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Publication
Journal: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
February/23/2004
Abstract
Serotonin (5-HT)-receptor-based mechanisms have been postulated to play a critical role in the action of the new generation of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) that are usually referred to as atypical APDs because of their ability to achieve an antipsychotic effect with lower rates of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) compared to first-generation APDs such as haloperidol. Specifically, it has been proposed by Meltzer et al. [J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 251 (1989) 238] that potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonism together with weak dopamine (DA) D2 receptor antagonism are the principal pharmacologic features that differentiate clozapine and other apparent atypical APDs from first-generation typical APD. This hypothesis is consistent with the atypical features of quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone, which are the most common treatments for schizophrenia in the United States and many other countries, as well as a large number of compounds in various stages of development. Subsequent research showed that 5-HT1A agonism may be an important consequence of 5-HT2A antagonism and that substitution of 5-HT1A agonism for 5-HT2A antagonism may also produce an atypical APD drug when coupled with weak D2 antagonism. Aripiprazole, the most recently introduced atypical APD, and a D2 receptor partial agonist, may also owe some of its atypical properties to its net effect of weak D2 antagonism, 5-HT2A antagonism and 5-HT1A agonism [Eur. J. Pharmacol. 441 (2002) 137]. By contrast, the alternative "fast-off" hypothesis of Kapur and Seeman [Am. J. Psychiatry 158 (2001) 360] applies only to clozapine and quetiapine and is inconsistent with the "slow" off rate of most atypical APDs, including olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors located on glutamatergic pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus, 5-HT2A receptors on the cell bodies of DA neurons in the ventral tegmentum and substantia nigra and GABAergic interneurons in the cortex and hippocampus, and 5-HT1A receptors in the raphe nuclei are likely to be important sites of action of the atypical APDs. At the same time, evidence has accumulated for the important modulatory role of 5-HT2C and 5-HT6 receptors for some of the effects of some of the current APDs. Thus, 5-HT has joined DA as a critical target for developing effective APDs and led to the search for novel drugs with complex pharmacology, ending the exclusive search for single-receptor targets, e.g., the D3 or D4 receptor, and drugs that are selective for them.
Publication
Journal: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry
May/21/2002
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Although the principal brain target that all antipsychotic drugs attach to is the dopamine D2 receptor, traditional or typical antipsychotics, by attaching to it, induce extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). They also, by binding to the D2 receptor, elevate serum prolactin. Atypical antipsychotics given in dosages within the clinically effective range do not bring about these adverse clinical effects. To understand how these drugs work, it is important to examine the atypical antipsychotics' mechanism of action and how it differs from that of the more typical drugs.
METHODS
This review analyzes the affinities, the occupancies, and the dissociation time-course of various antipsychotics at dopamine D2 receptors and at serotonin (5-HT) receptors, both in the test tube and in live patients.
RESULTS
Of the 31 antipsychotics examined, the older traditional antipsychotics such as trifluperazine, pimozide, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, and flupenthixol bind more tightly than dopamine itself to the dopamine D2 receptor, with dissociation constants that are lower than that for dopamine. The newer, atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, remoxipride, clozapine, olanzapine, sertindole, ziprasidone, and amisulpride all bind more loosely than dopamine to the dopamine D2 receptor and have dissociation constants higher than that for dopamine. These tight and loose binding data agree with the rates of antipsychotic dissociation from the human-cloned D2 receptor. For instance, radioactive haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and raclopride all dissociate very slowly over a 30-minute time span, while radioactive quetiapine, clozapine, remoxipride, and amisulpride dissociate rapidly, in less than 60 seconds. These data also match clinical brain-imaging findings that show haloperidol remaining constantly bound to D2 in humans undergoing 2 positron emission tomography (PET) scans 24 hours apart. Conversely, the occupation of D2 by clozapine or quetiapine has mostly disappeared after 24 hours.
