Obesity
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Publication
Journal: Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
November/28/2019
Abstract
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary, the gut microbiota seems to impact WAT and BAT physiology at multiple levels.
Publication
Journal: Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
November/28/2019
Abstract
White adipose tissue is one of the largest organs of the body. It plays a key role in whole-body energy status and metabolism; it not only stores excess energy but also secretes various hormones and metabolites to regulate body energy balance. Healthy adipose tissue capable of expanding is needed for metabolic well-being and to prevent accumulation of triglycerides to other organs. Mitochondria govern several important functions in the adipose tissue. We review the derangements of mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue in the obese state. Downregulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis in the white adipose tissue is a central driver for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial functions compromised in obesity include oxidative functions and renewal and enlargement of the adipose tissue through recruitment and differentiation of adipocyte progenitor cells. These changes adversely affect whole-body metabolic health. Dysfunction of the white adipose tissue mitochondria in obesity has long-term consequences for the metabolism of adipose tissue and the whole body. Understanding the pathways behind mitochondrial dysfunction may help reveal targets for pharmacological or nutritional interventions that enhance mitochondrial biogenesis or function in adipose tissue.
Publication
Journal: Food & function
November/28/2019
Abstract
The current study applied an ob/ob mouse model of obesity for investigating the impact of different RS doses in a high-fat (HF) diet on the attenuation of metabolic syndrome. Although a significant reduction of body weight was not achieved, RS intervention significantly decreased liver weight with suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver tissue and reduced adipocyte size in the fat tissue. All levels of RS intervention were associated with significantly enriched pathways for PPAR, NAFLD and cGMP-PKG signaling. In contrast, either a medium or a higher RS intake (MRS and HRS, respectively) led the AMPK signaling pathway to be significantly enriched but not a diet with lower RS intake. More importantly, sphingolipid biosynthesis activity was noted with MRS and HRS intervention, which is highly associated with the improvement in insulin resistance, and the pathway of type II diabetes mellitus was correspondingly significantly enriched in the HRS group, demonstrating a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes between high-fat diet and RS groups until RS reached a certain level (i.e. in the HRS group). Furthermore, increased profiles of both Prevotellaceae and Coriobacteriaceae in the HF group were noted for the first time with a revised function from RS intervention, which is consistent with the content of lipopolysaccharides in their corresponding serum. Gut microbiota functional analysis showed that primary and secondary bile acid biosynthesis was also noted to be enriched following the RS intervention, benefiting cholesterol homeostasis. This study further highlights the association of RS consumption with the attenuation of metabolic syndrome in an obesity model, and its functionality is characterized by dose-dependence.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric research
December/2/2019
Abstract
Childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory classes are rarely linked to early puberty risk, particularly among Chinese children. We estimated early puberty risk across BMI trajectory classes, investigated factors contributing to pubertal development, and examined differences in final adult height between children exhibiting early and nonearly pubertal maturation across the classes.The Taiwan Children Health Study recruited 10-year-old children in 2010 from 14 Taiwanese communities and resurveyed them at age 11, 12, and 18 years. The study comprised 3109 children (50.4% boys) with available data for BMI (age 6-11 years) and pubertal stages (age 11, 12, and 18 years).Classes 1-4 were persistently healthy weight, rapid BMI growth, chronically overweight/obese, and early transient overweight/obese. Children in class 3 exhibited the highest risk of early pubertal maturation. Puberty genetic score, low sleep quality, and high fat-free mass collectively explained 15% of the variance in Tanner stages among class 3 children. Early pubertal maturation was considered to cause short and tall stature in boys and girls, respectively.Modifying sleep quality and fat-free mass may reduce early puberty risk in children with chronic overweight/obesity. Vigorous physical activity may reduce adiposity and increase the final adult height in the children.
