Obesity
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Publication
Journal: Nature Reviews Endocrinology
November/29/2019
Abstract
Neuroimmunology and immunometabolism are burgeoning topics of study, but the intersection of these two fields is scarcely considered. This interplay is particularly prevalent within adipose tissue, where immune cells and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have an important role in metabolic homeostasis and pathology, namely in obesity. In the present Review, we first outline the established reciprocal adipose-SNS relationship comprising the neuroendocrine loop facilitated primarily by adipose tissue-derived leptin and SNS-derived noradrenaline. Next, we review the extensive crosstalk between adipocytes and resident innate immune cells as well as the changes that occur in these secretory and signalling pathways in obesity. Finally, we discuss the effect of SNS adrenergic signalling in immune cells and conclude with exciting new research demonstrating an immutable role for SNS-resident macrophages in modulating SNS-adipose crosstalk. We posit that the latter point constitutes the existence of a new field - neuroimmunometabolism.
Publication
Journal: Obesity Reviews
November/29/2019
Abstract
White adipose tissue is one of the largest organs of the body. It plays a key role in whole-body energy status and metabolism; it not only stores excess energy but also secretes various hormones and metabolites to regulate body energy balance. Healthy adipose tissue capable of expanding is needed for metabolic well-being and to prevent accumulation of triglycerides to other organs. Mitochondria govern several important functions in the adipose tissue. We review the derangements of mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue in the obese state. Downregulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis in the white adipose tissue is a central driver for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial functions compromised in obesity include oxidative functions and renewal and enlargement of the adipose tissue through recruitment and differentiation of adipocyte progenitor cells. These changes adversely affect whole-body metabolic health. Dysfunction of the white adipose tissue mitochondria in obesity has long-term consequences for the metabolism of adipose tissue and the whole body. Understanding the pathways behind mitochondrial dysfunction may help reveal targets for pharmacological or nutritional interventions that enhance mitochondrial biogenesis or function in adipose tissue.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Health Geographics
November/29/2019
Abstract
Although a preponderance of research indicates that increased income inequality negatively impacts population health, several international studies found that a greater income inequality was associated with better population health when measured on a fine geographic level of aggregation. This finding is known as a "Swiss paradox". To date, no studies have examined variability in the associations between income inequality and health outcomes by spatial aggregation level in the US. Therefore, this study examined associations between income inequality (Gini index, GI) and population health by geographic level using a large, nationally representative dataset of older adults. We geographically linked respondents' county data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to 2012 American Community Survey data. Using generalized linear models, we estimated the association between GI decile on the state and county levels and five population health outcomes (diabetes, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and self-rated health), accounting for confounders and complex sampling. Although state-level GI was not significantly associated with obesity rates (b = - 0.245, 95% CI - 0.497, 0.008), there was a significant, negative association between county-level GI and obesity rates (b = - 0.416, 95% CI - 0.629, - 0.202). State-level GI also associated with an increased diabetes rate (b = 0.304, 95% CI 0.063, 0.546), but the association was not significant for county-level GI and diabetes rate (b = - 0.101, 95% CI - 0.305, 0.104). Associations between both county-level GI and state-level GI and current smoking status were also not significant. These findings show the associations between income inequality and health vary by spatial aggregation level and challenge the preponderance of evidence suggesting that income inequality is consistently associated with worse health. Further research is needed to understand the nuances behind these observed associations to design informed policies and programs designed to reduce socioeconomic health inequities among older adults.
