Obesity
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Publication
Journal: Nature Reviews Endocrinology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Neuroimmunology and immunometabolism are burgeoning topics of study, but the intersection of these two fields is scarcely considered. This interplay is particularly prevalent within adipose tissue, where immune cells and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have an important role in metabolic homeostasis and pathology, namely in obesity. In the present Review, we first outline the established reciprocal adipose-SNS relationship comprising the neuroendocrine loop facilitated primarily by adipose tissue-derived leptin and SNS-derived noradrenaline. Next, we review the extensive crosstalk between adipocytes and resident innate immune cells as well as the changes that occur in these secretory and signalling pathways in obesity. Finally, we discuss the effect of SNS adrenergic signalling in immune cells and conclude with exciting new research demonstrating an immutable role for SNS-resident macrophages in modulating SNS-adipose crosstalk. We posit that the latter point constitutes the existence of a new field - neuroimmunometabolism.
Publication
Journal: Obesity Reviews
November/28/2019
Abstract
White adipose tissue is one of the largest organs of the body. It plays a key role in whole-body energy status and metabolism; it not only stores excess energy but also secretes various hormones and metabolites to regulate body energy balance. Healthy adipose tissue capable of expanding is needed for metabolic well-being and to prevent accumulation of triglycerides to other organs. Mitochondria govern several important functions in the adipose tissue. We review the derangements of mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue in the obese state. Downregulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis in the white adipose tissue is a central driver for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial functions compromised in obesity include oxidative functions and renewal and enlargement of the adipose tissue through recruitment and differentiation of adipocyte progenitor cells. These changes adversely affect whole-body metabolic health. Dysfunction of the white adipose tissue mitochondria in obesity has long-term consequences for the metabolism of adipose tissue and the whole body. Understanding the pathways behind mitochondrial dysfunction may help reveal targets for pharmacological or nutritional interventions that enhance mitochondrial biogenesis or function in adipose tissue.
Publication
Journal: Biology of Sex Differences
November/28/2019
Abstract
Obesity and elevated serum lipids are associated with a threefold increase in the risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that underlies stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Strategies that aim to reduce serum cholesterol through modulation of liver enzymes have been successful in decreasing the risk of developing atherosclerosis and reducing mortality. Statins, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver, are considered among the most successful compounds developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, recent debate surrounding their effectiveness and safety prompts consideration of alternative cholesterol-lowering therapies, including increasing cholesterol catabolism through bile acid (BA) synthesis. Targeting the enzymes that convert cholesterol to BAs represents a promising alternative to other cholesterol-lowering approaches that treat atherosclerosis as well as fatty liver diseases and diabetes mellitus. Compounds that modify the activity of these pathways have been developed; however, there remains a lack of consideration of biological sex. This is necessary in light of strong evidence for sexual dimorphisms not only in the incidence and progression of the diseases they influence but also in the expression and activity of the proteins affected and in the manner in which men and women respond to drugs that modify lipid handling in the liver. A thorough understanding of the enzymes involved in cholesterol catabolism and modulation by biological sex is necessary to maximize their therapeutic potential.
Publication
Journal: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
November/28/2019
Abstract
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary, the gut microbiota seems to impact WAT and BAT physiology at multiple levels.
Publication
Journal: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that delivers intracellular proteins and organelles to the lysosome for degradation and recycling. Evidences over the past decades have proved that autophagy participates in cell fate decision and also plays a key role in regulating cellular energy and nutrient stores. Lipid droplets (LDs) are the main lipid storage form in living organisms. The process of autophagic degradation of LDs is referred to lipophagy or macrolipophagy. Lipophagy is not only indispensable for the cellular lipid metabolism but also closely associated with several metabolic disorders such as obesity, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis, and so on. Here, we summarize recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of lipophagy regulation and the emerging roles of lipophagy in various biological processes and metabolic disorders.