CONCLUSIONS
Atypicals clinically help patients by transiently occupying D2 receptors and then rapidly dissociating to allow normal dopamine neurotransmission. This keeps prolactin levels normal, spares cognition, and obviates EPS. One theory of atypicality is that the newer drugs block 5-HT2A receptors at the same time as they block dopamine receptors and that, somehow, this serotonin-dopamine balance confers atypicality. This, however, is not borne out by the results. While 5-HT2A receptors are readily blocked at low dosages of most atypical antipsychotic drugs (with the important exceptions of remoxipride and amisulpride, neither of which is available for use in Canada) the dosages at which this happens are below those needed to alleviate psychosis. In fact, the antipsychotic threshold occupancy of D2 for antipsychotic action remains at about 65% for both typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs, regardless of whether 5-HT2A receptors are blocked or not. At the same time, the antipsychotic threshold occupancy of D2 for eliciting EPS remains at about 80% for both typical and atypical antipsychotics, regardless of the occupancy of 5-HT2A receptors.
CONCLUSIONS
The "fast-off-D2" theory, on the other hand, predicts which antipsychotic compounds will or will not produce EPS and hyperprolactinemia and which compounds present a relatively low risk for tardive dyskinesia. This theory also explains why L-dopa psychosis responds to low atypical antipsychotic dosages, and it suggests various individualized treatment strategies.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Oncology
October/12/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
c-MET (MET) receptor activation is associated with poor prognosis and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This global, randomized phase II trial examined erlotinib plus tivantinib (ARQ 197; ArQule, Woburn, MA), a novel MET inhibitor.
METHODS
Previously treated patients with EGFR TKI-naive advanced NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive oral erlotinib (150 mg daily) plus oral tivantinib (360 mg twice daily) or erlotinib plus placebo (EP). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). At the time of progression, cross-over from EP to erlotinib plus tivantinib (ET) was permitted. Archival tumor tissue specimens were required.
RESULTS
One hundred sixty-seven patients were randomly assigned to ET (n = 84) and to EP (n = 83). Median PFS was 3.8 months for ET and 2.3 months for EP (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.16; P = .24). Exploratory analysis revealed that the small cohort with KRAS mutations achieved a PFS HR of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.70; interaction P = .006). Objective responses were seen in 10% of patients on ET, 7% of patients on EP, and in two patients who crossed over from EP to ET, including one with EGFR mutation and MET gene copy number greater than 5. There were no significant differences in adverse events between study arms.
CONCLUSIONS
The combination of the MET inhibitor tivantinib and erlotinib is well-tolerated. Although the study did not meet its primary end point, evidence of activity was demonstrated, especially among patients with KRAS mutations. Additional study of tivantinib and erlotinib in patients with NSCLC is planned.
Publication
Journal: PLoS Pathogens
July/19/2006
Abstract
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 viral protein U (Vpu) protein enhances the release of diverse retroviruses from human, but not monkey, cells and is thought to do so by ablating a dominant restriction to particle release. Here, we determined how Vpu expression affects the subcellular distribution of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV) Gag proteins in human cells where Vpu is, or is not, required for efficient particle release. In HeLa cells, where Vpu enhances HIV-1 and MLV release approximately 10-fold, concentrations of HIV-1 Gag and MLV Gag fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) were initially detected at the plasma membrane, but then accumulated over time in early and late endosomes. Endosomal accumulation of Gag-CFP was prevented by Vpu expression and, importantly, inhibition of plasma membrane to early endosome transport by dominant negative mutants of Rab5a, dynamin, and EPS-15. Additionally, accumulation of both HIV and MLV Gag in endosomes required a functional late-budding domain. In human HOS cells, where HIV-1 and MLV release was efficient even in the absence of Vpu, Gag proteins were localized predominantly at the plasma membrane, irrespective of Vpu expression or manipulation of endocytic transport. While these data indicated that Vpu inhibits nascent virion endocytosis, Vpu did not affect transferrin endocytosis. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis did not restore Vpu-defective HIV-1 release in HeLa cells, but instead resulted in accumulation of mature virions that could be released from the cell surface by protease treatment. Thus, these findings suggest that a specific activity that is present in HeLa cells, but not in HOS cells, and is counteracted by Vpu, traps assembled retrovirus particles at the cell surface. This entrapment leads to subsequent endocytosis by a Rab5a- and clathrin-dependent mechanism and intracellular sequestration of virions in endosomes.
