HIV Infections
Best match
All
Search in:AllTitleAbstractAuthor name
Publications
(170K+)
Publication
Journal: Rhode Island medical journal (2013)
November/2/2019
Abstract
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective tool for preventing HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), but its cost-effectiveness has varied across settings. Using an agent-based model, we projected the cost-effectiveness of a statewide PrEP program for MSM in Rhode Island over the next decade. In the absence of PrEP, the model predicted an average of 830 new HIV infections over ten years. Scaling up the existing PrEP program to cover 15% of MSM with ten or more partners each year could reduce the number of new HIV infections by 33.1% at a cost of $184,234 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Expanded PrEP use among MSM at high risk for HIV infection has the potential to prevent a large number of new HIV infections but the high drug-related costs may limit the cost-effectiveness of this intervention.
Publication
Journal: Scientific reports
October/23/2019
Abstract
UNAIDS report documents 95% increase in new HIV infections among key populations in Eastern Europe and Middle East and North Africa region. Data on HIV and STIs among MSM in Lebanon is still scarce. Therefore, the aim was to assess prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lebanon and associations with sexual practices and substance-use. 2238 MSM attended a sexual health clinic in Lebanon between 2015-2018. Demographics, substance-use and sexual practices were collected. Attendees tested for HIV and other STIs. HIV infection was diagnosed in 5.6% of the sample. Only 19% received sexual health education from reliable sources (school/university/healthcare workers), 78% reported having multiple partners in the past three months (2-5 partners: 58%, 6+: 20%) and 67% reported inconsistent condom-use. Moreover, 40% of HIV + cases were returning attendees who already received information about condom-use. Additionally, having only a school level education (11%) increases the odds of having inconsistent condom-use with casual partners (adj.OR:1.9, p < 0.001). The results reflect the urgent need for: (1) accurate and comprehensive sexual health and harm reduction education and promotion in Lebanon; (2) making pre-exposure prophylaxis available for free to key populations to contain the epidemics at an early stage.
Publication
Journal: AIDS (London, England)
August/9/2019
Abstract
In South Africa, adolescents account for the largest share of new HIV infections. Given the scale of the epidemic, millions of adolescents cope with familial HIV illness and AIDS orphanhood. Developing an understanding of adolescent resilience is vital for informing HIV and mental health prevention efforts.A cross-sectional survey of N = 195 South African adolescents, 13-15 years, and living in communities with high prevalence of HIV and poor mental health, was used to gather data on resilience, psychosocial factors, and mental health.Participants were recruited through systematic community-based household sampling. Analysis was conducted on a subsample of adolescents identified as potentially vulnerable (n = 82); potential vulnerability was defined as adolescents living with HIV, residing with parents or caregivers living with HIV, or experiencing orphanhood. Differences on behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in those with higher and lower resilience were evaluated using SPSS software.Among adolescents identified as potentially vulnerable (n = 82), those with higher resilience scores reported significantly lower behavioral problems using the total difficulties Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire score (P < 0.01) with a mean score difference of 2.76 (standard error = 1.02). Multivariate linear regressions were conducted with total difficulties Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire score as the dependent variable. Higher resilience among vulnerable youth was significantly associated with fewer behavioral problems (β = -0.229, P < 0.05), even after adjusting for variables that could also contribute to poor behavioral outcomes.Resilience is related to the behavioral health of vulnerable HIV-affected adolescents. Resilience-focused interventions hold promise for improving the behavioral health of adolescents living in high HIV prevalence settings.