Publication
Journal: Current treatment options in gastroenterology
December/1/2019
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to describe the trends in dietary patterns and food quality over time along with the possible role of ultra-processed foods in obesity, chronic diseases, and all-cause mortality in the US population.There is a rising obesity epidemic, corresponding chronic diseases, and increases in ultra-processed food consumption. In mice and in vitro trials, emulsifiers, found in processed foods, have been found to alter microbiome compositions, elevate fasting blood glucose, cause hyperphagia, increase weight gain and adiposity, and induce hepatic steatosis. Recent human trials have found ultra-processed foods as a contributor to decreased satiety, increased meal eating rates, worsening biochemical markers, and more weight gain. In contrast, Blue Zone, indigenous South American, and Mediterranean populations with low meat intake, high fiber, and minimally processed foods have far less chronic diseases, obesity rates, and live longer disease-free. As the USA continues to industrialize, food has become more processed and cheaper and more convenient along with the coexistent rise in obesity prevalence. This review highlights the overall trends in food: mild improvements in dietary quality in higher socioeconomic populations, but no significant increases in whole fruit, vegetables, legumes, or nuts. Consumption of ultra-processed food is associated with weight gain and may contribute to metabolic syndrome and chronic disease. To combat this epidemic, we must create and disseminate detailed recommendations to improve diet quality and overall nutrition.
Publication
Journal: Obesity Surgery
November/28/2019
Abstract
Since a few years, the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become the most performed bariatric operation worldwide. However, as with all bariatric procedures, SG also leads to vitamin and mineral deficiencies post-operatively and standard multivitamin supplements are probably not sufficient.The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a specialized multivitamin supplement for SG patients (WLS Optimum 1.0, FitForMe, Rotterdam, the Netherlands), compared to a standard multivitamin supplement (sMVS).A double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed. For 12 months, patients in the intervention group received WLS Optimum, containing elevated doses of multiple vitamins and minerals. Patients in the control group were provided with sMVS, containing 100% of the recommended dietary allowance.In total, 139 patients were available for analysis (WLS Optimum, n = 69; sMVS, n = 70). Intention-to-treat analyses revealed more folic acid deficiencies and higher serum vitamin B1 levels in the WLS Optimum group. Per protocol analyses showed that in patients using WLS Optimum, serum folic acid and vitamin B1 levels were higher, serum PTH levels were lower, and only one patient (2.6%) was anemic compared to 11 patients (17.5%) using a sMVS (p < 0.05 for all). No differences were found in prevalence of deficiencies for iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and other vitamins and minerals.This optimized multivitamin supplement only affected serum levels of folic acid, PTH and vitamin B1, and anemia rates compared to a sMVS. There is a clear need to further optimize multivitamin supplementation for SG patients. Besides, non-compliance with multivitamin supplements remains an important issue that should be dealt with.The study protocol was registered at the clinical trials registry of the National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier NCT01609387).
Publication
Journal: Molecular Immunology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Infiltration of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) is a typical feature of obesity, and circulating immune cells may indicate immune cell accumulation. However, it remains unclear whether this is true in the early stages of obesity. This study aimed to define the role of blood monocytes in obesity and the relationship between blood monocytes and ATMs in early-stage obesity. Two groups of male C57BL/6 J mice were fed on a 60 % high-fat diet (HFD) or a 10 % fat normal diet (ND), respectively, and monitored at 1, 2, 3, 7, and 12 weeks. Populations of circulating blood monocytes (CD11b + CD115+), ATMs (F4/80+CD11b+), and their subtypes were collected and analyzed using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Some cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL7) were also analyzed by real-time PCR. HFD induced obesity, dramatic fat expansion, and accumulation of ATMs in mice after 12 weeks. However, an acute and transient reduction of circulating monocyte count, elevated expression of CD11c in ly6clow monocytes, and concurrent infiltration of ATMs into visceral adipose tissues (VAT) were observed as early as 1 week after initiating HFD. Further, HFD-induced changes in VAT, but not blood monocyte count, were partially reversed upon reverting to ND for 6 weeks. An acute but transient reduction of blood monocyte count was observed at the early stages of HFD feeding, which might be related to early infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissues. We believe that blood monocytes could be targeted as a new obesity treatment following additional studies.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Science
November/28/2019
Abstract
Adipose tissue is classically recognized as the primary site of lipid storage, but in recent years has garnered appreciation for its broad role as an endocrine organ comprising multiple cell types whose collective secretome, termed as adipokines, is highly interdependent on metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. Anatomical location (e.g. visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial etc) and cellular composition of adipose tissue (e.g. white, beige, and brown adipocytes, macrophages etc.) also plays a critical role in determining its response to metabolic state, the resulting secretome, and its potential impact on remote tissues. Compared with other tissues, the heart has an extremely high and constant demand for energy generation, of which most is derived from oxidation of fatty acids. Availability of this fatty acid fuel source is dependent on adipose tissue, but evidence is mounting that adipose tissue plays a much broader role in cardiovascular physiology. In this review, we discuss the impact of the brown, subcutaneous, and visceral white, perivascular (PVAT), and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) secretome on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with a particular focus on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.