Publication
Journal: Biological Cybernetics
November/26/1995
Abstract
This study deals with neurophysiologically based models simulating electrical brain activity (i.e., the electroencephalogram or EEG, and evoked potentials or EPs). A previously developed lumped-parameter model of a single cortical column was implemented using a more accurate computational procedure. Anatomically acceptable values for the various model parameters were determined, and a multi-dimensional exploration of the model parameter-space was conducted. It was found that the model could produce a large variety of EEG-like waveforms and rhythms. Coupling two models, with delays in the interconnections to simulate the synaptic connections within and between cortical areas, made it possible to replicate the spatial distribution of alpha and beta activity. EPs were simulated by presenting pulses to the input of the coupled models. In general, the responses were more realistic than those produced using a single model. Our simulations also suggest that the scalp-recorded EP is at least partially due to a phase reordering of the ongoing activity.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Molecular Medicine
January/19/2000
Abstract
The glycoprotein recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 17-1A is present on most carcinomas, which makes it an attractive target for immunotherapy. Indeed, adjuvant treatment with mAb 17-1A did successfully reduce the 5 years mortality among colorectal cancer patients with minimal residual disease. Currently the antibody is approved for clinical use in Germany, and is on its way to approval in a number of other countries. New immunotherapeutic strategies targeting the 17-1A antigen are in development or even in early-phase clinical trials. Therefore, a better understanding of the biology of the 17-1A antigen may result in improved strategies for the treatment and diagnosis of human carcinomas. In this review the properties of the 17-1A antigen are discussed concerning tumor biology and the function of the molecule. This 40-kDa glycoprotein functions as an Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule, therefore the name Ep-CAM was suggested. Ep-CAM mediates Ca2+-independent homotypic cell-cell adhesions. Formation of Ep-CAM-mediated adhesions has a negative regulatory effect on adhesions mediated by classic cadherins, which may have strong effects on the differentiation and growth of epithelial cells. Indeed, in vivo expression of Ep-CAM is related to increased epithelial proliferation and negatively correlates with cell differentiation. A regulatory function of Ep-CAM in the morphogenesis of epithelial tissue has been demonstrated for a number of tissues, in particular pancreas and mammary gland. The function of Ep-CAM should be taken into consideration when developing new therapeutic approaches targeting this molecule.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
November/22/1983
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine whether the two type of cells (one neuroblast-like and the other epithelial in appearance) of the human neuroblastoma line SK-N-SH in culture undergo morphological interconversion, whether conversion is bidirectional, and whether there are coordinate neurochemical changes. Phenotypic analysis of serially isolated neuroblast clones (SH-SY, SH-SY5, SH-SY5Y) revealed conversion to epithelial-like cells. Conversely, conversion also was promoted from an epithelial-like clone (SH-EP) to neuroblastic subclones. Cell origin could be verified because of a marker chromosome specific to SH-EP. Only neuroblastic subclones of SH-EP contained activities for tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, enzymes unique to catecholamine neurons; epithelial-like cells lacked activities for these enzymes. These findings indicate a coordinate morphological and biochemical interconversion of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and reveal a plasticity in phenotypic expression in malignant neuronal cells.
Publication
Journal: Nature Reviews Microbiology
May/17/2017
Abstract
Bacterial biofilms are formed by communities that are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Importantly, bacteria in biofilms exhibit a set of 'emergent properties' that differ substantially from free-living bacterial cells. In this Review, we consider the fundamental role of the biofilm matrix in establishing the emergent properties of biofilms, describing how the characteristic features of biofilms - such as social cooperation, resource capture and enhanced survival of exposure to antimicrobials - all rely on the structural and functional properties of the matrix. Finally, we highlight the value of an ecological perspective in the study of the emergent properties of biofilms, which enables an appreciation of the ecological success of biofilms as habitat formers and, more generally, as a bacterial lifestyle.