Publication
Journal: Revista paulista de pediatria : orgao oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de Sao Paulo
November/28/2019
Abstract
To assess demographic data and characteristics of children and adolescents with pediatric chronic diseases (PCD), according to the number of specialties/patient.We performed a cross-sectional study with 16,237 PCD patients at outpatient clinics in one year. Data were analyzed by an electronic data system, according to the number of physician appointments for PCD. This study assessed: demographic data, follow-up characteristics, types of medical specialty, diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD-10), number of day hospital clinic visits, and acute complications.Patients followed by ≥3 specialties simultaneously showed a significantly higher duration of follow-up compared to those followed by ≤2 specialties [2.1 (0.4-16.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years; p<0.001] and a higher number of appointments in all specialties. The most prevalent medical areas in patients followed by ≥3 specialties were: Psychiatry (Odds Ratio - OR=8.0; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 6-10.7; p<0.001), Palliative/Pain Care (OR=7.4; 95%CI 5.7-9.7; p<0.001), Infectious Disease (OR=7.0; 95%CI 6.4-7.8; p<0.001) and Nutrology (OR=6.9; 95%CI 5.6-8.4; p<0.001). Logistic regressions demonstrated that PCD patients followed by ≥3 specialties were associated with high risk for: number of appointments/patient (OR=9.2; 95%CI 8.0-10.5; p<0.001), day hospital clinic visits (OR=4.8; 95%CI 3.8-5.9; p<0.001), emergency department visits (OR=3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3.5; p<0.001), hospitalizations (OR=3.0; 95%CI 2.7-3.3; p<0.001), intensive care admissions (OR=2.5; 95%CI 2.1-3.0; p<0.001), and deaths (OR=2.8; 95%CI 1.9-4.0; p<0.001). The diagnosis of asthma, obesity, chronic pain, and transplant was significantly higher in patients followed by ≥3 specialties.The present study showed that PCD patients who required simultaneous care from multiple medical specialties had complex and severe diseases, with specific diagnoses.
Publication
Journal: Cancer health disparities
November/28/2019
Abstract
Identifying health status and disparities for Indigenous populations is the first logical step toward better health. We compare the mortality profile of the American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population with that of non-Hispanic whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations in New York State, the Indian Health Service (IHS) East region (Nashville Area) and the United States. Data from the linkage of IHS registration records with decedents from the National Death Index (1990-2009) were used to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN. Analyses were limited to persons of non-Hispanic origin. We analyzed trends for 1990-2009 and compared AI/AN and white persons in the Haudenosaunee Nations in New York State, IHS East region and the United States. All-cause death rates over the past two decades for Haudenosaunee men declined at a greater percentage per year than for AI/AN men in the East region and United States. This decrease was not observed for Haudenosaunee women with all-cause death rates appearing to be stable over the past two decades. Haudenosaunee all-cause death rates were 16% greater than that for whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations. The most prominent disparities between Haudenosaunee and whites are concentrated in the 25-44 year age group (Risk Ratio=1.85). Chronic liver disease, diabetes, unintentional injury, and kidney disease death rates were higher in Haudenosaunee than in whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations. The Haudenosaunee cancer death rate (180.8 per 100,000) was higher than that reported for AI/AN in the East (161.5 per 100,000).Haudenosaunee experienced higher rates for the majority of the leading causes of death than East AI/AN. These results highlight the importance of Haudenosaunee-specific data to target prevention efforts to address health disparities and inequalities in health.
Publication
Journal: IET systems biology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Stroke is the third major cause of mortality in the world. The diagnosis of stroke is a very complex issue considering controllable and uncontrollable factors. These factors include age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, heart disease, smoking, and so on, having a considerable influence on the diagnosis of stroke. Hence, designing an intelligent system leading to immediate and effective treatment is essential. In this study, the soft computing method known as fuzzy cognitive mapping was proposed for diagnosis of the risk of ischemic stroke. Non-linear Hebbian learning method was used for fuzzy cognitive maps training. In the proposed method, the risk rate for each person was determined based on the opinions of the neurologists. The accuracy of the proposed model was tested using 10-fold cross-validation, for 110 real cases, and the results were compared with those of support vector machine and K-nearest neighbours. The proposed system showed a superior performance with a total accuracy of (93.6 ± 4.5)%. The data used in this study is available by emailing the first author for academic and non-commercial purposes.