Publication
Journal: Revista Paulista de Pediatria
November/28/2019
Abstract
To assess demographic data and characteristics of children and adolescents with pediatric chronic diseases (PCD), according to the number of specialties/patient.We performed a cross-sectional study with 16,237 PCD patients at outpatient clinics in one year. Data were analyzed by an electronic data system, according to the number of physician appointments for PCD. This study assessed: demographic data, follow-up characteristics, types of medical specialty, diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD-10), number of day hospital clinic visits, and acute complications.Patients followed by ≥3 specialties simultaneously showed a significantly higher duration of follow-up compared to those followed by ≤2 specialties [2.1 (0.4-16.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years; p<0.001] and a higher number of appointments in all specialties. The most prevalent medical areas in patients followed by ≥3 specialties were: Psychiatry (Odds Ratio - OR=8.0; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 6-10.7; p<0.001), Palliative/Pain Care (OR=7.4; 95%CI 5.7-9.7; p<0.001), Infectious Disease (OR=7.0; 95%CI 6.4-7.8; p<0.001) and Nutrology (OR=6.9; 95%CI 5.6-8.4; p<0.001). Logistic regressions demonstrated that PCD patients followed by ≥3 specialties were associated with high risk for: number of appointments/patient (OR=9.2; 95%CI 8.0-10.5; p<0.001), day hospital clinic visits (OR=4.8; 95%CI 3.8-5.9; p<0.001), emergency department visits (OR=3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3.5; p<0.001), hospitalizations (OR=3.0; 95%CI 2.7-3.3; p<0.001), intensive care admissions (OR=2.5; 95%CI 2.1-3.0; p<0.001), and deaths (OR=2.8; 95%CI 1.9-4.0; p<0.001). The diagnosis of asthma, obesity, chronic pain, and transplant was significantly higher in patients followed by ≥3 specialties.The present study showed that PCD patients who required simultaneous care from multiple medical specialties had complex and severe diseases, with specific diagnoses.
Publication
Journal: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
November/28/2019
Abstract
To determine association between maternal lipaemia and neonatal anthropometrics in Malaysian mother-offspring pairs.

DESIGN
Prospective observational cohort study SETTING: Single tertiary multi-disciplinary antenatal clinic in Malaysia POPULATION: 507 mothers: 145 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 94 obese with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)( pregravid BMI>27.5 kg/m2 ) and 268 non-obese NGT.

Maternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected during an interview/examination using a structured questionnaire. Blood was drawn for insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride (Tg) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) during screening 75g OGTT, and at 36 weeks. At birth, neonatal anthropometrics were assessed and data such as gestational weight gain (GWG) were extracted from records.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA) status, cohort-specific birth weight (BW), neonatal fat mass (NFM), sum of skinfold thickness (SSFT) >90th centile.

