Obesity
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Pubmed
Journal: Hormone research
December/8/1997
Abstract
Leptin is a newly discovered hormone that acts as a feedback signal from the adipose tissue. It plays a pivotal role in the modulation of neuronal and hormonal systems involved in the regulation of body weight and reproductive functions. This brief overview focuses on the regulation of circulating leptin levels and leptin in extreme clinical states of body weight, summarizing mainly results from the University of Giessen in collaboration with other groups. Finally, a possible role for leptin is presented.
Authors
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of psychology
October/31/2013
Abstract
Although research indicates that treatment-induced improvements in self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy significantly predict increased exercise and improved eating, moderation by participants' personal characteristics is largely unknown. Severely obese adults (N = 414; 47% White, 53% African American) volunteered for a behavioral exercise and nutrition treatment and demonstrated significant within-group improvements in self-efficacy for exercise, self-regulation for exercise, mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, self-regulation for controlled eating, exercise volume, and fruit and vegetable intake over 26 weeks. After testing age, sex, and race/ethnicity as possible moderators of the prediction of changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable consumption by changes in self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy, only age significantly moderated change in volume of exercise. Implications for theory and treatment were discussed.
Pubmed
Journal: Heart (British Cardiac Society)
June/14/2004
Abstract
The last decade has seen many trials with antioxidants in patients with cardiovascular disease, with equivocal results. One possible explanation for the disappointing findings is the lack of identification criteria of patients who are potential candidates for antioxidant treatment. Several studies have been carried out in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease, indicating that enhanced oxidative stress is associated with the presence of diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, and smoking. This review analyses the data reported so far to determine whether they clearly support the premise that patients at risk of cardiovascular events may be candidates for antioxidant treatment.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume
February/13/1995
Abstract
A series of 3061 patients with fracture of the distal tibia or ankle was studied for a possible link between overweight and failed reduction. The relative body-weight was recorded as the preoperative self-reported body mass index (BMI) of each patient. There were 109 patients (3.6%) with failure of internal fixation or of closed reduction severe enough to necessitate refixation or corrective osteotomy. The mean BMI in all age- and gender-specific groups studied was found to be significantly higher in patients with failed reduction than in those with an uneventful course (p < 0.01). The relative risk of loss of reduction for patients with a BMI greater than 1SD above the BMI of the corresponding age and gender group of the general population was 3.72 for distal tibial fractures and 3.04 for ankle fractures. Overweight should be recognised as a significant factor in predicting a complicated course after a fracture of the lower leg. Awareness of the increased risk of loss of reduction in overweight patients is important in all phases of management.
Pubmed
Journal: International journal of obesity
November/13/1989
Abstract
Obesity is more common in black women than in white women in the USA, but there are few studies comparing black and white females on behaviors related to obesity or on the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. We studied 490 white and 48 black premenopausal, nondiabetic, nonhypertensive women, aged 42-50 years, who were participating in the Pittsburgh Healthy Women Study. Black women had a higher BMI than white women and had a higher suprailiac:triceps ratio, suggesting a more central distribution of body fat. Weight gain since age 20 was greater in black women than in white women. Blacks and whites did not differ in caloric intake, smoking or alcohol consumption. However, there were marked differences in physical activity, with blacks reporting significantly less activity than whites. Differences in body fat distribution, weight gain since age 20 and activity remained after adjusting for education. Blacks also had higher blood pressure and poorer glucose tolerance than whites. The low activity level of black women should be considered when designing weight loss interventions.
Pubmed
Journal: Advances in chronic kidney disease
October/30/2014
Abstract
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic condition that represents many disease entities. The goals of therapy are to cure the disease. When this is not possible, the secondary goals are to reduce proteinuria to avoid the complications of nephrotic syndrome and to delay progression of kidney disease. Proteinuria remission is one of the most important independent predictors of kidney survival. Children with FSGS who do not achieve partial or complete remission have a 50% risk of progression to ESRD within 5 years whereas those who enter complete remission have a 5-year kidney survival rate of 90%. Treatment of idiopathic FSGS commonly involves immune-based and nonimmunologic therapy options. This manuscript will review the current state of FSGS therapy for children.
Pubmed
Journal: Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
May/20/2014
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption.
RESULTS
Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies is associated with reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. In addition, coffee intake is associated with risks of heart failure, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some cancers in an inverse dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, coffee is associated with neutral to reduced risks for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. However, caffeine at high doses can increase anxiety, insomnia, calcium loss and possibly the risk of fractures.
CONCLUSIONS
Coffee and tea can generally be recommended as health-promoting additions to an adult diet. Adequate dietary calcium intake may be particularly important for tea and coffee drinkers.
