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Publication
Journal: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
September/16/2010
Abstract
Forsythiae Fructus is known to have diuretic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the hepatoprotective effects of pinoresinol, a lignan isolated from Forsythiae Fructus, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with vehicle or pinoresinol (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) 30 min before and 2 h after CCl4 (20 microl/kg) injection. In the vehicle-treated CCl(4 )group, serum aminotransferase activities were significantly increased 24 h after CCl4 injection, and these increases were attenuated by pinoresinol at all doses. Hepatic glutathione contents were significantly decreased and lipid peroxidation was increased after CCl4 treatment. These changes were attenuated by 50 and 100 mg/kg of pinoresinol. The levels of protein and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, were significantly increased after CCl4 injection; and these increases were attenuated by pinoresinol. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and phosphorylation of c-Jun, one of the components of activating protein 1 (AP-1), were inhibited by pinoresinol. Our results suggest that pinoresinol ameliorates CCl4)-induced acute liver injury, and this protection is likely due to anti-oxidative activity and down-regulation of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
July/31/2008
Abstract
Oleaceae Forsythiae Fructus has been used for anti-inflammatory, diuretics, antidote, and antibacterials in traditional herbal medicine. Our previous screening of medicinal plants showed that methanol (MeOH) extract of Forsythiae Fructus had significant anti-inflammatory activity, but the active ingredients remain unclear. For isolation of active ingredient of MeOH extract of Forsythiae Fructus, it was partitioned with n-hexane and ethylacetate (EtOAc), and arctigenin was isolated from EtOAc fraction by column chromatography with anti-inflammatory activity-guided separation. Its activity was evaluated in the animal models of inflammation including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activities in the edematous tissues homogenate, and silica-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the RAW 264.7 cell line. It was shown that arctigenin (100 mg/kg) had significantly decreased not only carrageenan-induced paw edema 3 and 4h after injection of carrageenan, arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear edema at a painting dose of 0.1-1.0mg/ear, and acetic acid-induced writhing response and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability accentuation at an oral dose of 25-100, and 100 mg/kg, respectively, but also MPO and EPO activities at a painting dose of 0.1-1.0mg/ear in the AA-induced edematous tissues homogenate as indicators of neutrophils and eosinophils recruitment into the inflamed tissue. Further, arctigenin (0.1-10 microM) also significantly inhibited the intracellular ROS production by silica. These results indicate that arctigenin is a bioactive agent of Forsythiae Fructus having significant anti-inflammatory action by inhibition of the exudation, and leukocytes recruitment into the inflamed tissues. The pharmacologic mechanism of action of arctigenin may be due to the inhibition of release/production of inflammatory mediators such as AA metabolites and free radicals.
Publication
Journal: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
February/16/2005
Abstract
1. In the present study, we conducted the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of bofu-tsusho-san (BF), an oriental herbal medicine (24 mg/day ephedrine in Ephedrae Herba and an efficacy equivalent of 280 mg caffeine, judging from the phosphodiesterase-inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix, Forsythiae Fructus and Schizonepetae Spica and another 14 crude drugs) in obese women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). 2. The aim of the present study was to determine whether BF was effective in decreasing visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Eighty-one Japanese women (body mass index (BMI) 36.5 +/- 4.8 kg/m2) with IGT and insulin resistance (IR), who had been treated with a low-calorie diet (5016 kj/day: 1200 kcal) and an exercise regimen (1254 kj/day: 300 kcal), were randomized to receive either placebo (n=40) or BF treatment (n=41) three times a day. 3. After 24 weeks treatment, the BF group lost significantly (P <0.01) more bodyweight and abdominal visceral fat without a decrease in the adjusted resting metabolic rate (RMR), whereas the placebo group lost bodyweight (P <0.05) and had no significant change in abdominal visceral fat. The BF group had a lower fasting serum insulin level (P <0.05), a lower insulin area under the curve (P <0.05) and a lower level of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P <0.01) compared with values before treatment. 4. We conclude that BF could be a useful herbal medicine in treating obesity with IGT.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
September/22/2010
Abstract
Twenty traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against four common oral bacteria. TCMs were tested for sensitivity against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Aliquots of suspension of each bacterial species were inoculated onto a horse blood agar plate with TCMs soaked separately on 6mm paper disks. The plates were incubated for 48h anaerobically and the mean diameters of growth inhibition of three different areas obtained. 0.2% (w/v) chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Fructus armeniaca mume was effective against all four bacteria. Thirteen TCMs demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis, including Cortex magnoliae officinalis, Cortex phellodendri, Flos caryophylli, Flos lonicerae japonicae, Fructus armeniaca mume, Fructus forsythiae suspensae, Herba cum radice violae yedoensitis, Herba menthae haplocalycis, Pericarpium granati, Radix et rhizoma rhei, Radix gentianae, Ramulus cinnamomi cassia and Rhizoma cimicifugae. Cortex phellodendri showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, while Radix et rhizoma rhei was effective against Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis. Fructus armeniaca mume had inhibitory effects against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro.