Publication
Journal: Scientific reports
April/19/2019
Abstract
Injection drug use (IDU) is one of the most significant risk factors for viral hepatitis (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. This study assessed seroprevalence rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kuwait. We conducted a cross-sectional study from April to September 2017. A total of 521 consecutive subjects, admitted at Al-Sabah Hospital. The serological and virological markers of HBV, HCV, and HIV were tested using automated platforms. The mean age of the participants was 32.26 yrs, and the sex ratio (Male/Female) was 15.28. The prevalence rates of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV antibodies were 0.38% (95% CI: 0.07-1.53%), 12.28% (95% CI: 9.65-15.48), and 0.77% (95% CI: 0.25-2.23%), respectively. HCV-RNA was evident in 51.72% (95% CI: 38.34-64.87%) among anti-HCV positive participants. Multivariate analysis showed that the high prevalence of HCV infection amongst PWID is associated with age. Whereas, multivariate analysis revealed no significant associations with age and gender regarding HIV and HBV infections. The results suggest that high rates of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections among injecting drug users than the general population. These findings emphasize the importance of introducing interventions and harm reduction initiatives that have a high impact on reducing needle sharing.
Publication
Journal: AIDS care
December/15/2018
Abstract
Though mother-to-child HIV transmission has been dramatically reduced in the past decade, there are currently an estimated 1.8 million children living with HIV across the globe, and over 30% of all new HIV infections occur among youth ages 15-25. While all youth experience developmental challenges, children and adolescents who are living with HIV must navigate these challenges within the context of high HIV stigma and must cope with a host of psychosocial and health-related challenges. In addition, because HIV disproportionately impacts individuals from minority statuses (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality) and people living in poverty, vulnerabilities are often compounded. Resilience frameworks emphasize the capacity for positive adaptation to adversity, and thus provide a useful lens to identify and build upon individual and community strengths. This article introduces a special issue of AIDS Care that examines factors associated with resilience among children and adolescents affected by or living with HIV, as well as innovative interventions designed to build resilience among HIV youth populations. The articles highlighted within this issue examine the possibility of building resilience across diverse settings (e.g., schools, communities, healthcare clinics) and with varied populations (e.g., youth living with HIV, AIDS orphans, young men who have sex with men). We also highlight innovative approaches to resilience-building, including a new mobile Health (mHealth) smartphone game that aims to improve adherence among youth living with HIV in the United States.
Publication
Journal: Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
December/11/2018
Abstract
HIV infection may result in neurocognitive deficits, but the effects of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB+), a common comorbid condition in HIV infection, on cognition in HIV infections are unknown. Accordingly, we examined the effects of TB+, on neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected (HIV+) Zambian adults.All participants were drawn from HIV clinics in and around Lusaka, the capital of Zambia.Participants were 275 HIV+, of whom 237 were HIV+ and TB-negative (HIV+/TB-), and 38 also had pulmonary TB+ (HIV+/TB+). Controls were 324 HIV- and TB-uninfected (HIV-) healthy controls. All HIV+ participants were prescribed combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). Published, demographically corrected Zambian neuropsychological norms were used to correct for effects of age, education, sex, and urban/rural residence.Neuropsychological deficits, assessed by global deficit scores, were more prevalent in this order: 14% (46 of 324) of HIV- controls, 34% (80 of 237) of HIV+/TB-, and 55% (21 of 38) of HIV+/TB+ group. Thus, both HIV-infected groups evidenced more impairment than HIV- controls, and the HIV+/TB+ group had a higher rate of neurocognitive impairment than the HIV+/TB- group. HIV+/TB+ patients were more likely to be male, younger, less-educated, and have lower CD4 counts and detectable HIV RNA in blood compared with the HIV+/TB- patients.In HIV infection, TB may contribute to cognitive impairment, even after controlling for lower CD4 counts and viral load. Thus, systemic inflammation from HIV and TB and more advanced immune deficiency at diagnosis of HIV may contribute to impaired cognition in HIV+/TB+ patients.
Publication
Journal: AIDS and behavior
November/26/2018
Abstract
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) face several challenges in terms of the medical management of their disease. Alongside this are stigma, discrimination and psychosocial issues associated with HIV infection. In this study, the relationships associated with HIV-related stigma, mental health and quality of life for HIV-positive patients were investigated. This cross-sectional study examined a sample of 450 HIV positive patients from the Infectious Diseases and Behavioral Health Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in the city of Tehran, Iran. PLWHA completed Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Berger Scale Stigma (BSS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), WHO Quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and Philips Social Support Appraisals (SSA). Stigma was significantly correlated with psychological variables, social support, and quality of life. A prevalence of psychiatric disorders was reported by 78.8%. Findings suggested that psychosocial interventions reduce HIV related stigma, address psychological disorders and build social support to improve quality of life for people living with HIV.
