in addition to Cichlidae and Labridae) within the Percomorpha, the most diversified (> 15,000 spp) crown clade of teleosts. We examined those based on 78 whole mitochondrial genome sequences (including 12 newly determined sequences) through partitioned Bayesian analyses with concatenated sequences (13,933 bp).
RESULTS
The resultant phylogenies indicated that the Labridae and the remaining three labroid families have diverged basally within the Percomorpha, and monophyly of the suborder was confidently rejected by statistical tests using Bayes factors.
CONCLUSIONS
The resultant phylogenies indicated that the specified PJA evolved independently at least twice, once in Labridae and once in the common ancestor of the remaining three labroid families (including the Cichlidae). Because the independent evolution of pharyngeal jaws appears to have been followed by trophic radiations, we consider that our result supports, from the aspect of historical repeatability, the idea that the evolution of the specialized PJA provided these lineages with the morphological potential for their spectacular trophic radiations. The present result will provide a new framework for the study of functional morphology and genetic basis of their PJA.
Publication
Journal: Systematic biology
October/17/2012
Abstract
Taxon and character sampling are central to phylogenetic experimental design; yet, we lack general rules. Goldman introduced a method to construct efficient sampling designs in phylogenetics, based on the calculation of expected Fisher information given a probabilistic model of sequence evolution. The considerable potential of this approach remains largely unexplored. In an earlier study, we applied Goldman's method to a problem in the phylogenetics of caecilian amphibians and made an a priori evaluation and testable predictions of which taxon additions would increase information about a particular weakly supported branch of the caecilian phylogeny by the greatest amount. We have now gathered mitogenomic and rag1 sequences (some newly determined for this study) from additional caecilian species and studied how information (both expected and observed) and bootstrap support vary as each new taxon is individually added to our previous data set. This provides the first empirical test of specific predictions made using Goldman's method for phylogenetic experimental design. Our results empirically validate the top 3 (more intuitive) taxon addition predictions made in our previous study, but only information results validate unambiguously the 4th (less intuitive) prediction. This highlights a complex relationship between information and support, reflecting that each measures different things: Information is related to the ability to estimate branch length accurately and support to the ability to estimate the tree topology accurately. Thus, an increase in information may be correlated with but does not necessitate an increase in support. Our results also provide the first empirical validation of the widely held intuition that additional taxa that join the tree proximal to poorly supported internal branches are more informative and enhance support more than additional taxa that join the tree more distally. Our work supports the view that adding more data for a single (well chosen) taxon may increase phylogenetic resolution and support in weakly supported parts of the tree without adding more characters/genes. Altogether our results corroborate that, although still underexplored, Goldman's method offers a powerful tool for experimental design in molecular phylogenetic studies. However, there are still several drawbacks to overcome, and further assessment of the method is needed in order to make it better understood, more accessible, and able to assess the addition of multiple taxa.
Publication
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA
June/26/2012
Abstract
The monogeneric family Fergusoninidae consists of gall-forming flies that, together with Fergusobia (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae) nematodes, form the only known mutualistic association between insects and nematodes. In this study, the entire 16,000 bp mitochondrial genome of Fergusonina taylori Nelson and Yeates was sequenced. The circular genome contains one encoding region including 27 genes and one non-coding A+T-rich region. The arrangement of the protein-coding, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) genes was the same as that found in the ancestral insect. Nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased. All of the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for nad1 which begins with TTT. All 22 tRNA anticodons of F. taylori match those observed in Drosophila yakuba, and all form the typical cloverleaf structure except for tRNA-Ser((AGN)) which lacks a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. Secondary structural features of the rRNA genes of Fergusonina are similar to those proposed for other insects, with minor modifications. The mitochondrial genome of Fergusonina presented here may prove valuable for resolving the sister group to the Fergusoninidae, and expands the available mtDNA data sources for acalyptrates overall.
Publication
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
November/6/2007
Abstract
Chelicerates are a diverse group of arthropods, with around 65,000 described species occupying a wide range of habitats. Many phylogenies describing the relationships between the various chelicerate orders have been proposed. While some relationships are widely accepted, others remain contentious. To increase the taxonomic sampling of species available for phylogenetic study based on mitochondrial genomes we produced the nearly complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scorpion Mesobuthus gibbosus. Mitochondrial gene order in M. gibbosus largely mirrors that in Limulus polyphemus but tRNA secondary structures are truncated. A recent analysis argued that independent reversal of mitochondrial genome strand-bias in several groups of arthropods, including spiders and scorpions, could compromise phylogenetic reconstruction and proposed an evolutionary model that excludes mutational events caused by strand-bias (Neutral Transitions Excluded, NTE). An arthropod dataset of six mitochondrial genes, when analyzed under NTE, yields strong support for scorpions as sister taxon to the rest of Chelicerata. We investigated the robustness of this result by exploring the effect of adding additional chelicerate genes and taxa and comparing the phylogenies obtained under different models. We find evidence that (1) placement of scorpions arising at the base of the Chelicerata is an artifact of model mis-specification and scorpions are strongly supported as basal arachnids and (2) an expanded chelicerate dataset finds support for several proposed interordinal relationships (ticks plus mites [Acari] and spiders plus whip spiders plus whip scorpions [Araneae+Pedipalpi]). Mitochondrial sequence data are subject to systematic bias that is positively misleading for evolutionary inference and thus extreme methodological care must be taken when using them to infer phylogenies.
Publication
Journal: Journal of human evolution
September/20/2015
Abstract
Humans first arrived on Madagascar only a few thousand years ago. Subsequent habitat destruction and hunting activities have had significant impacts on the island's biodiversity, including the extinction of megafauna. For example, we know of 17 recently extinct 'subfossil' lemur species, all of which were substantially larger (body mass ∼11-160 kg) than any living population of the ∼100 extant lemur species (largest body mass ∼6.8 kg). We used ancient DNA and genomic methods to study subfossil lemur extinction biology and update our understanding of extant lemur conservation risk factors by i) reconstructing a comprehensive phylogeny of extinct and extant lemurs, and ii) testing whether low genetic diversity is associated with body size and extinction risk. We recovered complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes from five subfossil lemur taxa, and generated sequence data from population samples of two extinct and eight extant lemur species. Phylogenetic comparisons resolved prior taxonomic uncertainties and confirmed that the extinct subfossil species did not comprise a single clade. Genetic diversity estimates for the two sampled extinct species were relatively low, suggesting small historical population sizes. Low genetic diversity and small population sizes are both risk factors that would have rendered giant lemurs especially susceptible to extinction. Surprisingly, among the extant lemurs, we did not observe a relationship between body size and genetic diversity. The decoupling of these variables suggests that risk factors other than body size may have as much or more meaning for establishing future lemur conservation priorities.
Publication
Journal: PloS one
December/6/2015
Abstract
Solution hybridization capture methods utilize biotinylated oligonucleotides as baits to enrich homologous sequences from next generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. Coupled with NGS, the method generates kilo to gigabases of high confidence consensus targeted sequence. However, in many experiments, a non-negligible fraction of the resulting sequence reads are not homologous to the bait. We demonstrate that during capture, the bait-hybridized library molecules add additional flanking library sequences iteratively, such that baits limited to targeting relatively short regions (e.g. few hundred nucleotides) can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior target sequence information.
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