Publication
Journal: Schizophrenia Research
May/26/1999
Abstract
The objective of this meta-analysis is to summarize the efficacy and tolerability of the new antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, sertindole and quetiapine in schizophrenia compared to placebo and conventional antipsychotics. The main results are: (1) All of the 4 new drugs are more effective than placebo, but the magnitude of the effect is only moderate [mean effect size, r, of all antipsychotics vs. placebo = 0.25, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.28, n = 2477]. (2) According to the studies published to date, sertindole and quetiapine are as effective as haloperidol, and risperidone and olanzapine are slightly more effective than haloperidol in the treatment of global schizophrenic symptomatology. (3) With respect to negative symptoms, all new antipsychotics are more effective than placebo. However, contrary to widespread opinion, so is the 'conventional' antipsychotic haloperidol. Risperidone and olanzapine are slightly superior, sertindole is as effective and--according to the only study fully published to date--quetiapine is even slightly less effective than haloperidol in this regard. (4) All new antipsychotics are associated with less frequent use of antiparkinson medication than haloperidol, with risperidone appearing to have a slightly less favourable EPS-profile than the other new antipsychotics. The methodological limitations of this review, the generalizability of the results and expectations from future research are discussed.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Cancer Research
January/16/2012
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
According to current guidelines, molecular tests predicting the outcome of breast cancer patients can be used to assist in making treatment decisions after consideration of conventional markers. We developed and validated a gene expression signature predicting the likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy.
METHODS
RNA levels assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue were used to calculate a risk score (Endopredict, EP) consisting of eight cancer-related and three reference genes. EP was combined with nodal status and tumor size into a comprehensive risk score, EPclin. Both prespecified risk scores including cutoff values to determine a risk group for each patient (low and high) were validated independently in patients from two large randomized phase III trials [Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG)-6: n = 378, ABCSG-8: n = 1,324].
RESULTS
In both validation cohorts, continuous EP was an independent predictor of distant recurrence in multivariate analysis (ABCSG-6: P = 0.010, ABCSG-8: P < 0.001). Combining Adjuvant!Online, quantitative ER, Ki67, and treatment with EP yielded a prognostic power significantly superior to the clinicopathologic factors alone [c-indices: 0.764 vs. 0.750, P = 0.024 (ABCSG-6) and 0.726 vs. 0.701, P = 0.003 (ABCSG-8)]. EPclin had c-indices of 0.788 and 0.732 and resulted in 10-year distant recurrence rates of 4% and 4% in EPclin low-risk and 28% and 22% in EPclin high-risk patients in ABCSG-6 (P < 0.001) and ABCSG-8 (P < 0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
The multigene EP risk score provided additional prognostic information to the risk of distant recurrence of breast cancer patients, independent from clinicopathologic parameters. The EPclin score outperformed all conventional clinicopathologic risk factors.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Research
August/7/2005
Abstract
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its product prostaglandin (PG) E2 underlie an immunosuppressive network that is important in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer. CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cells play an important role in maintenance of immunologic self-tolerance. CD4+ CD25+ Treg cell activities increase in lung cancer and appear to play a role in suppressing antitumor immune responses. Definition of the pathways controlling Treg cell activities will enhance our understanding of limitation of the host antitumor immune responses. Tumor-derived COX-2/PGE2 induced expression of the Treg cell-specific transcription factor, Foxp3, and increased Treg cell activity. Assessment of E-prostanoid (<em>EP</em>) receptor requirements revealed that PGE2-mediated induction of Treg cell Foxp3 gene expression was significantly reduced in the absence of the <em>EP</em>4 receptor and ablated in the absence of the <em>EP</em>2 receptor expression. In vivo, COX-2 inhibition reduced Treg cell frequency and activity, attenuated Foxp3 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and decreased tumor burden. Transfer of Treg cells or administration of PGE2 to mice receiving COX-2 inhibitors reversed these effects. We conclude that inhibition of COX-2/PGE2 suppresses Treg cell activity and enhances antitumor responses.