Publication
Journal: Current treatment options in gastroenterology
December/2/2019
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to describe the trends in dietary patterns and food quality over time along with the possible role of ultra-processed foods in obesity, chronic diseases, and all-cause mortality in the US population.There is a rising obesity epidemic, corresponding chronic diseases, and increases in ultra-processed food consumption. In mice and in vitro trials, emulsifiers, found in processed foods, have been found to alter microbiome compositions, elevate fasting blood glucose, cause hyperphagia, increase weight gain and adiposity, and induce hepatic steatosis. Recent human trials have found ultra-processed foods as a contributor to decreased satiety, increased meal eating rates, worsening biochemical markers, and more weight gain. In contrast, Blue Zone, indigenous South American, and Mediterranean populations with low meat intake, high fiber, and minimally processed foods have far less chronic diseases, obesity rates, and live longer disease-free. As the USA continues to industrialize, food has become more processed and cheaper and more convenient along with the coexistent rise in obesity prevalence. This review highlights the overall trends in food: mild improvements in dietary quality in higher socioeconomic populations, but no significant increases in whole fruit, vegetables, legumes, or nuts. Consumption of ultra-processed food is associated with weight gain and may contribute to metabolic syndrome and chronic disease. To combat this epidemic, we must create and disseminate detailed recommendations to improve diet quality and overall nutrition.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
November/29/2019
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions. In 2014, the total prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 442 million people worldwide. Due to the aging population and continued increase in obesity rates, the prevalence is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. Diabetes can lead to several complications, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, lower extremity amputation and musculoskeletal impairments. Up to 80% of patients referred for outpatient physical therapy have diabetes or are at risk for diabetes. Physical therapists are key members of the healthcare team: prescribing physical activity for the treatment of diabetes and other chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis. Physical therapists can screen for risk factors for diabetes and diabetes-related complications that modify traditional musculoskeletal exercise prescription. Physical therapists must advocate for regular physical activity as a key component for the treatment of chronic diseases in all patient interactions. This report 1) describes the diabetes epidemic and the health impact of diabetes and diabetes-related complications, 2) highlights the physical therapist's role as front-line provider, and 3) provides recommendations for physical therapists in screening for diabetes risk factors and diabetes-related complications and considerations for patient management. We focus on type 2 diabetes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 28 Nov 2019. doi:10.2519/jospt.2020.9154.
Publication
Journal: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
November/29/2019
Abstract
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary, the gut microbiota seems to impact WAT and BAT physiology at multiple levels.
Publication
Journal: Metabolic Brain Disease
December/2/2019
Abstract
Fat-mass and obesity-associated protein (Fto) plays important roles in energy metabolism. It also acts as a demethylase and is most abundantly found in the brain. In the present study, we examined the spatial and temporal changes of Fto immunoreactivity after five minutes of transient forebrain ischemia in the hippocampus. In the control group, Fto immunoreactivity was mainly observed in the nucleus of pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 regions as well as the polymorphic layer, granule cell layer, and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Fto immunoreactivity was transiently, but not significantly, increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the dentate gyrus two days after ischemia compared to mice without ischemia in the sham-operated group. Four days after ischemia, low Fto immunoreactivity was observed in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region because of neuronal death, but Fto immunoreactive cells were abundantly detected in the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, which is relatively resistant to ischemic damage. Thereafter, Fto immunoreactivity progressively decreased in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus until ten days after ischemia. At this time-point, Fto immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus compared to that in the sham-operated group. The reduction of Fto immunoreactive structures in the hippocampus may be associated with impairments in Fto-related hippocampal function.
Publication
Journal: Biology of Sex Differences
November/29/2019
Abstract
Obesity and elevated serum lipids are associated with a threefold increase in the risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that underlies stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Strategies that aim to reduce serum cholesterol through modulation of liver enzymes have been successful in decreasing the risk of developing atherosclerosis and reducing mortality. Statins, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver, are considered among the most successful compounds developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, recent debate surrounding their effectiveness and safety prompts consideration of alternative cholesterol-lowering therapies, including increasing cholesterol catabolism through bile acid (BA) synthesis. Targeting the enzymes that convert cholesterol to BAs represents a promising alternative to other cholesterol-lowering approaches that treat atherosclerosis as well as fatty liver diseases and diabetes mellitus. Compounds that modify the activity of these pathways have been developed; however, there remains a lack of consideration of biological sex. This is necessary in light of strong evidence for sexual dimorphisms not only in the incidence and progression of the diseases they influence but also in the expression and activity of the proteins affected and in the manner in which men and women respond to drugs that modify lipid handling in the liver. A thorough understanding of the enzymes involved in cholesterol catabolism and modulation by biological sex is necessary to maximize their therapeutic potential.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
November/29/2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease in Western nations and ranges in severity from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a genetic-environmental-metabolic stress-related disease of unclear pathogenesis. NAFLD is triggered by caloric overconsumption and physical inactivity, which lead to insulin resistance and oxidative stress. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Mitochondrial dysfunction not only promotes fat accumulation, but also leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, resulting in oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important modulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress. The pharmacological induction of Nrf2 ameliorates obesity-associated insulin resistance and NAFLD in a mouse model. Sulforaphane and its precursor glucoraphanin are derived from broccoli sprouts and are the most potent natural Nrf2 inducers-they may protect mitochondrial function, thus suppressing the development of NASH. In this review, we briefly describe the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH and the effects of glucoraphanin on its development.