Publication
Journal: Integrative Biology (United Kingdom)
July/18/2013
Abstract
Given the imminent threat of influenza pandemics and continuing emergence of new drug-resistant influenza virus strains, novel strategies for preventing and treating influenza disease are urgently needed. Herbal medicine, used for thousands of years in combinational therapies (Herb Formula), plays a significant role in stimulating the host immune system in vivo, and meanwhile, in fighting against the pandemic by directly inhibiting influenza virus in vitro. Such potential Janus functions may spark interest in therapeutic manipulation of virus diseases. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanism of the Janus functions of the medicinal herbs in the treatment of influenza remains unclear. In this work, to illustrate the therapeutic concept of Janus functions in the treatment of influenza, we have introduced a novel systems pharmacology model that integrates pharmacokinetic screening, targeting and network analysis of two representative herbs Lonicera japonica and Fructus Forsythiae that are efficient in the treatment of influenza, inflammation and other diseases. 50 Chemicals with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles have been identified for the two herbs, and the ligand-target network was constructed by complementing the literature-based experimental data deposited in DrugBank. The annotation of these chemicals was assigned using a novel drug targeting approach, and mapped to target-disease and drug-target-pathway networks. The overall data suggest that the medicinal herbs function by indirectly suppressing the virus proliferation via regulating the immune systems in hosts, and also, by directly inhibiting virus proliferation through targeting viral proteins essential for the viral life cycle. For the first time, we have demonstrated the mechanism of medicinal herbs in prevention and treatment of virus diseases via the Janus functions on a systematic level.
Publication
Journal: International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
March/27/1996
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the hypothesis that anti-obesity action of bofu-tsusho-san (TJ-62) works via activating the brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and inhibiting the phosphodiesterase activity.
METHODS
MSG obese mice and lean controls were fed a diet including 1.4% or 4.7% TJ-62 of weight of food for 8 weeks. Another group of MSG obese mice were fed with 1-ephedrine (1-E) + d-pseudoephedrine (d-PE) of equivalent amounts as contained in TJ-62 (4.7%) for 8 weeks. Yet another group of MSG obese mice were further supplemented with Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) extract + Forsythiae Fructus (FF) extract + Schizonepetae Spica (SS) extract (that inhibited phosphodiesterase activity) of amounts contained in TJ-62 (4.7%) for 8 weeks.
METHODS
The following were measured: The concentration of ephedrine and its congeners in TJ-62; the inhibitory effect of TJ-62 on phosphodiesterase activity; body weight; food intake; retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT) weight; interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) weight; mitochondrial protein content in IBAT; cytochrome c oxidase activity in IBAT; guanosine-5'-diphosphate (GDP) binding in IBAT mitochondria.