Publication
Journal: Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
February/23/2004
Abstract
A review of the history of antipsychotics reveals that while the therapeutic effects of chlorpromazine and reserpine were discovered and actively researched almost concurrently, subsequent drug development has been restricted to drugs acting on postsynaptic receptors rather than modulation of dopamine release. The fundamental property of atypical antipsychotics is their ability to produce an antipsychotic effect in the absence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) or prolactin elevation. Modulation of the dopamine D2 receptor remains both necessary and sufficient for antipsychotic drug action, with affinity to the D2-receptor being the single most important discriminator between a typical and atypical drug profile. Most antipsychotics, including atypical antipsychotics, show a dose-dependent threshold of D2 receptor occupancy for their therapeutic effects, although the precise threshold is different for different drugs. Some atypical antipsychotics do not appear to reach the threshold for EPS and prolactin elevation, possibly accounting for their atypical nature. To link the biological theories of antipsychotics to their psychological effects, a hypothesis is proposed wherein psychosis is a state of aberrant salience of stimuli and ideas, and antipsychotics, via modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, dampen the salience of these symptoms. Thus, antipsychotics do not excise psychosis: they provide the neurochemical platform for the resolution of symptoms. Future generations of antipsychotics may need to move away from a "one-size-fits-all polypharmacy-in-a-pill" approach to treat all the different aspects of schizophrenia. At least in theory a preferred approach would be the development of specific treatments for the different dimensions of schizophrenia (e.g., positive, negative, cognitive, and affective) that can be flexibly used and titrated in the service of patients' presenting psychopathology.
Publication
Journal: Life Sciences
January/4/2004
Abstract
The EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors are two of the four subtypes of receptors for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). They are in the family of G-protein coupled receptors and both receptors were initially characterized as coupling to Gs and increasing intracellular cAMP formation. Recently, however, we have shown that both receptors can stimulate T-cell factor (Tcf) mediated transcriptional activity. The EP(2) receptor does this primarily through cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), whereas the EP(4) utilizes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as well as PKA. In addition, we have shown that the EP(4) receptor, but not the EP(2), can activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 by way of PI3K leading to the induction of early growth response factor-1 (EGR-1), a transcription factor traditionally associated with wound healing. This induction of EGR-1 expression has significant implications concerning the potential role of PGE(2) in cancer and inflammatory disorders.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
August/23/1995
Abstract
The effect of surface roughness on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis was examined. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured on titanium (Ti) disks that had been prepared by one of five different treatment regimens. All disks were pretreated with hydrofluroic acid-nitric acid and washed (PT). PT disks were also: washed, and then electropolished (EP); fine sandblasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (FA); coarse sandblasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (CA); or Ti plasma-sprayed (TPS). Standard tissue culture plastic was used as a control. Surface topography and profile were evaluated by brightfield and darkfield microscopy, cold field emission scanning electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy, while chemical composition was mapped using energy dispersion X-ray analysis and elemental distribution determined using Auger electron spectroscopy. The effect of surface roughness on the cells was evaluated by measuring cell number, [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, alkaline phosphatase specific activity, [3H]uridine incorporation into RNA, [3H]proline incorporation into collagenase digestible protein (CDP) and noncollagenase-digestible protein (NCP), and [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan. Based on surface analysis, the five different Ti surfaces were ranked in order of smoothest to roughest: EP, PT, FA, CA, and TPS. A TiO2 layer was found on all surfaces that ranged in thickness from 100 A in the smoothest group to 300 A in the roughest. When compared to confluent cultures of cells on plastic, the number of cells was reduced on the TPS surfaces and increased on the EP surfaces, while the number of cells on the other