Pubmed
Journal: EXS
February/6/2006
Pubmed
Journal: Endocrine
August/18/2005
Abstract
The age-related changes in acute insulin response after glucose loading and the influence of suppression of body weight gain were investigated by using blood samples from portal and peripheral veins. We placed indwelling catheters in the portal vein of 12- and 24- wk-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats (n = 8, 12), and age-matched control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (n = 8, 6). To suppress the body weight gain, 6 out of 12 OLETF rats were fed chow containing 50 ppm voglibose (VOG) from 8 until 24 wk of age. After fasting for 17 h, rats underwent 1 g/kg oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Peripheral glucose levels after glucose loading were significantly higher in 12- and 24-wk-old OLETF rats than in the age-matched LETO rats. Values for delta insulin 15 min/delta glucose 15 min (delta I15 min/delta G15 min) in portal blood were 0.029 +/- 0.011 and 0.009 +/- 0.009 (12 wk of age) and 0.03 +/- 0.03 and -0.01 +/- 0.01 (24 wk of age) in the LETO rats and OLETF rats. At the age of 24 wk, the body weights in VOG-treated OLETF rats were significantly lower than those in the OLETF rats. And there was significantly greater acute insulin response to glucose in VOG-treated OLETF rats than in the OLETF rats. Acute insulin response to glucose decreased with advancing age and the suppression of body weight gain preserved the response in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats with visceral fat obesity.
Pubmed
Journal: Obesity surgery
January/30/2006
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of endocrinological investigation
August/27/1998
Authors
Pubmed
Journal: Ginekologia polska
February/21/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The aim of the study was to estimate whether obesity and overweight influence the course of a pregnancy and labor and to assess the condition of a newborn.
METHODS
92 cases of pregnant women with singleton pregnancy were analyzed and assessed. The patients were divided into three groups according to their body mass index. Women with BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 comprised the first group (controls), those with BMI from 25.0 to 29.9--the second group (overweight but not obese) and those with BMI of 30 and above--the third one (obese).
RESULTS
Average weight gain in the course of a pregnancy was significantly lower in the obese group whereas average blood pressure in obese women was significantly higher than in the control group. Gestational complications, such as hypertension and gestational edemas were more common in the third group. Birth weight and neonatal outcome were similar in all groups.
CONCLUSIONS
1. There is a higher risk of complications in pregnancy in overweight and obese women. 2. Obesity of women may worsen the outcome of the neonate.
Pubmed
Journal: Diabetes & metabolism
August/15/2001
Abstract
Epidemiological surveys show a large variation of type 2 diabetes (DT2) prevalence from one country to another, suggesting ethnic discrepancies in insulin sensitivity. Many data seem to confirm this hypothesis. We will show them while concentrating on data provided by surveys performed in French-speaking countries. The mechanisms of the ethnic differences in insulin sensitivity are unclear and further insights are needed. More than genetic factors, environmental factors appear to be involved in the occurence of insulin resistance and DT2. The epidemic nature of obesity and subsequent DT2 in the world urges health authorities in each country to raise campaigns to promote changes in life style and nutritional habits before the announced pandemy of DT2 becomes reality.
Pubmed
Journal: Harefuah
August/30/2000
Abstract
Marked obesity is an independent risk factor for multi-system morbidity. The use of anorectic drugs is an aggressive strategy for weight reduction. It appears to be an easy way of dealing with the problem, because the patient needn't change his behavior. However, such treatment is not harmless. At the end of the 60's an outbreak of pulmonary hypertension was associated with the drug aminorex, and it was soon withdrawn from the market. 30 years later it became clear that new-generation anorectic drugs (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, phentermine), which were being used world-wide, lead to both pulmonary hypertension and valvular damage. We describe a woman of 70 with both these complications which developed after prolonged anorectic therapy with a fenfluramine-phentermine combination.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of electrocardiology
August/18/1997
Abstract
Considerable efforts have been invested recently to improve electrocardiographic (ECG) classification accuracy for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). This study examines how LVH classification accuracy is influenced by (1) the selection of an echocardiographic standard for LVH, (2) LVH severity level in the test groups, and (3) the adjustment of LVH criteria for obesity and age. Using data obtained from large, community-based populations, this study explores prospects for improving ECG models for LVH classification and examines some of the general characteristics of newer ECG models for estimating left ventricular mass (LVM) on a continuous scale. The results indicate that the apparent ECG classification accuracy for LVH is substantially influenced by echocardiographic standards and criteria for LVH, LVH severity level, and selection criteria for test populations, and these differences explain some of the often substantial differences in test results from clinical versus community-based evaluation studies. The low reproducibility of echocardiographic LVM as the standard is a limiting factor in attempts to improve ECG criteria for LVH and LVM prediction models. Adjustment of ECG amplitudes to anthropometric factors that simultaneously influence LVM may result in confounding effects and may lead to the development of inappropriate models. The performance of ECG models for LVM prediction improved substantially by the inclusion of body weight as a covariate with ECG variables. The addition of standing height and various covariates reflecting obesity did not improve LVM prediction accuracy. Compared to the older LVM prediction models of the Novacode ECG program, the correlation between echocardiographic and ECG estimates of LVM increased sufficiently (from 0.33 to 0.54 in women and from 0.46 to 0.62 in men) to suggest that these improved ECG models are suitable for monitoring LVH progression/ regression in study groups participating in hypertension intervention trials.