Publication
Journal: Maternal and Child Nutrition
November/29/2019
Abstract
This study examined associations between a maternal "mixed, high sugar" dietary pattern during pregnancy and ultrasound-determined fetal growth in 495 urban African women and explored whether these associations were independent of maternal baseline body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Linear mixed effects modelling (LMM) was used to test the associations between maternal mixed, high sugar dietary pattern score, baseline BMI (kg/m2 ), and GWG (kg/week) and the following fetal growth outcomes: (a) biparietal diameter (cm), (b) head circumference (cm), (c) abdominal circumference (cm), and (d) femur length (cm). In the pooled LMM, a +1 standard deviation (SD) increase in the mixed, high sugar dietary pattern score was associated with higher biparietal diameter (0.03 cm/+1 SD; p = .007), head circumference (0.07 cm/+1 SD; p = .026), abdominal circumference (0.08 cm/+1 SD; p = .038), and femur length (0.02 cm/+1 SD; p = .015). Although these associations were independent of maternal BMI and GWG, higher baseline BMI was independently and positively associated with abdominal circumference (0.03 cm/+1 kg/m2 ; p = .011) and femur length (0.01 cm/+1 kg/m2 ; p = .007) and 1 kg/week greater GWG was associated with a 0.82 cm increase in abdominal circumference (p = .007). In urban African settings, where preconception maternal obesity prevalence is high and processed, high sugar diets are common, improving maternal dietary intake and BMI prior to conception should be prioritised for optimising pregnancy and birth outcomes as well as longer-term offspring health. In addition, dietary management strategies during pregnancy may be beneficial in facilitating healthy fetal growth.
Publication
Journal: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
November/29/2019
Abstract
Long-term studies have demonstrated a slight increased risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) for living kidney donors (LKD). In France, living kidney donation doubled within the past 10 years. We investigated the change in characteristics of LKD between 2007 and 2017 and the adequacy of follow-up.Data were obtained from the national registry for LKD. We compared characteristics of LKD between two study periods: 2007-11 and 2012-17, and stratified donors by age and relation to recipient. We aggregated four characteristics associated with higher ESRD risk [young age, first-degree relation to recipient, obesity, low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for age] in a single risk indicator ranging from 0 to 4.We included 3483 donors. The proportion of unrelated donors >56 years of age increased significantly. The proportion of related donors <56 years of age decreased significantly. The body mass index and proportion of obese donors did not change significantly. The proportion of donors with low estimated GFR for age decreased significantly from 5% to 2.2% (P < 0.001). The proportion of donors with adequate follow-up after donation increased from 19.6% to 42.5% (P < 0.001). No donor had a risk indicator equal to 4, and the proportion of donors with a risk indicator equal to 0 increased significantly from 19.2% to 24.9% (P < 0.001).An increase in living kidney donation in France does not seem to be associated with the selection of donors at higher risk of ESRD and the proportion of donors with adequate annual follow-up significantly increased.
Publication
Journal: Revista Paulista de Pediatria
November/29/2019
Abstract
To assess demographic data and characteristics of children and adolescents with pediatric chronic diseases (PCD), according to the number of specialties/patient.We performed a cross-sectional study with 16,237 PCD patients at outpatient clinics in one year. Data were analyzed by an electronic data system, according to the number of physician appointments for PCD. This study assessed: demographic data, follow-up characteristics, types of medical specialty, diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD-10), number of day hospital clinic visits, and acute complications.Patients followed by ≥3 specialties simultaneously showed a significantly higher duration of follow-up compared to those followed by ≤2 specialties [2.1 (0.4-16.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years; p<0.001] and a higher number of appointments in all specialties. The most prevalent medical areas in patients followed by ≥3 specialties were: Psychiatry (Odds Ratio - OR=8.0; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 6-10.7; p<0.001), Palliative/Pain Care (OR=7.4; 95%CI 5.7-9.7; p<0.001), Infectious Disease (OR=7.0; 95%CI 6.4-7.8; p<0.001) and Nutrology (OR=6.9; 95%CI 5.6-8.4; p<0.001). Logistic regressions demonstrated that PCD patients followed by ≥3 specialties were associated with high risk for: number of appointments/patient (OR=9.2; 95%CI 8.0-10.5; p<0.001), day hospital clinic visits (OR=4.8; 95%CI 3.8-5.9; p<0.001), emergency department visits (OR=3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3.5; p<0.001), hospitalizations (OR=3.0; 95%CI 2.7-3.3; p<0.001), intensive care admissions (OR=2.5; 95%CI 2.1-3.0; p<0.001), and deaths (OR=2.8; 95%CI 1.9-4.0; p<0.001). The diagnosis of asthma, obesity, chronic pain, and transplant was significantly higher in patients followed by ≥3 specialties.The present study showed that PCD patients who required simultaneous care from multiple medical specialties had complex and severe diseases, with specific diagnoses.