surfaces was equivalent to plastic. [3H]Thymidine incorporation was inversely related to surface roughness. Alkaline phosphatase specific activity in isolated cells was found to decrease with increasing surface roughness, except for those cells cultured on CA. In contrast, enzyme activity in the cell layer was only decreased in cultures grown on FA- and TPS-treated surfaces. A direct correlation between surface roughness and RNA and CDP production was found. Surface roughness had no apparent effect on NCP production. Proteoglycan synthesis by the cells was inhibited on all the surfaces studied, with the largest inhibition observed in the CA and EP groups. These results demonstrate that surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and matrix production in vitro. The results also suggest that implant surface roughness may play a role in determining phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
Publication
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine
April/6/1983
Abstract
To clarify the mechanisms underlying the loss of body protein during fever and sepsis, we incubated rat muscles with highly purified human leukocytic pyrogen. This polypeptide, which appears identical to interleukin-1, is released by leukocytes and signals the onset of fever in the hypothalamus. In muscles incubated at 37 degrees C, leukocytic pyrogen stimulated net protein degradation by 62 to 118 per cent (P less than 0.001). Proteolysis increased, but rates of muscle-protein synthesis did not change. The pyrogen also dramatically stimulated muscle synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which promotes protein breakdown in this tissue. Addition of indomethacin with leukocytic pyrogen prevented prostaglandin E2 synthesis and abolished the increase in proteolysis. The acceleration of protein breakdown induced by pyrogen was also blocked by Ep-475, an inhibitor of lysosomal thiol proteases. When muscles were incubated at 39 degrees C to mimic fever, protein breakdown increased, but addition of leukocytic pyrogen caused a further marked increase in proteolysis and prostaglandin E2 production. Thus, human leukocytic pyrogen can act on skeletal muscle to stimulate intralysosomal proteolysis by increasing the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that cyclooxygenase inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of negative nitrogen balance in fever. In addition, the release of prostaglandin E2 induced by leukocytic pyrogen may account for the myalgia that accompanies fever.
Publication
Journal: Circulation Research
December/16/2004
Abstract
Studies on patients and large animal models suggest the importance of atrial fibrosis in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). To investigate whether increased fibrosis is sufficient to produce a substrate for AF, we have studied cardiac electrophysiology (EP) and inducibility of atrial arrhythmias in MHC-TGFcys33ser transgenic mice (Tx), which have increased fibrosis in the atrium but not in the ventricles. In anesthetized mice, wild-type (Wt) and Tx did not show significant differences in surface ECG parameters. With transesophageal atrial pacing, no significant differences were observed in EP parameters, except for a significant decrease in corrected sinus node recovery time in Tx mice. Burst pacing induced AF in 14 of 29 Tx mice, whereas AF was not induced in Wt littermates (P<0.01). In Langendorff perfused hearts, atrial conduction was studied using a 16-electrode array. Epicardial conduction velocity was significantly decreased in the Tx RA compared with the Wt RA. In the Tx LA, conduction velocity was not significantly different from Wt, but conduction was more heterogeneous. Action potential characteristics recorded with intracellular microelectrodes did not reveal differences between Wt and Tx mice in either atrium. Thus, in this transgenic mouse model, selective atrial fibrosis is sufficient to increase AF inducibility.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Oncology
May/11/2006
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Etoposide and cisplatin (EP) has been a standard treatment for extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). An earlier phase III trial reported improved survival for patients receiving irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) versus EP. Our trial was designed to determine if a modified weekly regimen of IP would provide superior survival with less toxicity than EP.
METHODS
The primary objective was to compare overall survival in extensive-disease SCLC patients randomly assigned to receive IP (n = 221) or EP (n = 110). Patients were randomly assigned in 2:1 ratio to cisplatin 30 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) + irinotecan 65 mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 8 every 21 days, or cisplatin 60 mg/m2 IV on day 1, and etoposide 120 mg/m2 IV on days 1 to 3 every 21 days for at least four cycles, until progressive disease, or until intolerable toxicity resulted.