Publication
Journal: Perfusion
November/25/2018
Abstract
As experience with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) increases, indications for its use have expanded to diverse patient populations, including those with HIV infection. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a particularly devastating complication of HIV infections. The objective of this study was to review ECLS use in HIV-positive patients, with particular emphasis on those with concomitant PJP infection.
All patients were treated by the same ECLS team, consisting of an ECLS specialist intensivist, cardiothoracic surgeon and allied medical professionals at three healthcare institutions. The same ECLS protocol was utilized for all patients during the study period. A retrospective review was performed for all HIV-positive patients placed on ECLS from May 2011 to October 2014. Demographic, clinical, ECLS and complication data were reviewed to identify risk factors for death.
A total of 22 HIV-positive patients received ECLS therapy during the study period. All patients were supported with venovenous ECLS and overall survival to hospital discharge was 68%. Survival amongst the PJP positive cohort was 60%. Non-survivors were more likely to require inotropic medications on ECLS (100% non-survivors vs. 46.7% survivors, p=0.022) and had a longer total duration of ECLS (13 days non-survivors vs. 7 days survivors, p=0.011). No difference was observed between PJP-positive and PJP-negative patients with regard to demographic data, complication rates or survival.
ECLS is a viable treatment option in carefully selected HIV-positive patients, including those with severe disease as manifested by PJP infection.
Publication
Journal: AIDS and behavior
November/25/2018
Abstract
Although pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM), condoms remain key to HIV prevention. Implementation intentions-which link a behavioral action plan with a situation or cue-may predict condom use. The Strength of Implementation Intentions Scale (SIIS), which assesses condom use implementation intentions, has not been evaluated among MSM. A structural model tested whether the SIIS mediated the relationship between condom use intentions and condomless sex acts among 266 sexually-active MSM (56% White, 26% Black, 15% Latino, Mage = 32.54). After controlling for PrEP use, HIV-status, and demographics (χ2(107) = 140.06, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.03), the SIIS fully mediated the relationship between condom use intentions and condomless sex acts. The SIIS can serve as a fidelity check for interventions, a mediator in theoretical models, and future studies should incorporate implementation intentions into HIV prevention interventions for MSM.
Publication
Journal: AIDS and behavior
November/25/2018
Abstract
Using cross-sectional data from an ongoing cohort study of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (N = 492), we examined the extent to which cognitive factors such as beliefs about the end of AIDS, concerns about the manner in which PrEP works, and perceptions about risk of contracting HIV, are related to PrEP uptake and use. While almost all participants indicted awareness of PrEP, a mere 14% had ever used PrEP. Those with lower concerns about the side effects of PrEP and greater belief that treatment and PrEP would eliminate AIDS were also more likely to have ever used PrEP. Our findings support the ongoing challenges of PrEP uptake as means of curtailing HIV in young sexual minority men, and suggest that beyond the structural factors, consideration must be given to further educating the population as a means of adjusting potentially faulty beliefs, concerns, and perceptions which may influence PrEP utilization.
Publication
Journal: International journal for equity in health
November/25/2018
Abstract
Significant health disparities persist regarding new and late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnoses among sub-Saharan African (SSA) communities in Australia. Personal/cultural beliefs and practices influence HIV (risk, prevention, testing) within Australia and during visits to home countries.
A community forum was conducted involving 23 male and female adult African community workers, members and leaders, and health workers; facilitated by cultural workers and an experienced clinician/researcher. The forum comprised small/large group discussions regarding HIV risk/prevention (responses transcribed verbatim; utilising thematic analysis).
Stigma, denial, social norms, tradition and culture permeated perceptions/beliefs regarding HIV testing, prevention and transmission among African Australians, particularly regarding return travel to home countries.
International travel as a risk factor for HIV acquisition requires further examination, as does the role of the doctor in HIV testing and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Further assessment of PrEP as an appropriate/feasible intervention is needed, with careful attention regarding negative community perceptions and potential impacts.