Publication
Journal: Paediatrics and international child health
November/29/2019
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. It is important to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents in this region.Aim: To assess the risk of metabolic syndrome and early vascular markers for atherosclerosis in obese Indonesian adolescentsMethods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in obese high school students aged 15-<18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. All eligible adolescents were interviewed about their medical history, were physically examined and had a fasting blood sample taken. Arterial stiffness was measured during systole and diastole blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction was estimated using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and arterial wall thickness using carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT).Results: A total of 4268 students were screened, 298 (7%) of whom were classified as obese. Of those, 229 had blood samples taken, 173 had FMD performed and 156 had CIMT examination. Adolescents with a higher body mass index or BMI Z-score (>3.0) had a significantly poorer lipid profile, insulin level and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) than those with a lower BMI Z-score. There were no significant differences for early vasculature markers for atherosclerosis between these two groups.Conclusion: The prevalence of risks of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents was significant. The higher the BMI Z-score, the higher the risks of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to reduce obesity and its cardiovascular disease morbidities are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries.Abbreviations: BMI; body mass index; CIMT, carotid artery intima-media thickness; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FMD flow-mediated dilation; HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HbA1c haemoglobin A1c; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IOTF, International Obesity Task Force; LDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; WHO, World Health Organization.
Publication
Journal: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
November/29/2019
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are well-established screening protocols involving fecal testing, radiographic, and endoscopic evaluations that have led to decreased incidence and mortality of CRC in the United States. In addition to screening for CRC, there is interest in preventing colorectal neoplasia by targeting the signaling pathways that have been identified in the pathway of dysplasia progressing to carcinoma. This review will detail the efficacy of multiple potential preventative strategies including lifestyle changes (physical activity, alcohol use, smoking cessation, and obesity); dietary factors (dietary patterns, calcium, vitamin D, fiber, folate, and antioxidants and micronutrients); and chemopreventive agents (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, metformin, bisphosphonates, and postmenopausal hormonal therapy).
Publication
Journal: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
November/29/2019
Abstract
To determine association between maternal lipaemia and neonatal anthropometrics in Malaysian mother-offspring pairs.

DESIGN
Prospective observational cohort study SETTING: Single tertiary multi-disciplinary antenatal clinic in Malaysia POPULATION: 507 mothers: 145 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 94 obese with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)( pregravid BMI>27.5 kg/m2 ) and 268 non-obese NGT.

Maternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected during an interview/examination using a structured questionnaire. Blood was drawn for insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride (Tg) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) during screening 75g OGTT, and at 36 weeks. At birth, neonatal anthropometrics were assessed and data such as gestational weight gain (GWG) were extracted from records.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA) status, cohort-specific birth weight (BW), neonatal fat mass (NFM), sum of skinfold thickness (SSFT) >90th centile.

RESULTS
Fasting Tg>95th centile (3.6 mmol/L) at screening OGTT was independently associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.82, 95% CI 1.26-93.37) after adjustment for maternal glucose, pregravid BMI and insulin sensitivity. Fasting glucose was independently associated with BWR >90th centile(aOR 2..06 95% CI 1.17-3.64) but not LGA status in this well-treated GDM cohort with pre-delivery HbA1c of 5.27%. 45% mothers had pregravid BMI<23 kg/m2 and 61% BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 ; yet GWG>10kg was associated with 4.25-fold-risk(95% CI 1.71-10.53) of BW>90th centile.

Maternal lipaemia and GWG at a low threshold (>10kg) adversely impact neonatal adiposity in Asian offspring independent of glucose/insulin resistance/pregravid BMI. These may therefore be important modifiable metabolic targets in pregnancy.
Publication
Journal: Sleep and Breathing
November/29/2019
Abstract
Screening instruments are poor predictors of the severity of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that their performance could be improved by identifying and eliminating redundant features.Baseline scores from three screening questionnaires for pediatric OSA were obtained from the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT). The questionnaires included the (i) modified Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), (ii) the sleep-related breathing disorders subscale of the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ), and the (iii) obstructive sleep apnea-18 (OSA-18) scale. Key features from each questionnaire were identified using variable selection methods. These selected features (SF) were then assessed for their ability to predict the severity of OSA, measured by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI). In addition, prediction performance of SF was also calculated for AHI > 5 and > 10 and ODI > 5 and > 10, respectively.Four hundred fifty-three children aged 5-10 years were included. The majority of the pairwise correlations among the items within the 3 screening questionnaires were statistically significant. The prediction of AHI and ODI by overall questionnaire scores was poor. Four-item SF, comprising apneic pauses, growth problems, mouth breathing, and obesity predicted AHI and ODI significantly better than each of the individual questionnaires. Furthermore, SF also predicted AHI > 5 and > 10, as well as ODI > 5 and > 10 significantly better than the original questionnaires.Elimination of redundant items in screening questionnaires improves their prediction performance for OSA severity in children with high pre-test probability for the condition.