RESULTS
Fasting Tg>95th centile (3.6 mmol/L) at screening OGTT was independently associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.82, 95% CI 1.26-93.37) after adjustment for maternal glucose, pregravid BMI and insulin sensitivity. Fasting glucose was independently associated with BWR >90th centile(aOR 2..06 95% CI 1.17-3.64) but not LGA status in this well-treated GDM cohort with pre-delivery HbA1c of 5.27%. 45% mothers had pregravid BMI<23 kg/m2 and 61% BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 ; yet GWG>10kg was associated with 4.25-fold-risk(95% CI 1.71-10.53) of BW>90th centile.

Maternal lipaemia and GWG at a low threshold (>10kg) adversely impact neonatal adiposity in Asian offspring independent of glucose/insulin resistance/pregravid BMI. These may therefore be important modifiable metabolic targets in pregnancy.
Publication
Journal: Peptides
December/1/2019
Abstract
The continued global growth in the prevalence of obesity coupled with the limited number of efficacious and safe treatment options elevates the importance of innovative pharmaceutical approaches. Combinatorial strategies that harness the metabolic benefits of multiple hormonal mechanisms have emerged at the preclinical and more recently clinical stages of drug development. A priority has been anti-obesity unimolecular peptides that function as balanced, high potency poly-agonists at two or all the cellular receptors for the endocrine hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon. This report reviews recent progress in this area, with emphasis on what the initial clinical results demonstrate and what remains to be addressed.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Travel Medicine
November/28/2019
Abstract
The average risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in long haul travellers is approximately 2.8 per 1000 travellers, which is increased in the presence of other VTE risk factors. In pregnant long-haul travellers, little is known in terms of the absolute risk of VTE in these women and, therefore, there is limited consensus on appropriate thromboprophylaxis in this setting. This review will provide guidance to allow practitioners to safely minimize the risk of travel related VTE in pregnant women. The suggestions provided are based on limited data, extrapolated risk estimates of VTE in pregnant travellers, and recommendations from published guidelines. We found that the absolute VTE risk per flight appears to be <1% for the average pregnant or postpartum traveller. In pregnant travellers with a prior history of VTE, a potent thrombophilia or strong antepartum risk factors (e.g. combination of obesity and immobility), the risk of VTE with travel appears to be >1%. Postpartum, the risk of VTE with travel may be >1% for women with thrombophilias (particularly in those with a family history), other transient risk factors and in women with a prior VTE. Based on our findings, we recommend simple measures be taken by all pregnant travellers, such as frequent ambulation, hydration and calf exercises. In those at an intermediate risk, we suggest a consideration of 20-30mmHg compression stockings. In the highest risk group, we suggest careful consideration for low molecular weight heparin thromboprophylaxis. If there are specific concerns, we advise consultation with a thrombosis expert at the nearest local centre.
Publication
Journal: BMC Public Health
November/28/2019
Abstract
A healthy lifestyle has been shown to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The extent to which lifestyle influences the risk of CAD for people with pre-existing non-modifiable risk factors is less studied. We therefore examined the associations between a favorable lifestyle and incidence of CAD in population subgroups based on gender, age, educational level, and parental history of myocardial infarction.A total of 26,323 men and women from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study were prospectively followed-up for 18 years. A favorable lifestyle was determined using a four-component lifestyle score based on data collected at baseline: no smoking, no obesity, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relative risk of CAD during follow-up and cumulative risk during a 10-year interval.A favorable lifestyle was associated with a 44% (95% confidence interval, 38-48%) lower risk of CAD compared to an unfavorable lifestyle. The relative risk was similarly reduced among subjects subdivided by gender, age group, educational level, and parental history of myocardial infarction. These findings corresponded with a reduced standardized 10-year incidence of CAD of around 40% in each subgroup.In this population-based cohort, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a significant reduction of CAD across strata of non-modifiable risk factors. These findings provide support for lifestyle modification as a means for risk reduction in a range of subgroups within a general healthy population.
Publication
Journal: ERJ Open Research
November/28/2019
Abstract
Analysis of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients in Scotland across 20 years supports a recent French study suggesting there is no protective effect from obesity for this disease, in contrast to emerging evidence from the USA and China http://bit.ly/34WCZ7W.