RESULTS
One gram of TJ-62 contained 3.33 mg of 1-E and 0.73 mg of d-PE. One mg of TJ-62 was equivalent to 2.5 mg of caffeine in the inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase activity. After feeding with TJ-62, GDP binding was significantly increased in a dose dependent manner. Body weight and RWAT weight decreased in both MSG obese mice and lean controls. Food intake was not changed by TJ-62. Feeding with 1-E + d-PE produced responses of about 70% of those of TJ-62. These responses were, furthermore, enhanced by the addition of the three extracts to the levels that were similar to those produced by TJ-62.
CONCLUSIONS
Bofu-tsusho-san (TJ-62) works via activating the BAT thermogenesis and inhibiting the phosphodiesterase activity in mice.
Publication
Journal: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
January/17/2017
Abstract
Forsythiae Fructus, the fruits of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Lianqiao in Chinese, is one of the most fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a typical heat-clearing and detoxicating herb, according to TCM theory. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of Forsythiae Fructus aqueous extract (FAE) on B16-F10 melanoma cells in vivo. The transplanted B16-F10 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice was established and used for the evaluation of the in vivo antitumor effect of FAE. FAE strongly inhibited the growth of B16-F10 cells in vitro and the tumor in vivo. The survival time of tumor-bearing mice was significantly prolonged by FAE. FAE inhibited cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the tumor, as indicated by the decreased expressions of Ki67 and CD31. The levels of ROS, MDA, TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6 decreased, while GSH increased in the FAE treatment group, indicating FAE possesses strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of anti-oxidant proteins Nrf-2 and HO-1, tumor suppressors P53 and p-PTEN, and the MAPK pathways in tumor tissues were upregulated by FAE treatment. These data demonstrated that FAE exhibited strong antitumor activity against B16-F10 murine melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of FAE involved decreases in oxidative stress and inflammation in the tumor, which is closely related to the heat-clearing and detoxicating properties of FAE.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
April/23/2013
Abstract
Acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURTIs) are the illnesses caused by an acute infection with various viruses and bacteria involving the upper respiratory tract. Shuanghuanglian (SHL) injection, a Chinese medicine intravenous preparation extracted from honeysuckle, Scutellaria baicalensis, and fructus forsythiae, is commonly used to treat AURTIs. Although it is used largely in Chinese hospitals, there is no substantial evidence to demonstrate its clinical effect on AURTIs. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Shuanghuanglian injection for the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections.
Publication
Journal: Phytomedicine
December/15/2014
Abstract
Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a traditional Chinese compound formula prepared from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix and Fructus Forsythiae. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of SHL in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S). SHL significantly reduces the transcriptional and translational levels of iNOS and COX-2 as well as the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). It also suppresses the transcription and translation of inflammatory cytokines production, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. These inhibitory effects mainly act via ERK1/2- and p38-mediated AP-1 rather than the NF-κB pathway. In parallel with the anti-inflammatory activity, SHL suppresses LPS-induced intracellular total ROS levels by weakening NADPH oxidase activity, enhancing SOD activity and increasing GSH content. In addition, SHL directly scavenges OH and O2(-). Thus, our study elucidates the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms of SHL in LPS-stimulated MH-S.