Publication
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences
November/28/2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease in Western nations and ranges in severity from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a genetic-environmental-metabolic stress-related disease of unclear pathogenesis. NAFLD is triggered by caloric overconsumption and physical inactivity, which lead to insulin resistance and oxidative stress. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Mitochondrial dysfunction not only promotes fat accumulation, but also leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, resulting in oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important modulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress. The pharmacological induction of Nrf2 ameliorates obesity-associated insulin resistance and NAFLD in a mouse model. Sulforaphane and its precursor glucoraphanin are derived from broccoli sprouts and are the most potent natural Nrf2 inducers-they may protect mitochondrial function, thus suppressing the development of NASH. In this review, we briefly describe the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH and the effects of glucoraphanin on its development.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric diabetes
November/28/2019
Abstract
Exercise and lifestyle interventions have been shown to reduce hepatic fat (HF) and adiposity in youth. However, the interindividual response in HF after a lifestyle intervention with or without exercise in children is unknown.To compare interindividual variability for HF, adiposity, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AST/ALT) in children with overweight/obesity participating in a 22-week lifestyle intervention with (intensive intervention) or without exercise (control intervention).data from 102 children (9-12 years, 55% girls) with overweight/obesity participating in the EFIGRO randomized controlled trial were analyzed.Percentage HF (magnetic resonance imaging), weight, body and fat mass index (BMI and FMI), GGT, AST/ALT, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, 20 meters shuttle run test) were assessed before and after the intervention by the same trained researchers. The control intervention consisted in 11 sessions of a family-based lifestyle and psycho-educational program. The intensive intervention included the control intervention plus supervised exercise (3 sessions/week).The prevalence of responders for HF (54% vs. 34%), weight (27% vs. 11%), BMI (71% vs. 47%), FMI (90% vs. 60%), and GGT (69% vs. 39%) was higher in the intensive than in the control group (Ps<0.05). Responders for weight (16±3 vs. 6±2 laps) and BMI (11±2 vs. 3±4 laps) improved more CRF levels than non-responders (Ps<0.05).The addition of exercise to a lifestyle intervention may increase the responders rates for HF, adiposity, and GGT in children with overweight/obesity. Improvements in CRF may explain differences between weight and BMI responders and non-responders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication
Journal: International journal of obesity (2005)
November/28/2019
Abstract
The authors found a critical mistake in the assembly of Fig. 2; in Fig. 2A the right two images were erroneously duplicated. The authors have re-analysed all the data, checked for accuracy and provided the updated Fig. 2 here. Nothing is affected with regards to data summary and conclusion.
Publication
Journal: BMC medicine
November/28/2019
Abstract
Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Hg exposure. This study aimed to investigate the association between in utero Hg exposure and child overweight or obesity (OWO) and to explore if adequate maternal folate can mitigate Hg toxicity.This prospective study included 1442 mother-child pairs recruited at birth and followed up to age 15 years. Maternal Hg in red blood cells and plasma folate levels were measured in samples collected 1-3 days after delivery (a proxy for third trimester exposure). Adequate folate was defined as plasma folate ≥ 20.4 nmol/L. Childhood OWO was defined as body mass index ≥ 85% percentile for age and sex.The median (interquartile range) of maternal Hg levels were 2.11 (1.04-3.70) μg/L. Geometric mean (95% CI) of maternal folate levels were 31.1 (30.1-32.1) nmol/L. Maternal Hg levels were positively associated with child OWO from age 2-15 years, independent of maternal pre-pregnancy OWO, diabetes, and other covariates. The relative risk (RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47) of child OWO associated with the highest quartile of Hg exposure was 24% higher than those with the lowest quartile. Maternal pre-pregnancy OWO and/or diabetes additively enhanced Hg toxicity. The highest risk of child OWO was found among children of OWO and diabetic mothers in the top Hg quartile (RR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.56-2.71) compared to their counterparts. Furthermore, adequate maternal folate status mitigated Hg toxicity. Given top quartile Hg exposure, adequate maternal folate was associated with a 34% reduction in child OWO risk (RR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.85) as compared with insufficient maternal folate. There was a suggestive interaction between maternal Hg and folate levels on child OWO risk (p for interaction = 0.086).In this US urban, multi-ethnic population, elevated in utero Hg exposure was associated with a higher risk of OWO in childhood, and such risk was enhanced by maternal OWO and/or diabetes and reduced by adequate maternal folate. These findings underscore the need to screen for Hg and to optimize maternal folate status, especially among mothers with OWO and/or diabetes.