Publication
Journal: JMIR Research Protocols
November/28/2019
Abstract
Postpartum weight retention contributes to long-term weight gain and obesity for many women. Lifestyle interventions with numerous visits are logistically challenging for many postpartum women. Delivering a lifestyle intervention via social media may overcome logistic challenges to participation in in-person weight loss programs.The objective of this study is to conduct a randomized feasibility pilot trial of a 6-month postpartum weight loss intervention delivered via Facebook or in-person groups with 72 postpartum women with overweight or obesity.Women with overweight or obesity who are 8 weeks to 12 months postpartum (N=72) will be recruited from the Hartford, Connecticut community. Eligible participants must also own an iPhone or Android smartphone and be an active Facebook user. Participants will receive a 6-month postpartum weight loss intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention and adapted for postpartum women. Participants will be randomized to receive the intervention via a private Facebook group or in-person group meetings. Assessments will occur at baseline, weekly during the intervention, at 6 months (at the end of the intervention), and at 12 months. Primary feasibility outcomes are recruitment, sustained participation, contamination, retention, and feasibility of assessment procedures including measurement of costs to deliver and receive the intervention. We will describe 6- and 12-month weight loss as an exploratory outcome.Recruitment began in September 2018. The first wave of the intervention began in February 2019, and the second wave of the intervention is expected to begin in fall 2019. We anticipate completing follow-up assessments in fall 2020, and results will be analyzed at that time.Results will inform the design of a large randomized controlled trial to assess whether delivering a postpartum weight loss intervention via Facebook is noninferior for weight loss and more cost-effective than delivering the intervention via traditional in-person groups.DERR1-10.2196/15530.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric Diabetes
November/28/2019
Abstract
Exercise and lifestyle interventions have been shown to reduce hepatic fat (HF) and adiposity in youth. However, the interindividual response in HF after a lifestyle intervention with or without exercise in children is unknown.To compare interindividual variability for HF, adiposity, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AST/ALT) in children with overweight/obesity participating in a 22-week lifestyle intervention with (intensive intervention) or without exercise (control intervention).data from 102 children (9-12 years, 55% girls) with overweight/obesity participating in the EFIGRO randomized controlled trial were analyzed.Percentage HF (magnetic resonance imaging), weight, body and fat mass index (BMI and FMI), GGT, AST/ALT, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, 20 meters shuttle run test) were assessed before and after the intervention by the same trained researchers. The control intervention consisted in 11 sessions of a family-based lifestyle and psycho-educational program. The intensive intervention included the control intervention plus supervised exercise (3 sessions/week).The prevalence of responders for HF (54% vs. 34%), weight (27% vs. 11%), BMI (71% vs. 47%), FMI (90% vs. 60%), and GGT (69% vs. 39%) was higher in the intensive than in the control group (Ps<0.05). Responders for weight (16±3 vs. 6±2 laps) and BMI (11±2 vs. 3±4 laps) improved more CRF levels than non-responders (Ps<0.05).The addition of exercise to a lifestyle intervention may increase the responders rates for HF, adiposity, and GGT in children with overweight/obesity. Improvements in CRF may explain differences between weight and BMI responders and non-responders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication
Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
November/28/2019
Abstract
The use of media device, such as smartphone and tablet, is currently increasing, especially among the youngest. Adolescents spend more and more time with their smartphones consulting social media, mainly Facebook, Instagram and Twitter because. Adolescents often feel the necessity to use a media device as a means to construct a social identity and express themselves. For some children, smartphone ownership starts even sooner as young as 7 yrs, according to internet safety experts.We analyzed the evidence on media use and its consequences in adolescence.In literature, smartphones and tablets use may negatively influences the psychophysical development of the adolescent, such as learning, sleep and sigh. Moreover, obesity, distraction, addiction, cyberbullism and Hikikomori phenomena are described in adolescents who use media device too frequently. The Italian Pediatric Society provide action-oriented recommendations for families and clinicians to avoid negative outcomes.Both parents and clinicians should be aware of the widespread phenomenon of media device use among adolescents and try to avoid psychophysical consequences on the youngest.