Publication
Journal: Inflammation
February/26/2004
Abstract
Mast cells are key as effector cells in the early phase allergic inflammation and in diverse immunological and pathological processes. Forsythia fructus (F. fructus) has used as a traditional medicine for inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we determined the effect of F. fructus extracts on compound 48/80-induced paw oedema and vascular permeability in vivo. In addition, we investigated in vitro whether F. fructus has inhibitory effects on compound 48/80-induced histamine releases from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC), and on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) releases from human mast cells (HMC-1). In mice orally administrered F. fructus (100 microg/g) for 1 h, compound-48/80-induced oedema and vascular permeability were significantly reduced rather than those receiving intravenous injection of ketotifen, mast cell stabilizer. F. fructus dose-dependently inhibited the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from RPMCs. Moreover, F. fructus had no cytotoxic effects on cell viability and had inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha secretion from HMC-1. These results suggest that F. fructus is a potential herb medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases through downmodulating mast cell activation.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
August/1/2006
Abstract
A simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for developing chromatographic fingerprint of complex herbal medicine Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) oral liquid was described. Ten batches of SHL obtained from different pharmaceutical factories were used to establish the fingerprint. In addition, the contents of baicalin and chlorogenic acid, which are two marker constituents in the preparations, were also determined. Chromatographic fingerprint, together with the contents of the markers were applied for quality control of SHL. SHL comprises three kinds of medicinal herbs: Fols Lonicerae, Radix Scutellariae and Fructus Forsythiae. According to State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) requirement, the chromatographic fingerprints of Fols Lonicerae, Radix Scutellariae and Fructus Forsythiae, the raw materials of SHL preparations, were also established. The data of fingerprints of SHL and its raw herbs established by HPLC were all processed with two kinds of mathematic methods including correlation coefficient and cosine value of vectorial angle to validate their similarities. In conclusion, fingerprints of Radix Scutellariae, Fols Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae are suitable for identification, differentiation of their geographic origins and quality control. The similarity of 10 batches of SHL oral liquid was more than 0.988, which showed the preparations from different pharmaceutical factories were consistent.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
January/26/2007
Abstract
Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a traditional Chinese formula containing Lonicerae japonicae flos (LJF), Scutellariae radix (SR) and Forsythiae fructus (FF), and is commonly used to treat acute upper respiratory tract infection, acute bronchitis and light pneumonia. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics of SHL and the different combinations of its constitutional herbs, and to investigate the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredient baicalein. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups and orally administered with SHL, SR, SR+FF and SR+LJF, respectively. At different time points (0, 0.167, 0.333, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72 h) after administration, the concentrations of baicalein in rat serum were determined by using HPLC, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the parameters, t(1/2) (beta) and C(max) among different combinations of herbs. The results indicate that SHL has delayed the elimination and reduced the bioavailability of baicalein in rat serum.
Publication
Journal: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
July/22/2013
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of Radix Platycodon in combination with herbs for cleaning-heat and detoxification and its mechanism for Fel-targeting.
METHODS
Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (8 per group): the sham-operated group, model group, Radix Platycodon group, Flos Lonicera and Fructus Forsythia (LF) group, and Radix Platycodon, Flos Lonicera and Fructus Forsythia combination (PLF) group, using a random number table. A rat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was established by passive smoking and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The treatments started from the 15th day of passive smoking for a total duration of 14 days. At the end of the treatment, changes in the following measurements were determined: lung histopathology, inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and interleukin IL-1β (IL-1β) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and mRNA expression of endogenous active substance intestinal trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in the lung tissue.
RESULTS
Light microscopy showed that compared with the sham-operated group, rats in the COPD model group had disrupted alveolar structure, collapsed local alveoli, significantly widened or even fused alveolar septa, and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells in the alveolar wall and interstitium. In addition, significant bronchial epithelium hyperplasia, partially shed epithelia, and marked inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial wall and its surrounding tissues were noticed. Electron microscopy showed that rats in the model group had degeneration of alveolar type II epithelial cell; reduction, breakage or even loss of cell surface microvilli; swollen mitochondria with disappearing cristae and vacuole-like structure; and, increased secondary lysosomes in alveolar macrophages. The TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-1β levels and white blood cell (WBC) count in BALF were significantly increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and TFF3 mRNA expression in the lung tissue was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). After treatment, the pathological morphology of lung injury was less severe in all three treatment groups. In addition, TGF-β and IL-1β and WBC count in BALF were decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and TFF3 mRNA expression in the lung tissue was significantly increased in the PLF group (P < 0.01). Compared with the LF group, the IL-1β in BALF was significantly decreased P < 0.05), and TFF3 mRNA expression was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the PLF group.