Pubmed
Journal: Clinical calcium
July/23/2008
Abstract
The metabolic syndrome is featured by the combination of obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. It is well documented that obesity is positively linked to increased bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced fracture risk through body weight increase. Hyper-triglycemia and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, which are frequently accompanied with obesity, might also protect against fracture. On the other hand, clinical observations on diabetic patients suggest that hyperglycemia per se tends to reduce BMD and to increase fracture risk in contrast to the above factors. Thus, BMD and fracture risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome may be determined by the balance between beneficial effects of obesity and dyslipidemia versus detrimental ones of hyperglycemia on bone.
Pubmed
Journal: American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
January/11/2006
Abstract
Pacific Islands populations can be broadly divided into Austronesians (AN) and Non-Austronesians (NAN); obesity and type 2 diabetes are prevalent in the former, although leptin levels in both groups have seldom been investigated. Thirty-seven (20 male and 17 female) adult pairs, matched by age and percent body fat, from AN-speaking Balopa and NAN-speaking Huli, all of whom migrated to settle in Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, were selected for comparison of their serum leptin concentrations. The Balopa did not differ significantly from the Huli in age (30.5 +/- 9.7 and 30.0 +/- 8.7 years for males, 33.7 +/- 8.9 and 34.1 +/- 7.5 years for females, respectively) or percent body fat (19.4 +/- 5.6 and 18.8 +/- 4.6 for males, 34.1 +/- 6.2 and 33.3 +/- 5.0 for females), although the BMI of females was lower in the Balopa (26.4 +/- 4.9) than in the Huli (29.7 +/- 4.7) (P = 0.02). In both ethnic groups, females had markedly higher leptin concentrations than males, but there was no significant inter-group difference in males (3.5 +/- 2.6 and 3.1 +/- 4.7 ng/ml, P = 0.14) or females (22.7 +/- 12.9 and 19.7 +/- 11.9 ng/ml, P = 0.40), after controlling for lifestyle factors and serum lipids. Multiple regression analysis revealed that significant predictors of leptin concentration were % body fat (beta = 0.58), sex (male, 0; female, 1; beta = 0.27), and smoker status (non-smoker, 0; smoker, 1; beta = -0.15) (R(2) = 0.80), implying that the leptin concentration was primarily determined by lifestyle-derived body fatness. In conclusion, the NAN populations do not endogenously differ in leptin status from the AN populations, who have been recognized as a typical group with a "thrifty" genotype.
Pubmed
Journal: The Medical journal of Australia
August/31/2005
Abstract
The most significant influence on a child's eating patterns is family eating behaviour, specifically in encouraging fruit and vegetable intake. The recommended 30% total energy from fat can be achieved by practical changes in eating pattern, such as limiting high fat snack foods to occasional or treat items. Saturated fat intake can be reduced to recommended levels by reducing intake from whole milk and yoghurt, ice-cream, and potato and snack items, and replacing part of this with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid sources such as nuts, seeds, margarine or hummus dips.
Pubmed
Journal: Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
January/7/2004
Abstract
In recent years, our view of adipose tissue has evolved from a passive sink for energy storage to an active tissue producing multiple molecules acting on various tissues in different aspects of energy homeostasis. The production of adipose-derived secretory products is tightly regulated as a function of adipocyte lipid accumulation, but the mechanisms by which fat cells are able to sense the levels of their triglyceride stores still remains largely unknown. This paper reviews new insights into this question taking cholesterol as a potential intracellular signaling molecule.
Pubmed
Journal: Revista espanola de cardiologia
June/5/2006
Abstract
Obesity increases significantly the rate of postsurgical complications and mortality in patients undergoing major surgery. We present the case of a morbidly obese 65-year-old female with severe aortic stenosis and left main coronary artery disease who underwent successful aortic valvuloplasty and angioplasty, with placement of a stent in the left main coronary artery. After undergoing bariatric surgery and losing 30% of her body weight, the patient was accepted for cardiac surgery to replace the aortic valve and to bypass the left anterior descending coronary artery using the mammary artery. There were no surgical complications.