Publication
Journal: Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC
December/1/2019
Abstract
The aim of this guideline is to aid primary care physicians and gynaecologists in the initial evaluation of women with suspected endometrial hyperplasia, to recommend the use of the 2014 World Health Organization classification for endometrial hyperplasia by all health care providers, and to guide the optimal treatment of women diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia.Physicians, including gynaecologists, obstetricians, family physicians, general surgeons, emergency medicine specialists; nurses, including registered nurses and nurse practitioners; medical trainees, including medical students, residents, and fellows; and all other health care providers.Adult women (18 years and older) presenting with suspected or confirmed endometrial hyperplasia.The discussion relates to the medical therapy as well as surgical treatment options for women with and without atypical endometrial hyperplasia.For this guideline, relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Wiley, and the Cochrane Systematic Reviews using the following terms, either alone or in combination, with the search limited to English language materials, human subjects, and published since 2000: (endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, endometrial sampling, endometrial curettage, diagnosis) AND (treatment, progestin therapy, surgery, LNG-IUS, aromatase inhibitors, metformin ), AND (obesity). The search was performed in April 2018. Relevant evidence was selected for inclusion in the following order: meta-analyses, systematic reviews, guidelines, randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, observational studies, non-systematic reviews, case series, and reports. Additional significant articles were identified through cross-referencing the identified reviews. The total number of studies identified was 2152, and 82 studies were included in this review.The content and recommendations were drafted and agreed upon by the authors. The Executive and Board of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology of Canada reviewed the content and submitted comments for consideration, and the Board of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada approved the final draft for publication. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology framework. The interpretation of strong and weak recommendations was also included. The Summary of Findings is available upon request.It is expected that this guideline will benefit women with endometrial hyperplasia. This should guide patient informed consent before both medical and surgical management of this condition.Evidence will be reviewed 5 years after publication to decide whether all or part of the guideline should be updated. However, if important new evidence is published prior to the 5-year cycle, the review process may be accelerated for a more rapid update of some recommendations.RECOMMENDATIONS.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
November/28/2019
Abstract
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is strongly related to obesity. The relationship between intracranial pressure, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat and distribution of body fat in non-IIH patients remains less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between intracranial pressure and body type in non-IIH patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS
Lumbar puncture manometry was used to measure cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure (CSFOP). BMI, in addition to neck, waist and hip circumferences were calculated. Air displacement plethysmography (BODPOD) was used to assess body composition.

RESULTS
Data was collected from 100 subjects. 11 subjects with conditions known to cause raised intracranial pressure were excluded from analysis. According to Pearson correlation factors displaying a significant relationship with CSFOP included: BMI (R = 0.635, p < 0.0001); waist circumference (R = 0.498, p < 0.0001), hip circumference (R = 0.513, p < 0.0001) and percentage body fat (R = 0.435, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI was the only independent factor which predicted CSFOP. Sub-analysis according to gender indicated that BMI was predictive in females and percentage body fat was predictive in males. We did not identify any differences in BMI, percentage body fat or distribution of body fat in 7 IIH patients and 7 wt-matched non-IIH patients.

CONCLUSION
BMI and percentage body fat both positively correlated with CSFOP, but BMI was more predictive in women and percentage body fat was more predictive in men. We did not find a relationship between distribution of body fat and CSFOP.