Publication
Journal: AIDS and behavior
November/25/2018
Abstract
We examined potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the relationship between PTEs and HIV risk behaviors among male market workers in Kazakhstan, comparing Kazakhstani to external migrants. Using respondent-driven sampling, participants were 1342 male marketplace workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regressions were conducted. We found high prevalence of PTEs among participants, and significant differences between PTEs and HIV risk by migrant status. Kazakhstanis reporting 1-2 or three-or-more traumatic events were more likely to report engaging in sex trading, compared to Kazakhstanis who reported no PTEs (OR = 3.65, CI 1.20-11.11, p = 0.022; OR = 8.17, 95% CI 2.66-25.09, p = 0.000, respectively). Kazakhstanis who reported three-or-more PTEs were more likely to report unprotected sex (OR = 2.17, CI 2.17-3.89, p = 0.009). Results did not support this relationship among external migrants. Findings underscore the need for attention on services that address trauma and HIV risk among this population and more research to understand differences by migrant status.
Publication
Journal: Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
November/19/2018
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
November/19/2018
Abstract
Intravenous illicit drug use (IDU) and hepatitis C infection (HCV) commonly co-occur among HIV-infected individuals. These co-occurring conditions may produce interacting epigenetic effects in white blood cells that influence immune function and health outcomes. Here, we report an epigenome-wide association analysis comparing IDU+/ HCV+ and IDU-/HCV- in 386 HIV-infected individuals as a discovery sample and in 412 individuals as a replication sample. We observe 6 significant CpGs in the promoters of 4 genes, NLRC5, TRIM69, CX3CR1, and BCL9, in the discovery sample and in meta-analysis. We identify 19 differentially methylated regions on chromosome 6 harboring MHC gene clusters. Importantly, a panel of IDU+/HCV+-associated CpGs discriminated HIV frailty based upon a validated index with an area under the curve of 79.3% for high frailty and 82.3% for low frailty. These findings suggest that IDU and HCV involve epigenetic programming and that their associated methylation signatures discriminate HIV pathophysiologic frailty.
Publication
Journal: Archives of women's mental health
November/14/2018
Abstract
The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the level of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and coping strategies among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). In particular, the moderating role of participants' gender on the relationship between coping strategies and HRQoL was explored, while controlling for socio-medical data. A total of 444 HIV-infected men and 86 HIV-infected women were recruited to participate in the study. This was a cross-sectional study with the HRQoL assessed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the coping strategies measured by the Brief COPE inventory. Although the HIV-infected men and HIV-infected women differed in terms of some HRQoL domains, these differences disappeared in the regression analysis after controlling for socio-demographic data (employment and higher education). In addition, several statistically significant interactions between participants' gender and coping strategies in relation to HRQoL domains were observed. Future research on gender differences in HRQoL among PLWH should take into account unique differences between HIV-infected men and HIV-infected women across, not only in respect to socio-medical factors but also regarding psychosocial variables.
Publication
Journal: Lancet (London, England)
November/8/2018
Authors
Publication
Journal: Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica
September/19/2018
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To identify the barriers that limit compliance with the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV measures in two indigenous communities of the Amazon region of Peru.
METHODS
Qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 1 year of the awajún and wampis indigenous communities diagnosed with HIV in the period 2014-2015.
RESULTS
The study sample included 15 of 29 eligible women and 87% were Awajún. Limitations and possible negative effects were observed in cases in which sanitary measures for PMTCT were imposed. Considering their knowledge of diseases, including the presence of symptoms and disabilities, many women from these communities do not believe they are infected with HIV and consider the diagnosis a lie or relate the diagnosis to harm, and these beliefs limit their compliance with medical indications and decrease their trust in health services. In addition, the women believe that their children will inevitably be born sick and will die soon, and thus consider cesarean sections and child care a futile effort. Other factors influencing the successful implementation of PMTCT measures include language barriers, remoteness of health centers, and the fear of judgment and moral condemnation by the local community.
