Obesity
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Publication
Journal: Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
November/28/2019
Abstract
White adipose tissue is one of the largest organs of the body. It plays a key role in whole-body energy status and metabolism; it not only stores excess energy but also secretes various hormones and metabolites to regulate body energy balance. Healthy adipose tissue capable of expanding is needed for metabolic well-being and to prevent accumulation of triglycerides to other organs. Mitochondria govern several important functions in the adipose tissue. We review the derangements of mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue in the obese state. Downregulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis in the white adipose tissue is a central driver for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial functions compromised in obesity include oxidative functions and renewal and enlargement of the adipose tissue through recruitment and differentiation of adipocyte progenitor cells. These changes adversely affect whole-body metabolic health. Dysfunction of the white adipose tissue mitochondria in obesity has long-term consequences for the metabolism of adipose tissue and the whole body. Understanding the pathways behind mitochondrial dysfunction may help reveal targets for pharmacological or nutritional interventions that enhance mitochondrial biogenesis or function in adipose tissue.
Publication
Journal: Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
November/28/2019
Abstract
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary, the gut microbiota seems to impact WAT and BAT physiology at multiple levels.
Publication
Journal: Food & function
November/28/2019
Abstract
The current study applied an ob/ob mouse model of obesity for investigating the impact of different RS doses in a high-fat (HF) diet on the attenuation of metabolic syndrome. Although a significant reduction of body weight was not achieved, RS intervention significantly decreased liver weight with suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver tissue and reduced adipocyte size in the fat tissue. All levels of RS intervention were associated with significantly enriched pathways for PPAR, NAFLD and cGMP-PKG signaling. In contrast, either a medium or a higher RS intake (MRS and HRS, respectively) led the AMPK signaling pathway to be significantly enriched but not a diet with lower RS intake. More importantly, sphingolipid biosynthesis activity was noted with MRS and HRS intervention, which is highly associated with the improvement in insulin resistance, and the pathway of type II diabetes mellitus was correspondingly significantly enriched in the HRS group, demonstrating a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes between high-fat diet and RS groups until RS reached a certain level (i.e. in the HRS group). Furthermore, increased profiles of both Prevotellaceae and Coriobacteriaceae in the HF group were noted for the first time with a revised function from RS intervention, which is consistent with the content of lipopolysaccharides in their corresponding serum. Gut microbiota functional analysis showed that primary and secondary bile acid biosynthesis was also noted to be enriched following the RS intervention, benefiting cholesterol homeostasis. This study further highlights the association of RS consumption with the attenuation of metabolic syndrome in an obesity model, and its functionality is characterized by dose-dependence.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric research
December/2/2019
Abstract
Childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory classes are rarely linked to early puberty risk, particularly among Chinese children. We estimated early puberty risk across BMI trajectory classes, investigated factors contributing to pubertal development, and examined differences in final adult height between children exhibiting early and nonearly pubertal maturation across the classes.The Taiwan Children Health Study recruited 10-year-old children in 2010 from 14 Taiwanese communities and resurveyed them at age 11, 12, and 18 years. The study comprised 3109 children (50.4% boys) with available data for BMI (age 6-11 years) and pubertal stages (age 11, 12, and 18 years).Classes 1-4 were persistently healthy weight, rapid BMI growth, chronically overweight/obese, and early transient overweight/obese. Children in class 3 exhibited the highest risk of early pubertal maturation. Puberty genetic score, low sleep quality, and high fat-free mass collectively explained 15% of the variance in Tanner stages among class 3 children. Early pubertal maturation was considered to cause short and tall stature in boys and girls, respectively.Modifying sleep quality and fat-free mass may reduce early puberty risk in children with chronic overweight/obesity. Vigorous physical activity may reduce adiposity and increase the final adult height in the children.
Publication
Journal: Revista paulista de pediatria : orgao oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de Sao Paulo
November/28/2019
Abstract
To assess demographic data and characteristics of children and adolescents with pediatric chronic diseases (PCD), according to the number of specialties/patient.We performed a cross-sectional study with 16,237 PCD patients at outpatient clinics in one year. Data were analyzed by an electronic data system, according to the number of physician appointments for PCD. This study assessed: demographic data, follow-up characteristics, types of medical specialty, diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD-10), number of day hospital clinic visits, and acute complications.Patients followed by ≥3 specialties simultaneously showed a significantly higher duration of follow-up compared to those followed by ≤2 specialties [2.1 (0.4-16.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years; p<0.001] and a higher number of appointments in all specialties. The most prevalent medical areas in patients followed by ≥3 specialties were: Psychiatry (Odds Ratio - OR=8.0; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 6-10.7; p<0.001), Palliative/Pain Care (OR=7.4; 95%CI 5.7-9.7; p<0.001), Infectious Disease (OR=7.0; 95%CI 6.4-7.8; p<0.001) and Nutrology (OR=6.9; 95%CI 5.6-8.4; p<0.001). Logistic regressions demonstrated that PCD patients followed by ≥3 specialties were associated with high risk for: number of appointments/patient (OR=9.2; 95%CI 8.0-10.5; p<0.001), day hospital clinic visits (OR=4.8; 95%CI 3.8-5.9; p<0.001), emergency department visits (OR=3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3.5; p<0.001), hospitalizations (OR=3.0; 95%CI 2.7-3.3; p<0.001), intensive care admissions (OR=2.5; 95%CI 2.1-3.0; p<0.001), and deaths (OR=2.8; 95%CI 1.9-4.0; p<0.001). The diagnosis of asthma, obesity, chronic pain, and transplant was significantly higher in patients followed by ≥3 specialties.The present study showed that PCD patients who required simultaneous care from multiple medical specialties had complex and severe diseases, with specific diagnoses.