CONCLUSIONS
Radix Platycodon synergizes with herbs for cleaning-heat and detoxification in reducing inflammatory injury in a rat model of COPD. The synergistic anti-inflammatory effect is reflected in the improvement in pathological changes and in the reduction of IL-1β levels in BALF. The mechanism of such synergistic action may be related to its effect on maintaining the TFF3 mRNA expression and Fel-targeting function.
Publication
Journal: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
April/14/2015
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of the major bioactive component forsythoside A (FTA) extracted from Forsythiae fructus.
METHODS
An in vitro Caco-2 cell model and a single-pass intestinal perfusion in situ model in SD rats were used.
RESULTS
In the in vitro Caco-2 cell model, the mean apparent permeability value (P(app)-value) was 4.15×10(-7) cm/s in the apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) direction. At the concentrations of 2.6-10.4 μg/mL, the efflux ratio of FTA in the bi-directional transport experiments was approximately 1.00. After the transport, >96% of the apically loaded FTA was retained on the apical side, while >97% of the basolaterally loaded FTA was retained on the basolateral side. The P(app)-values of FTA were inversely correlated with the transepithelial electrical resistance. The paracellular permeability enhancers sodium caprate and EDTA, the P-gp inhibitor verapamil and the multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) inhibitors cyclosporine and MK571 could concentration-dependently increase the Papp-values, while the uptake (OATP) transporter inhibitors diclofenac sodium and indomethacin could concentration-dependently decrease the P(app)-values. The intake transporter SGLT1 inhibitor mannitol did not cause significant change in the P(app)-values. In the in situ intestinal perfusion model, both the absorption rate constant (K(a)) and the effective permeability (P(eff)-values) following perfusion of FTA 2.6, 5.2 and 10.4 μg/mL via the duodenum, jejunum and ileum had no significant difference, although the values were slightly higher for the duodenum as compared to those in the jejunum and ileum. The low, medium and high concentrations of verapamil caused the largest increase in the P(eff)-values for duodenum, jejunum and ileum, respectively. Sodium caprate, EDTA and cyclosporine resulted in concentration-dependent increase in the P(eff)-values. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin caused concentration-dependent decrease in the Peff-values. Mannitol did not cause significant change in the P(app)-values for the duodenum, jejunum or ileum.
CONCLUSIONS
The results suggest that the intestinal absorption of FTA may occur through passive diffusion, and the predominant absorption site may be in the upper part of small intestine. Paracellular transport route is also involved. P-gp, MRPs and OATP may participate in the absorption of FTA in the intestine. The low permeability of FTA contributes to its low oral bioavailability.
Publication
Journal: Phytotherapy Research
April/22/2014
Abstract
Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL), a famous traditional Chinese medicine recipe containing Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF), Forsythiae Fructus, and Scutellariae Radix, is clinically used for the treatment of fever and acute upper respiratory tract infection. In this research, a comparative study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic difference of chlorogenic acid (ChA) after oral administration of LJF and SHL to normal and febrile rats with approximately the same dose of 60 mg/kg, and the antipyrexia effect of LJF and SHL on rectal temperature changes induced by Baker's yeast was investigated. The results indicated that AUC(0-t) and plasma concentrations of ChA in the febrile rats were significantly higher than normal rats whether in the extract of LJF or SHL. In addition, SHL increased the values of AUC of ChA in both febrile and normal rats compared with LJF alone (p < 0.05), and SHL showed better antipyrexia effect than LJF. These results indicate that fever could play an important role in pharmacokinetic process of ChA. Meanwhile, the combined formula SHL exhibits higher bioavailability of ChA and superior antipyrexia effect than the single herb.