CONCLUSIONS
PMTCT measures challenge the customs, values, and beliefs of pregnant women and mothers in the Awajún and Wampis indigenous communities, and thus these measures are not understood or accepted, jeopardizing the relationship of the mothers with health personnel. Therefore, cultural factors and interventions appropriate to this population must be better understood.
Publication
Journal: Medecine et sante tropicales
September/4/2018
Abstract
The aim of this project implemented in 37 treatment settings for PLWHIV in Côte d'Ivoire was to improve the documentation of the provision of their care through a collaborative approach. This study aims to evaluate the impact of this approach. This descriptive cross-sectional study took place from July to September 2011 and focused on the documentation of care provided to PLWHIV at 32 sites according to the collaborative approach for improving care and services that was introduced from January 2009 to June 2010. We found that the documentation was improved at these sites because of the collaborative approach. The documentation quality indicator rose from less than 20% at the beginning of the project to about 85% at the end. This improvement differed according to facilities' level on the health pyramid. Primary health facilities improved more than general or regional hospitals because the former used the data documented for making decisions about how to improve their quality. On the other hand, the archiving of the files was faulty (lack of space in the cabinets and absence of data managers in all the sites). The collaborative approach method should to be extended to other health facilities in the country to improve the documentation of health activities to improve patient welfare.
Publication
Journal: Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica
August/16/2018
Abstract
There is little information on the presence of the Mycobacterium avium-Intracellulare (MAC) complex in Peru. Five cases of MAC infection are described in patients with HIV/AIDS at the National Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima - Peru. The patients presented, mainly, persistent fever, chronic diarrhea, consumptive syndrome, pancytopenia and citofagocitosis. In all of them, resistant acid-alcohol bacilli were identified in feces, so they received antituberculous treatment. The culture of feces was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, later, in all cases MAC was identified using a molecular test (genotype) in the culture of feces. Three patients received treatment for MAC right after identification; however, they all died. Before presentations similar to the reported, we suggest the use of higher performance methods (blood culture, myeloculture, molecular tests), as well as early associating drugs with activity for MAC to antitubercular scheme with the intention of improving the prognosis of this group of patients.
Publication
Journal: African journal of AIDS research : AJAR
July/29/2018
Abstract
The aim of the study was to understand how lottery incentives influenced the HIV counselling and testing (HCT) behaviour and behaviour intention of shop-floor workers who participated in a workplace HCT campaign initiative in two companies in the Nelson Mandela Bay municipality, South Africa. A post-test only quasi-experimental approach was used. The data were first collected, using a self-administered cross-sectional survey instrument, among the control group (n = 88) followed by the experimental group (n = 110) after the advent of HIV testing and lotteries was announced. HIV testing behaviour data were collected on the days of the HIV testing events. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as guiding theory. Principal component analysis (PCA), t- and chi-square tests, and logistic regression were conducted to analyse the data. A significant increase in the mean scores of the experimental as compared to the control condition for the subjective norm's construct (t = -3.55, p < 0.001) and HIV testing behaviour intention (χ2 = 12.35, p < 0.001) was measured following the announcement of lottery incentives. The constructs of TPB explained 40% of the variance in HCT behaviour intention (R2 = 0.40). The strongest predictor of behaviour intention was the subjective norm (B = 0.435 and p < 0.001), followed by the attitudinal component (B = 0.323 and p = 0.040). The announcement of lotteries made shop-floor workers develop a stronger intention to participate in workplace HIV testing through anticipation of stronger social support and encouragement. It was not possible to link behaviour intention to behaviour due to missing data. The findings point to the importance of providing workers with an opportunity to openly discuss HIV testing thus allowing mitigation of HIV stigma and discrimination and permitting HIV testing to become socially sanctioned and seen as part of a collective effort.