Publication
Journal: Cancer health disparities
November/28/2019
Abstract
Identifying health status and disparities for Indigenous populations is the first logical step toward better health. We compare the mortality profile of the American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population with that of non-Hispanic whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations in New York State, the Indian Health Service (IHS) East region (Nashville Area) and the United States. Data from the linkage of IHS registration records with decedents from the National Death Index (1990-2009) were used to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN. Analyses were limited to persons of non-Hispanic origin. We analyzed trends for 1990-2009 and compared AI/AN and white persons in the Haudenosaunee Nations in New York State, IHS East region and the United States. All-cause death rates over the past two decades for Haudenosaunee men declined at a greater percentage per year than for AI/AN men in the East region and United States. This decrease was not observed for Haudenosaunee women with all-cause death rates appearing to be stable over the past two decades. Haudenosaunee all-cause death rates were 16% greater than that for whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations. The most prominent disparities between Haudenosaunee and whites are concentrated in the 25-44 year age group (Risk Ratio=1.85). Chronic liver disease, diabetes, unintentional injury, and kidney disease death rates were higher in Haudenosaunee than in whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations. The Haudenosaunee cancer death rate (180.8 per 100,000) was higher than that reported for AI/AN in the East (161.5 per 100,000).Haudenosaunee experienced higher rates for the majority of the leading causes of death than East AI/AN. These results highlight the importance of Haudenosaunee-specific data to target prevention efforts to address health disparities and inequalities in health.
Publication
Journal: IET systems biology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Stroke is the third major cause of mortality in the world. The diagnosis of stroke is a very complex issue considering controllable and uncontrollable factors. These factors include age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, heart disease, smoking, and so on, having a considerable influence on the diagnosis of stroke. Hence, designing an intelligent system leading to immediate and effective treatment is essential. In this study, the soft computing method known as fuzzy cognitive mapping was proposed for diagnosis of the risk of ischemic stroke. Non-linear Hebbian learning method was used for fuzzy cognitive maps training. In the proposed method, the risk rate for each person was determined based on the opinions of the neurologists. The accuracy of the proposed model was tested using 10-fold cross-validation, for 110 real cases, and the results were compared with those of support vector machine and K-nearest neighbours. The proposed system showed a superior performance with a total accuracy of (93.6 ± 4.5)%. The data used in this study is available by emailing the first author for academic and non-commercial purposes.
Publication
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences
November/28/2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease in Western nations and ranges in severity from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a genetic-environmental-metabolic stress-related disease of unclear pathogenesis. NAFLD is triggered by caloric overconsumption and physical inactivity, which lead to insulin resistance and oxidative stress. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Mitochondrial dysfunction not only promotes fat accumulation, but also leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, resulting in oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important modulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress. The pharmacological induction of Nrf2 ameliorates obesity-associated insulin resistance and NAFLD in a mouse model. Sulforaphane and its precursor glucoraphanin are derived from broccoli sprouts and are the most potent natural Nrf2 inducers-they may protect mitochondrial function, thus suppressing the development of NASH. In this review, we briefly describe the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH and the effects of glucoraphanin on its development.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric diabetes
November/28/2019
Abstract
Exercise and lifestyle interventions have been shown to reduce hepatic fat (HF) and adiposity in youth. However, the interindividual response in HF after a lifestyle intervention with or without exercise in children is unknown.To compare interindividual variability for HF, adiposity, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AST/ALT) in children with overweight/obesity participating in a 22-week lifestyle intervention with (intensive intervention) or without exercise (control intervention).data from 102 children (9-12 years, 55% girls) with overweight/obesity participating in the EFIGRO randomized controlled trial were analyzed.Percentage HF (magnetic resonance imaging), weight, body and fat mass index (BMI and FMI), GGT, AST/ALT, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, 20 meters shuttle run test) were assessed before and after the intervention by the same trained researchers. The control intervention consisted in 11 sessions of a family-based lifestyle and psycho-educational program. The intensive intervention included the control intervention plus supervised exercise (3 sessions/week).The prevalence of responders for HF (54% vs. 34%), weight (27% vs. 11%), BMI (71% vs. 47%), FMI (90% vs. 60%), and GGT (69% vs. 39%) was higher in the intensive than in the control group (Ps<0.05). Responders for weight (16±3 vs. 6±2 laps) and BMI (11±2 vs. 3±4 laps) improved more CRF levels than non-responders (Ps<0.05).The addition of exercise to a lifestyle intervention may increase the responders rates for HF, adiposity, and GGT in children with overweight/obesity. Improvements in CRF may explain differences between weight and BMI responders and non-responders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication
Journal: International journal of obesity (2005)
November/28/2019
Abstract
The authors found a critical mistake in the assembly of Fig. 2; in Fig. 2A the right two images were erroneously duplicated. The authors have re-analysed all the data, checked for accuracy and provided the updated Fig. 2 here. Nothing is affected with regards to data summary and conclusion.
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