Publication
Journal: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
February/18/2020
Abstract
Since December 2019, an outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread to almost all parts of China. This was followed by prevention programs recommending Chinese medicine (CM) for the prevention. In order to provide evidence for CM recommendations, we reviewed ancient classics and human studies.Historical records on prevention and treatment of infections in CM classics, clinical evidence of CM on the prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 influenza, and CM prevention programs issued by health authorities in China since the COVID-19 outbreak were retrieved from different databases and websites till 12 February, 2020. Research evidence included data from clinical trials, cohort or other population studies using CM for preventing contagious respiratory virus diseases.The use of CM to prevent epidemics of infectious diseases was traced back to ancient Chinese practice cited in Huangdi's Internal Classic (Huang Di Nei Jing) where preventive effects were recorded. There were 3 studies using CM for prevention of SARS and 4 studies for H1N1 influenza. None of the participants who took CM contracted SARS in the 3 studies. The infection rate of H1N1 influenza in the CM group was significantly lower than the non-CM group (relative risk 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.52; n=4). For prevention of COVID-19, 23 provinces in China issued CM programs. The main principles of CM use were to tonify qi to protect from external pathogens, disperse wind and discharge heat, and resolve dampness. The most frequently used herbs included Radix astragali (Huangqi), Radix glycyrrhizae (Gancao), Radix saposhnikoviae (Fangfeng), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Baizhu), Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua), and Fructus forsythia (Lianqiao).Based on historical records and human evidence of SARS and H1N1 influenza prevention, Chinese herbal formula could be an alternative approach for prevention of COVID-19 in high-risk population. Prospective, rigorous population studies are warranted to confirm the potential preventive effect of CM.
Publication
Journal: Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
June/17/1983
Publication
Journal: Journal of Separation Science
May/14/2014
Abstract
Shuanghuanglian formula (SF) is a combination of Flos lonicerae japonicae, Radix scutellariae, and Fructus forsythiae, commonly used to treat viral or bacterial infections. However, the constituents absorbed into the blood after oral administration of SF are difficult to determine and thus remain unclear. Here, we report the application of an accurate background subtraction and multiple data processing approach (Bs-Mpa) for the comprehensive detection of compounds of SF in vivo. A sensitive and reliable ultra-performance LC coupled with ESI quadrupole TOF MS (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) approach coupled with Bs-Mpa, which is implemented in the Strip tool from UPLC to remove nonrelated ion signals from accurate mass LC-MS data, was established to characterize the chemical constituents and rat metabolites of SF. In the loading plot of the principal component analysis, 68 ions of interest were extracted from blood samples, among them, 39 absorbed prototype components of SF and 29 metabolites were identified in vivo. It is concluded that the integrative Bs-Mpa method can be successfully applied for the rapid discovery of multiple components from a traditional Chinese medicine. The above challenge was addressed by using the proposed Bs-Mpa method and it was particularly suitable for applying to the global characterization of the constituents or metabolites in rat blood after oral administration of other well-known formulae.
Publication
Journal: PLoS ONE
December/9/2013
Abstract
The current study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan derivatives on the intestinal absorption and bioavailabilities of forsythoside A (FTA) and Chlorogenic acid (CHA), the major active components in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple. Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics properties of the two compounds have been characterized in vitro, in situ as well as in rats. Based on the identified biopharmaceutics characteristics of the two compounds, the effect of chitosan derivatives as an absorption enhancer on the intestinal absorption and pharmacokinetics of FTA and CHA in pure compound form as well as extract form were investigated in vitro, in situ and in vivo. Both FTA and CHA demonstrated very limited intestinal permeabilities, leading to oral bioavailabilities being only 0.50% and 0.13% in rats, respectively. Results from both in vitro, in situ as well as in vivo studies consistently indicated that Chito-oligosaccharide (COS) at dosage of 25 mg/kg could enhance intestinal permeabilities significantly as well as the in vivo bioavailabilities of both FTA and CHA than CMCs in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations with COS at the dosage of 25 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation, which was significantly better than control. The current findings not only identified the usefulness of COS for the improved delivery of Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae preparations but also demonstrated the importance of biopharmaceutical characterization in the dosage form development of traditional Chinese medicine.