Publication
Journal: Peptides
December/1/2019
Abstract
The continued global growth in the prevalence of obesity coupled with the limited number of efficacious and safe treatment options elevates the importance of innovative pharmaceutical approaches. Combinatorial strategies that harness the metabolic benefits of multiple hormonal mechanisms have emerged at the preclinical and more recently clinical stages of drug development. A priority has been anti-obesity unimolecular peptides that function as balanced, high potency poly-agonists at two or all the cellular receptors for the endocrine hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon. This report reviews recent progress in this area, with emphasis on what the initial clinical results demonstrate and what remains to be addressed.
Publication
Journal: Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
November/28/2019
Abstract
Female gender is reported as an independent risk factor for a poor outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting. We analysed the influence of gender on surgical outcome in patients with single-vessel disease undergoing minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB).From January 1998 to December 2016, a total of 607 consecutive patients with single-vessel disease (31.9% women) underwent MIDCAB at our institution. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were recorded during a median follow-up period of 8.0 years. Survival time was estimated for all patients and after applying propensity score matching (138 women vs 138 men). Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified risk factors predicting a long-term mortality rate.In women, a longer surgical time (125 vs 113 min; P < 0.001) and a higher transfusion rate were recorded (13.0% vs 5.1%; P = 0.001) with similar rates of in-hospital deaths (1.0% vs 0.5%; P = 0.60) and MACCE (1.5% vs 0.7%; P = 0.39). Survival and MACCE-free survival during the follow-up period did not differ significantly between genders (P = 1.0, P = 0.36). Survival and MACCE-free survival rates after 5 years were 94% and 90% in women compared to 91% and 86% in men. Propensity score matching demonstrated improved long-term survival rates in women (P = 0.029). Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, postoperative atrial fibrillation and prolonged intensive care unit stay were associated with long-term deaths for both genders, whereas obesity, former myocardial infarction and preoperative atrial fibrillation were significant risk factors in men.Female patients showed no adverse outcomes after MIDCAB, although risk factors were gender-specific. Overall, MIDCAB demonstrated excellent short- and long-term results as a treatment for single-vessel disease in both genders.
Publication
Journal: Metabolic brain disease
December/1/2019
Abstract
Fat-mass and obesity-associated protein (Fto) plays important roles in energy metabolism. It also acts as a demethylase and is most abundantly found in the brain. In the present study, we examined the spatial and temporal changes of Fto immunoreactivity after five minutes of transient forebrain ischemia in the hippocampus. In the control group, Fto immunoreactivity was mainly observed in the nucleus of pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 regions as well as the polymorphic layer, granule cell layer, and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Fto immunoreactivity was transiently, but not significantly, increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the dentate gyrus two days after ischemia compared to mice without ischemia in the sham-operated group. Four days after ischemia, low Fto immunoreactivity was observed in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region because of neuronal death, but Fto immunoreactive cells were abundantly detected in the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, which is relatively resistant to ischemic damage. Thereafter, Fto immunoreactivity progressively decreased in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus until ten days after ischemia. At this time-point, Fto immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus compared to that in the sham-operated group. The reduction of Fto immunoreactive structures in the hippocampus may be associated with impairments in Fto-related hippocampal function.
Publication
Journal: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
November/28/2019
Abstract
This study was undertaken to identify metabolites associated with BMI and waist circumference (WC) in women and to determine whether these metabolites are associated with biomarkers of metabolic health.Untargeted metabolomic analysis was done on serum from 1,534 women. Metabolites associated with BMI and WC were identified using linear regression with a Bonferroni-corrected P value. Clustered blocks of these metabolites were then defined whose association with the anthropometric measures could be represented by a single metabolite. The association of these representative metabolites with biomarkers for diabetes and inflammation was then determined.