RESULTS
Selected grade 3/4 toxicities for IP/EP were: neutropenia (36.2% v 86.5%; P < .01), febrile neutropenia (3.7% v 10.4%; P = .06), anemia (4.8% v 11.5%; P = .02), thrombocytopenia (4.3% v 19.2%; P < .01), vomiting (12.5% v 3.8%; P = .04), and diarrhea (21.3% v 0%; P < .01). There was no significant difference in response rates (48% v 43.6%), median time to progression (4.1 v 4.6 months), or overall survival (median survival time, 9.3 months v 10.2 months; P = .74).
CONCLUSIONS
Treatment with this dose and schedule of IP did not result in improved survival when compared with EP. Fewer patients receiving IP had grade 3/4 anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and febrile neutropenia compared with patients receiving EP, but more had grade 3/4 diarrhea and vomiting.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Cell Biology
May/19/1994
Abstract
The epithelial glycoprotein 40 (EGP40, also known as GA733-2, ESA, KSA, and the 17-1A antigen), encoded by the GA-733-2 gene, is expressed on the baso-lateral cell surface in most human simple epithelia. The protein is also expressed in the vast majority of carcinomas and has attracted attention as a tumor marker. The function of the protein is unknown. We demonstrate here that EGP40 is an epithelium-specific intercellular adhesion molecule. The molecule mediates, in a Ca(2+)-independent manner, a homophilic cell-cell adhesion of murine cells transfected with the complete EGP40 cDNA. Two murine cell lines were tested for the effects of EGP40 expression: fibroblastic L cells and dedifferentiated mammary carcinoma L153S cells. The expression of the EGP40 protein causes morphological changes in cultures of transfected cells--increasing intercellular adhesion of the transfectants--and has a clear effect on cell aggregating behavior in suspension aggregation assays. EGP40 directs sorting in mixed cell populations, in particular, causes segregation of the transfectants from the corresponding parental cells. EGP40 expression suppresses invasive colony growth of L cells in EHS-matrigel providing tight adhesions between cells in growing colonies. EGP40 can thus be considered a new member of the intercellular adhesion molecules. In its biological behavior EGP40 resembles to some extent the molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), although no immunoglobulin-like repeats are present in the EGP40 molecule. Certain structural similarities in general organization of the molecule exist between EGP40 and the lin-12/Notch proteins. A possible role of this adhesion molecule in formation of architecture of epithelial tissues is discussed. To reflect the function of the molecule the name Ep-CAM for EGP40 seems appropriate.
Publication
Journal: Physiological Reviews
February/13/1991
Abstract
The biology of cytokines is one of the most rapidly growing areas of biomedical research. It is understandable why the assumption was made several years ago that EP was equivalent to IL-1 (both alpha and beta) and subsequently to IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and TNF. However, as more data have been obtained, it has become clearer that many cytokines and hormones are capable of participating in the febrile response. It is also becoming apparent that EPs and ECs might influence body temperature during nonpathological states, perhaps contributing to the elevation in temperature during or after exercise, the circadian variation in temperature, and others. Medical textbooks have begun to list IL-1 as the EP. As I attempted to make clear in this review, evidence that IL-1 alpha is a circulating EP is poor. The evidence is considerably stronger that IL-1 beta is an EP, at least during LPS-induced fever in rodents. The point I have tried to emphasize is that before any cytokine or hormone can be characterized as an EP or EC (or, for that matter, as being involved in any of the acute phase responses), clearly established rules must be followed, which are patterned after the traditional criteria used by Koch to distinguish a pathogenic microorganism from a benign one. As summarized in Tables 4 and 5, there are many candidates for EPs and ECs, but much more experimental evidence is essential before we gain a clear understanding of the relationship between contact with an exogenous pyrogen, the release of EPs and ECs, and the development of fever.
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