Publication
Journal: Phytomedicine
March/10/2006
Abstract
Clinical evidence indicates that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) drugs can reduce stroke-inflicted brain damage. To date, the molecular basis of the apparent neuroprotective effects of these TCM drugs remains largely obscure. Several lines of evidence indicate that the activation of cell death programs leads to the loss of neurons during the reperfusion phase of ischemic stroke. In particular, activation of caspases (cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases) is a critical step in neuronal apoptosis. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fluorescence assays, we screened a collection of 58 TCM drugs that are commonly used in stroke therapy for caspase inhibitory activity. We found that aqueous extracts of Lianqiao (Fructus Forsythiae) and Shouwuteng (Caulis Polygoni multiflori) blocked the activity of the initiator caspase-8 as well as the effector caspase-3 and caspase-7 in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50)10 microg/ml. Identification of caspase inhibitory activity of these TCM drugs, allows the formulation of testable hypotheses and design of further investigations aimed at the elucidation of the molecular basis of TCM stroke therapy.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
May/6/2015
Abstract
Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a common traditional Chinese preparation extracted from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, and Fructus Forsythiae. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of SHL on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. SHL reduced the lung wet/dry weight ratio, lowered the number of total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissues 6 h after LPS treatment. It also inhibited the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that SHL attenuated LPS-induced interstitial edema, hemorrhage, and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lung tissue. Moreover, SHL could also enhance the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, increase the reduced glutathione content, and decrease the malondialdehyde content. The present results suggest that SHL possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties that may protect mice against LPS-induced ALI.
Publication
Journal: Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
October/14/2005
Abstract
Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a traditional Chinese formula containing Flos lonicerae, Radix scutellariae (RS) and Fructus forsythiae, and is commonly used for treating acute upper respiratory tract infection, acute bronchitis and light pneumonia. The aim of the present study is to compare the metabolites of baicalin in rats when orally administered with SHL and Radix scutellariae, and try to explore the principle of SHL compatibility. By using LC-MS(n) and HPLC-DAD, the metabolites of baicalin were analyzed from bile, urine and feces of rats dosed with SHL and RS. Our results showed significant difference of baicalin metabolism between RS and SHL. However, baicalein was found to be the main metabolites of baicalin in intestinal tract after oral administration of RS and SHL, glucuronide, glucoside and methylated products were also found in rat urine after administration of either RS or SHL. Meanwhile, several sulphates were found in rat urine after RS administration, but not found after SHL. Among the metabolites of the SHL, potentially there existed a isomerized baicalin and methylated product: 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone-7-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside, but without unidentified metabolite M3. Baicalein-6-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside-7-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside and baicalein-6-O-beta-glucose-7-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside were first reported by this study. The major metabolites of baicalin of RS and SHL in rat bile were the same, including baicalin-6-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside-7-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside, baicalin-6-beta-glucopyranuronoside and 6-O-methyl-baicalin-7-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside. Moreover, baicalein-6-O-beta-glucose-7-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside was also first found in rat bile by this study. Although baicalin-6-O-sulfate-7-O-beta-glucopyranuronoside was found in rat bile after RS administration, no sulphated products were found after oral administration of SHL. These differences of baicalin metabolism between RS and SHL indicated that compatibility of medicines could result in the differences of metabolites.