RESULTS
About one-third of 781 metabolites included in the analyses were associated with BMI and/or WC. Associations were found for some novel metabolites, including several sphingolipids, nucleotides, and modified fatty acids. Among metabolites most strongly inversely associated with BMI, the choline-containing plasmalogen (O-16:0/18:1) (β = -0.30, P = 6.62 × 10-32 ) was also inversely associated with c-peptide and positively associated with adiponectin. Adjustment for BMI attenuated the metabolite-biomarker associations more for hemoglobin A1c (> 100%) and c-peptide (58.8% to > 100%) than for C-reactive protein (10.5%-40.0%) and adiponectin (7.0%-30.4%).

These results add to the list of metabolites associated with adiposity and indicate that some may influence processes that contribute to the development of obesity-related diseases.
Publication
Journal: Bioscience reports
November/28/2019
Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Previous studies have confirmed that the disorder of SIRT1/PGC-1α deacetylation pathway aggravated mitochondrial dysfunction. HuoXue QianYang QuTan Recipe (HQQR) is a commonly used prescription which has shown therapeutic effects on obesity hypertension and its complications. However, the potential mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, obesity hypertension (OBH) was established in rats and we investigated the efficacy and mechanisms of HQQR on LVH. Rats were divided into the five groups: (1) WKY-ND group, (2) SHR-ND group, (3) OBH-HF group, (4) OBH-HF/V group, (5) OBH-HF/H group. We evaluated body weight, Lee index and blood pressure (BP) before and every 2 weeks after treatment. After 10 weeks of treatment, we mainly detected glycolipid metabolic index, the severity of LVH, mitochondrial function along with SIRT1/PGC-1α deacetylation pathway. Our results showed that HQQR significantly lowered body weight, Lee index, BP and improved the disorder of glycolipid metabolism in OBH rats. Importantly, we uncovered HQQR could alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction in OBH rats by regulating SIRT1/PGC-1α deacetylation pathway. These changes could be associated with the inhibition of LVH.
Publication
Journal: ACR open rheumatology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) is conflicting. The impact of sex, including menopause, has not been described. We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with MetS in men and women with ERA.A cross-sectional study of the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) was performed. Participants with baseline data to estimate key MetS components were included. Sex-stratified logistic regression identified baseline variables associated with MetS.

Results
The sample included 1543 participants; 71% were female and the mean age was 54 (SD 15) years. MetS prevalence was higher in men 188 (42%) than women 288 (26%, P < 0.0001) and increased with age. Frequent MetS components in men were hypertension (62%), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, 40%), obesity (36%), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (36%). Postmenopausal women had greater frequency of hypertension (65%), IGT (32%), and high triglycerides (21%) compared with premenopausal women (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, MetS was negatively associated with seropositivity and pulmonary disease in men. Increasing age was associated with MetS in women. In postmenopausal women, corticosteroid use was associated with MetS. Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with MetS in premenopausal women. MetS status was not explained by disease activity or core RA measures.

The characteristics and associations of MetS differed in men and women with ERA. Sex differences, including postmenopausal status, should be considered in comorbidity screening. With this knowledge, the interplay of MetS, sex, and RA therapeutic response on cardiovascular outcomes should be investigated.
Publication
Journal: BMC public health
November/28/2019
Abstract
Studies have reported that improvement of dietary habits through increased whole grain foods consumption at an early age has the potential to lead to betterment in lifelong health and wellness. The GReat-Child Trial™ was a 12-week quasi-experimental study with 6 months follow-up investigating a multi-component whole grain intervention, which consisted of behavioral, personal and environmental factors based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the GReat-Child Trial™, as well as to determine the changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of whole grains consumption among overweight/obese children.Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar socio-demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG), respectively. Inclusion criteria were healthy Malaysian overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming whole grain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during recruitment were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG) completed the intervention. KAP questionnaire was self-administered at baseline [T0] and post intervention (at 3rd [T1] and 9th month [T2]). The baseline differences between the IG and CG across socio-demographics and scores of KAP toward whole grains were determined using chi-square and t-test, respectively. ANCOVA was performed to determine the effect of the GReat-Child Trial™ on KAP towards whole grains at post-intervention and follow-up. Baseline variables were considered as covariates.The IG attained significantly higher scores in knowledge (mean difference = 4.23; 95% CI: 3.82, 4.64; p < 0.001), attitudes (mean difference = 7.39; 95% CI: 6.36, 8.42; p < 0.001) and practice (mean difference = 6.13; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.77; p < 0.001) of whole grain consumption compared to the CG, after adjusting for confounders. The IG reported significantly higher scores in knowledge (mean difference = 6.84; 95% CI: 6.53, 7.15; p < 0.001), attitudes (mean difference = 9.16; 95% CI: 8.08, 10.24; p < 0.001) and practice (mean difference = 8.03; 95% CI: 5.34, 10.73; p < 0.001) towards whole grains at T2 compared to T0.These findings indicate that this intervention made a positive impact on improving children's KAP on whole grains. We anticipate the GReat-Child Trial™ to be a program that could be incorporated into school interventions to improve whole grain consumption among Malaysian children for obesity prevention.