Publication
Journal: Journal of virology
July/29/2018
Abstract
HIV infection requires lifelong antiretroviral therapy because of the persistence of latently infected CD4+ T cells. The induction of virus expression from latently infected cells occurs following T cell receptor (TCR) activation, but not all latently infected cells respond to TCR stimulation. We compared two models of latently infected cells using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter virus to infect CCL19-treated resting CD4+ (rCD4+) T cells (preactivation latency) or activated CD4+ T cells that returned to a resting state (postactivation latency). We isolated latently infected cells by sorting for EGFP-negative (EGFP-) cells after infection. These cells were cultured with antivirals and stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28, mitogens, and latency-reversing agents (LRAs) and cocultured with monocytes and anti-CD3. Spontaneous EGFP expression was more frequent in postactivation than in preactivation latency. Stimulation of latently infected cells with monocytes/anti-CD3 resulted in an increase in EGFP expression compared to that for unstimulated controls using the preactivation latency model but led to a reduction in EGFP expression in the postactivation latency model. The reduced EGFP expression was not associated with reductions in the levels of viral DNA or T cell proliferation but depended on direct contact between monocytes and T cells. Monocytes added to the postactivation latency model during the establishment of latency reduced spontaneous virus expression, suggesting that monocyte-T cell interactions at an early time point postinfection can maintain HIV latency. This direct comparison of pre- and postactivation latency suggests that effective strategies needed to reverse latency will depend on how latency is established.IMPORTANCE One strategy being evaluated to eliminate latently infected cells that persist in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to activate HIV expression or production with the goal of inducing virus-mediated cytolysis or immune-mediated clearance of infected cells. The gold standard for the activation of latent virus is T cell receptor stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28. However, this stimulus activates only a small proportion of latently infected cells. We show clear differences in the responses of latently infected cells to activating stimuli based on how latent infection is established, an observation that may potentially explain the persistence of noninduced intact proviruses in HIV-infected individuals on ART.
Publication
Journal: Journal of biological dynamics
July/22/2018
Abstract
In this paper, a within-host HIV-1 infection model with virus-to-cell and direct cell-to-cell transmission and explicit age-since-infection structure for infected cells is investigated. It is shown that the model demonstrates a global threshold dynamics, fully described by the basic reproduction number. By analysing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of an infection-free steady state and a chronic-infection steady state of the model is established. By using the persistence theory in infinite dimensional system, the uniform persistence of the system is established when the basic reproduction number is greater than unity. By means of suitable Lyapunov functionals and LaSalle's invariance principle, it is shown that if the basic reproduction number is less than unity, the infection-free steady state is globally asymptotically stable; if the basic reproduction number is greater than unity, the chronic-infection steady state is globally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the feasibility of the theoretical results.
Publication
Journal: Diabetes care
May/20/2018
Publication
Journal: PloS one
March/8/2018
Abstract
HIV-infected individuals are at high risk of developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a leading cause of end-stage liver disease in Western countries. Nonetheless, due to the invasiveness of liver biopsy, NASH remains poorly understood in HIV mono-infection. We aimed to characterize the prevalence and predictors of NASH in unselected HIV mono-infected patients by means of non-invasive diagnostic tools.
HIV-infected adults without significant alcohol intake or co-infection with hepatitis B or C underwent a routine screening program employing transient elastography (TE) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and the serum biomarker cytokeratin-18 (CK-18). NASH was diagnosed non-invasively as the coexistence of fatty liver (CAP ≥248 dB/m) and CK-18 >246 U/L. Identified cases of NASH were offered a diagnostic liver biopsy. Predictors of NASH were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis.
202 consecutive HIV mono-infected patients were included. NASH was non-invasively diagnosed in 23 cases (11.4%). Among them, 17 underwent a liver biopsy, and histology confirmed NASH in all cases. The prevalence of NASH was higher in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (17.1%), insulin resistance defined by homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (25%), those with detectable HIV viral load (42.9%) and those with elevated ALT (53.6%). After adjustment, higher HOMA-IR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; p = 0.03) and ALT (aOR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.50-3.79; p<0.001) were independent predictors of NASH.
NASH, diagnosed by a non-invasive diagnostic approach employing CK-18 and TE with CAP, is common in unselected HIV mono-infected individuals, particularly in the presence of insulin resistance and elevated ALT.
load more...