Publication
Journal: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
September/3/2010
Abstract
For the identification of anti-inflammatory ingredients from Forsythiae fructus (FF), we isolated three hydroxyl pentacyclic triterpene acids (HTAs), namely, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and betulinic acid, from an ethylacetate fraction of FF, and evaluated the effect of these triterpene acids on asthmatic guinea pigs by measuring specific airway resistance (sRaw) during both immediate-phase response (IAR) and late-phase response (LAR) following ovalbumin challenge using a double-chambered plethysmograph. Evaluation of leukocytes and chemical mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), in addition to a histopathological survey, was also performed. Ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids dosed at 12.5 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) decreased sRaw by 46.80%, 46.54% and 44.27% during in IAR, respectively. And ursolic acid (25 mg/kg), and oleanolic and betulinic acids (50 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) decreased sRaw by 38.19%, 38.15% and 35.55% in LAR, respectively. Histamine and phospholipase A(2) activity in BALF were significantly decreased by HTAs at 12.5 mg/kg, whereas eosinophil peroxide (EPO) activity in BALF and recruitment of eosinophils were significantly decreased by HTAs at 25 mg/kg, as well as improvement of pathological changes. However, betulinic acid at 12.5 mg/kg, and ursolic and oleanolic acids at 25 mg/kg significantly inhibited leukocytes in BALF, especially eosinophils and neutrophils. Three HTAs were found to have dose-dependent anti-asthmatic effects and ursolic acid is the most active, but their activities were less than those of sodium cromoglycate, salbutamol, and dexamethasone. These results indicate HTAs had anti-asthmatic activity by decreasing of sRaw, and eosinophil recruitment and release of inflammatory mediators into the lungs.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
November/10/2017
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Forsythiae Fructus (called Lianqiao in Chinese), the fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, is utilized as a common traditional medicine in China, Japan and Korea. It is traditionally used to treat pyrexia, inflammation, gonorrhea, carbuncle and erysipelas. Depending on the different harvest time, Forsythiae Fructus can be classified into two forms, namely Qingqiao and Laoqiao. The greenish fruits that start to ripen are collected as Qingqiao, while the yellow fruits that are fully ripe are collected as Laoqiao. Both are applied to medical use. This review aims to provide a systematic summary of F. suspensa (Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl) and to reveal the correlation between the traditional uses and pharmacological activities so as to offer inspiration for future research.
METHODS
All corresponding information about F. suspensa was searched by Scifinder and obtained from scientific databases including Springer, Science Direct, Wiley, Pubmed and China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI). Local dissertations and books were searched as well.
RESULTS
According to classical Chinese herbal texts and Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Forsythiae Fructus dominantly displays heat-clearing and detoxifying effects in TCM prescriptions. In modern research, more than 230 compounds were separated and identified from F. suspensa. 211 Of them were isolated from fruits. Lignans and phenylethanoid glycosides are considered as the characteristic and active constituents of this herb, such as forsythiaside, phillyrin, rutin and phillygenin. They exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-virus, anti-cancer and anti-allergy effects, etc. Currently, there is no report on the toxicity of Forsythiae Fructus, despite slight toxicity of forsythiaside reported in local publications. Compared to Laoqiao, Qingqiao contains higher levels of forsythiaside, forsythoside C, cornoside, rutin, phillyrin, gallic acid and chlorogenic acid and lower levels of rengyol, β-glucose and S-suspensaside methyl ether.
CONCLUSIONS
Heat-clearing actions of Forsythiae Fructus are based on the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of lignans and phenylethanoid glycosides. Detoxifying effects attribute to the antibacterial, antiviral and anti-cancer activities of Forsythiae Fructus. And traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics of Forsythiae Fructus (bitter flavor, slightly cold nature and lung meridian) supported its strong anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, the remarkable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities of Forsythiae Fructus contribute to its anti-cancer and neuroprotective activities. The higher proportion of lignans and phenylethanoid glycosides in Qingqiao than Laoqiao might explain the better antioxidant ability of Qingqiao and more frequent uses of Qingqiao in TCM prescriptions. For future research, more in vivo experiments and clinical studies are encouraged to further clarify the relation between traditional uses and modern applications. Regarding to Qingqiao and Laoqiao, they remain to be differentiated by all-round quality control methods, and the chemical compositions and clinical effects between them should be compared.
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