Publication
Journal: Paediatrics and international child health
November/28/2019
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. It is important to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents in this region.Aim: To assess the risk of metabolic syndrome and early vascular markers for atherosclerosis in obese Indonesian adolescentsMethods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in obese high school students aged 15-<18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. All eligible adolescents were interviewed about their medical history, were physically examined and had a fasting blood sample taken. Arterial stiffness was measured during systole and diastole blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction was estimated using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and arterial wall thickness using carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT).Results: A total of 4268 students were screened, 298 (7%) of whom were classified as obese. Of those, 229 had blood samples taken, 173 had FMD performed and 156 had CIMT examination. Adolescents with a higher body mass index or BMI Z-score (>3.0) had a significantly poorer lipid profile, insulin level and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) than those with a lower BMI Z-score. There were no significant differences for early vasculature markers for atherosclerosis between these two groups.Conclusion: The prevalence of risks of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents was significant. The higher the BMI Z-score, the higher the risks of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to reduce obesity and its cardiovascular disease morbidities are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries.Abbreviations: BMI; body mass index; CIMT, carotid artery intima-media thickness; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FMD flow-mediated dilation; HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HbA1c haemoglobin A1c; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IOTF, International Obesity Task Force; LDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; WHO, World Health Organization.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Health Geographics
November/28/2019
Abstract
Although a preponderance of research indicates that increased income inequality negatively impacts population health, several international studies found that a greater income inequality was associated with better population health when measured on a fine geographic level of aggregation. This finding is known as a "Swiss paradox". To date, no studies have examined variability in the associations between income inequality and health outcomes by spatial aggregation level in the US. Therefore, this study examined associations between income inequality (Gini index, GI) and population health by geographic level using a large, nationally representative dataset of older adults. We geographically linked respondents' county data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to 2012 American Community Survey data. Using generalized linear models, we estimated the association between GI decile on the state and county levels and five population health outcomes (diabetes, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and self-rated health), accounting for confounders and complex sampling. Although state-level GI was not significantly associated with obesity rates (b = - 0.245, 95% CI - 0.497, 0.008), there was a significant, negative association between county-level GI and obesity rates (b = - 0.416, 95% CI - 0.629, - 0.202). State-level GI also associated with an increased diabetes rate (b = 0.304, 95% CI 0.063, 0.546), but the association was not significant for county-level GI and diabetes rate (b = - 0.101, 95% CI - 0.305, 0.104). Associations between both county-level GI and state-level GI and current smoking status were also not significant. These findings show the associations between income inequality and health vary by spatial aggregation level and challenge the preponderance of evidence suggesting that income inequality is consistently associated with worse health. Further research is needed to understand the nuances behind these observed associations to design informed policies and programs designed to reduce socioeconomic health inequities among older adults.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
November/28/2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease in Western nations and ranges in severity from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a genetic-environmental-metabolic stress-related disease of unclear pathogenesis. NAFLD is triggered by caloric overconsumption and physical inactivity, which lead to insulin resistance and oxidative stress. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Mitochondrial dysfunction not only promotes fat accumulation, but also leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, resulting in oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important modulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress. The pharmacological induction of Nrf2 ameliorates obesity-associated insulin resistance and NAFLD in a mouse model. Sulforaphane and its precursor glucoraphanin are derived from broccoli sprouts and are the most potent natural Nrf2 inducers-they may protect mitochondrial function, thus suppressing the development of NASH. In this review, we briefly describe the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH and the effects of glucoraphanin on its development.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Chemotherapy
November/28/2019
Abstract
Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) is responsible for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, which are involved in the preservation of biological membrane structure, energy storage and assembly of factors involved in signal transduction. FASN plays a critical role in supporting tumor cell growth, thus representing a potential target for anti-cancer therapies. Moreover, this enzyme has been recently associated with increased PD-L1 expression, suggesting a role for fatty acids in the impairment of the immune response in the tumor microenvironment. Orlistat, a tetrahydrolipstatin used for the treatment of obesity, has been reported to reduce FASN activity, while inducing a sensible reduction of the growth potential in different cancer models. We have analyzed the effect of orlistat on different features involved in the tumor cell biology of the T-ALL Jurkat cell line. In particular, we have observed that orlistat inhibits Jurkat cell growth and induces a perturbation of cell cycle along with a decline of FASN activity and protein levels. Moreover, the drug produces a remarkable impairment of PD-L1 expression. These findings suggest that orlistat interferes with different mechanisms involved in the control of tumor cell growth and can potentially contribute to decrease the tumor-associated immune-pathogenesis.
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