Publication
Journal: Nature reviews. Endocrinology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Neuroimmunology and immunometabolism are burgeoning topics of study, but the intersection of these two fields is scarcely considered. This interplay is particularly prevalent within adipose tissue, where immune cells and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have an important role in metabolic homeostasis and pathology, namely in obesity. In the present Review, we first outline the established reciprocal adipose-SNS relationship comprising the neuroendocrine loop facilitated primarily by adipose tissue-derived leptin and SNS-derived noradrenaline. Next, we review the extensive crosstalk between adipocytes and resident innate immune cells as well as the changes that occur in these secretory and signalling pathways in obesity. Finally, we discuss the effect of SNS adrenergic signalling in immune cells and conclude with exciting new research demonstrating an immutable role for SNS-resident macrophages in modulating SNS-adipose crosstalk. We posit that the latter point constitutes the existence of a new field - neuroimmunometabolism.
Publication
Journal: Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
November/28/2019
Abstract
Adipose tissue is classically recognized as the primary site of lipid storage, but in recent years has garnered appreciation for its broad role as an endocrine organ comprising multiple cell types whose collective secretome, termed as adipokines, is highly interdependent on metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. Anatomical location (e.g. visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial etc) and cellular composition of adipose tissue (e.g. white, beige, and brown adipocytes, macrophages etc.) also plays a critical role in determining its response to metabolic state, the resulting secretome, and its potential impact on remote tissues. Compared with other tissues, the heart has an extremely high and constant demand for energy generation, of which most is derived from oxidation of fatty acids. Availability of this fatty acid fuel source is dependent on adipose tissue, but evidence is mounting that adipose tissue plays a much broader role in cardiovascular physiology. In this review, we discuss the impact of the brown, subcutaneous, and visceral white, perivascular (PVAT), and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) secretome on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with a particular focus on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.
Publication
Journal: The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity
November/28/2019
Abstract
Certain eating behaviors are common among women with obesity. Whether these behaviors influence outcomes in weight loss programs, and whether such programs affect eating behaviors, is unclear.

METHODS
Our aim was to examine the effect of baseline eating behaviors on intervention adherence and weight among postmenopausal women with overweight or obesity, and to assess intervention effects on eating behaviors. Four hundred and 39 women (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) were randomized to 12 months of: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal ('diet'; n = 118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 225 mins/week ('exercise'; n = 117); iii) combined dietary weight loss and exercise ('diet + exercise'; n = 117); or iv) no-lifestyle change control (n = 87). At baseline and 12 months, restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and binge eating were measured by questionnaire; weight and body composition were assessed. The mean change in eating behavior scores and weight between baseline and 12 months in the diet, exercise, and diet + exercise arms were each compared to controls using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) modification of linear regression adjusted for age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity.