Pubmed
Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
July/4/2005
Abstract
Structure-activity relationship studies directed toward the optimization of 4,5-diarylimidazole-2-carboxamide analogs as human CB1 receptor inverse agonists resulted in the discovery of the two amide derivatives 24a and b (hCB1 IC50 = 6.1 and 4.0 nM) which also demonstrated efficacy in overnight feeding studies in the rat for reduction in both food intake and overall body weight.
Pubmed
Journal: Diabetes research and clinical practice
March/5/2007
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the effect of a thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, on insulin secretion in patients with both impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance.
METHODS
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 18 overweight or obese patients with both impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Pharmacological intervention consisted of an oral morning administration of pioglitazone (30 mg) or a placebo with a similar presentation for 30 days. Before and after the intervention, glucose, creatinine, lipid profile and uric acid concentrations were measured. To evaluate insulin secretion (early, late and total phases) and insulin sensitivity, a hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was also performed.
RESULTS
There were significant reductions (p=0.008) in fasting insulin concentration (121 versus 45 pmol/l), late (565 versus 307 pmol/l) and total insulin secretion (474 versus 254 pmol/l), as well as, in 2h postload glucose levels (9.7 versus 6.9 mmol/l, p=0.028), with an increment in insulin sensitivity after pioglitazone administration (7.5 versus 9.9).
CONCLUSIONS
Pioglitazone administration during a period of 4 weeks decreased late and total insulin secretion phases, fasting insulin and 2h postload glucose levels, and improved insulin sensitivity in patients with both impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance.
Pubmed
Journal: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
December/22/2013
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Asian studies have reported on an association of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection with insulin resistance (IR) in normal-weight subjects. Whether such an association likewise exists in European subjects with severe obesity was questioned.
METHODS
To address this question, 370 severely obese patients from our database were identified, who had undergone a gastroscopy with a histological examination of gastric mucosal biopsies and a concurrent assessment metabolic blood parameters as a standard examination before bariatric surgery.
RESULTS
Seventy-five (20.3%) of the subjects displayed a histologically proven Hp infection (Hp+). Sex distribution, age, and body mass index of Hp+ subjects did not differ from that of the subjects with no Hp infection (Hp-; all P > 0.293), but Hp+ subjects were significantly smaller (P = 0.006). Fasting glucose, insulin, high-sensitive C reactive protein, and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as calculated indices of IR (i.e., HOMA-IR, QUICKI) did not differ between Hp+ and Hp- subjects (all P > 0.42). However, Hp+ subjects showed significantly higher triglyceride levels and a higher total chloesterol-to-HDL ratio but lower sex-hormone binding globulin (SHGB) levels than Hp- subjects (all P ≤ 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
While our results obtained in European severely obese patients do not provide evidence for an enhanced IR state associated with gastric Hp infection, they suggest that the presence of the bacterium in gastric biopsies is associated with an adverse lipid profile and reduced SHGB levels.
Pubmed
Journal: Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES
June/19/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To explore the role of adipokines including insulin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement C3 (C3) in various types of obesity (peripheral obesity, abdominal obesity and mixed obesity) in Chinese children and adolescents, and their relationships with body size and pubertal development.
METHODS
Children and adolescents (n=3 508) aged 6 to 18 years, with 1 788 boys and 1 720 girls were assessed for body mass index, waist circumference, pubertal development, blood insulin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, ASP and C3 levels. Three types of obesity [peripheral obesity (n=43), abdominal obesity (n=473), mixed obesity (n=1 187)] and non-obese control (n=1 805) were defined with combined use of Chinese body mass index and waist circumference criteria.
RESULTS
Serum resistin, leptin and adiponectin levels were higher in girls than those in boys (all P<0.01). Insulin and leptin increased and adiponectin decreased across five Tanner stages in both girls and boys (all P<0.001), while ASP changed only in girls (P<0.001) and C3 only in boys (P<0.001). Insulin, leptin and ASP were higher, but adiponectin was lower in all three types of obesity vs. the non-obese control (all P<0.05). The greatest abnormalities of all six adipokines were found in the mixed obesity group. With inclusion of body mass index and waist circumference in simultaneous regression analyses, both body size indices were independently and significantly correlated with insulin, leptin and adiponectin after age and gender adjustment. Compared with waist circumference, the body mass index was stronger in interpreting insulin, leptin, adiponectin and ASP levels, whereas it was weaker in explaining variance of plasma C3.
CONCLUSIONS
Obese children have a worse metabolic profile with high insulin, resistin, leptin, ASP and C3, and low adiponectin levels. The adipokine profile in mixed obesity is worse than that in peripheral or abdominal obesity. Identification of obese subjects with a malignant adipokine profile using a combination of body mass index and waist circumference is important for the prevention of obesity-related disease.
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