Baseline restrained eating was positively associated with change in total calories and calories from fat during the dietary intervention but not with other measures of adherence. Higher baseline restrained eating was associated with greater 12-month reductions in weight, waist circumference, body fat and lean mass. Women randomized to dietary intervention had significant reductions in binge eating (- 23.7%, p = 0.005 vs. control), uncontrolled eating (- 24.3%, p < 0.001 vs. control), and emotional eating (- 31.7%, p < 0.001 vs. control) scores, and a significant increase in restrained eating (+ 60.6%, p < 0.001 vs. control); women randomized to diet + exercise reported less uncontrolled eating (- 26.0%, p < 0.001 vs. control) and emotional eating (- 22.0%, p = 0.004 vs. control), and increased restrained eating (+ 41.4%, p < 0.001 vs. control). Women randomized to exercise alone had no significant change in eating behavior scores compared to controls.A dietary weight loss intervention helped women modify eating behaviors. Future research should investigate optimal behavioral weight loss interventions for women with both disordered eating and obesity.NCT00470119 (https://clinicaltrials.gov). Retrospectively registered May 7, 2007.
Publication
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health
November/28/2019
Abstract
With the remarkable improvement in people's socioeconomic living standards around the world, adolescent obesity has increasingly become an important public health issue that cannot be ignored. Thus, we have implemented its use in an attempt to explore the viability of scenario-based simulations through the use of a data mining approach. In doing so, we wanted to explore the merits of using a General Bayesian Network (GBN) with What-If analysis while exploring how it can be utilized in other areas of public health. We analyzed data from the 2017 Korean Youth Health Behavior Survey conducted directly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, including 19 attributes and 11,206 individual data points. Our simulations found that by manipulating the amount of pocket money-between $60 and $80-coupled with a low-income background, it has a high potential to increase obesity compared with other simulated factors. Additionally, when we manipulated an increase in studying time with a mediocre academic performance, it was found to potentially increase pressure on adolescents, which subsequently led to an increased obesity outcome. Lastly, we found that when we manipulated an increase in a father's education level while manipulating a decrease in mother's education level, this had a large effect on the potential adolescent obesity level. Although obesity was the chosen case, this paper acts more as a proof of concept in analyzing public health through GBN and What-If analysis. Therefore, it aims to guide health professionals into potentially expanding their ability to simulate certain outcomes based on predicted changes in certain factors concerning future public health issues.
Publication
Journal: Nestle Nutrition Institute workshop series
November/28/2019
Abstract
Healthy growth during the first 1,000 days, spanning from conception to age 24 months, represents a crucial period which influences the long-term physical and cognitive development of individuals. International public health recommendations and nutrition education interventions targeting early life focus on building individuals' capacities through a variety of educational strategies, accompanied by environmental support, with an ultimate goal being the voluntary adoption of food choices and other nutrition-related behaviors conducive to health and wellness of the expectant mother during pregnancy, parents and caregivers who have a role in feeding the infant, and the infant in later childhood and beyond. Nutrition education interventions that hold promise in the promotion of healthy infant growth are designed on the basis of applicable theory of health behavior, focus on multiple modifiable nutrition-related behaviors, and address various mediators, such as motivators and barriers relevant to acting on these modifiable behaviors. A limited number of randomized controlled trials have been published to date, with modest effect sizes, some of which show sustained benefits related to obesity prevention. Considerations related to intervention design, behavior change strategies, and scale-up efforts are needed to improve the efficacy of nutrition education strategies in early nutrition.
Publication
Journal: Environmental research
December/1/2019
Abstract
Phthalic acid esters are established as endocrine disruptors. The study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary phthalate metabolites and prostate cancer occurrence.The study was based on the Taiwan Community-Based Cancer Screening Program, which was set up in 1991-1992 and followed periodically. By 2010, 80 incident prostate cancer cases were identified in the 12,020 men. For each case, 2 controls were randomly selected, matched by age (±3 years), urine collection date (±3 months), and residential township. Frequently used phthalate metabolites from the urine samples were quantified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between the exposure levels and prostate cancer occurrence.Exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl), butyl-benzyl and di-isobutyl phthalates (DEHP, BBzP, DiBP) was positively associated with prostate cancer in men with waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm but not in the leans. Odds ratio for the DEHP metabolite summary score (upper tertile compared to the rest) and prostate cancer were 7.76 (95% CI = 1.95-30.9) for WC ≥ 90 cm.DEHP, BBzP, and DiBP exposure were associated with prostate cancer occurrence in abdominally obese men. The main limitation remains the lack of mechanistic experiments and comparable toxicological data.
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