Publication
Journal: Neurobiology of Disease
December/2/2019
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
November/29/2019
Abstract
With the remarkable improvement in people's socioeconomic living standards around the world, adolescent obesity has increasingly become an important public health issue that cannot be ignored. Thus, we have implemented its use in an attempt to explore the viability of scenario-based simulations through the use of a data mining approach. In doing so, we wanted to explore the merits of using a General Bayesian Network (GBN) with What-If analysis while exploring how it can be utilized in other areas of public health. We analyzed data from the 2017 Korean Youth Health Behavior Survey conducted directly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, including 19 attributes and 11,206 individual data points. Our simulations found that by manipulating the amount of pocket money-between $60 and $80-coupled with a low-income background, it has a high potential to increase obesity compared with other simulated factors. Additionally, when we manipulated an increase in studying time with a mediocre academic performance, it was found to potentially increase pressure on adolescents, which subsequently led to an increased obesity outcome. Lastly, we found that when we manipulated an increase in a father's education level while manipulating a decrease in mother's education level, this had a large effect on the potential adolescent obesity level. Although obesity was the chosen case, this paper acts more as a proof of concept in analyzing public health through GBN and What-If analysis. Therefore, it aims to guide health professionals into potentially expanding their ability to simulate certain outcomes based on predicted changes in certain factors concerning future public health issues.
Publication
Journal: Health Promotion Perspectives
November/29/2019
Abstract
Background: There is little published about non-traditional and online college students' health and well-being. College health services must evolve to address the needs of this growing population. The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors, perceived well-being, health behaviors, and health education preferences of US college students enrolled in a fully online academic programs compared to a national sample of college students enrolled in campus based programs. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a volunteer sample of 961 college students enrolled in two large, U.S. accredited online universities. Participants completed an online survey that included questions and sub scales from the National College Health Assessment (NCHA, IIb). Responses on survey items from student learning online were compared to an equal sample of college students enrolled in non-online programs, randomly drawn from the NCHA IIb national data set (n = 961). Frequencies on survey items were calculated and mean scores of subset measures for online students were compared against those from the NCHA data set using two tailed z-test scores and independent sample t-tests with alpha at 0.05. Results: Online students reported significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher percentages of chronic illnesses, psychiatric conditions, mobility disabilities, deafness/hearing loss, speech/language disorders,cigarette use, obesity, sedentary activity, and depression than the NCHA national sample. Implication for Practice: Health professionals and leaders who work in higher education must consider the shifting landscape and demographics in higher education in order to develop more tailored, innovative digital health promotion approaches that effectively reach the growing population of online, commuter, and older learners.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric obesity
December/2/2019
Abstract
Findings concerning nitric oxide (NO) in children and adolescents with obesity are scant.This study examined the links of NO with obesity and psychological traits (ie, self-concept, anxiety, depression, anger and disruptive behaviour) in children and adolescents in Taiwan.A total of 564 first, fourth and seventh graders (314 children with overweight/obesity and 250 children with normal weight) completed an in-hospital health examination in 2010. All students received a physical examination, underwent blood sample collection and completed a questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed for analyses.Among the fourth and seventh graders (P=.003 and.001, respectively), the students with overweight/obesity displayed significantly higher levels of NO than those with normal weight; however, no difference was observed in males and females. In multiple linear regression models, a high level of anxiety was independently associated with low NO levels (β=-1.33, 95% confidence interval -2.24 to -0.41) in first graders who with overweight/obesity. No association between NO levels and psychological traits was evident among students with normal weight.Our results enrich the limited data and suggest that NO may be associated with obesity and psychopathology and should be a concern in the pathophysiology of childhood mental health and obesity.
Publication
Journal: BMC Public Health
November/29/2019
Abstract
A healthy lifestyle has been shown to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The extent to which lifestyle influences the risk of CAD for people with pre-existing non-modifiable risk factors is less studied. We therefore examined the associations between a favorable lifestyle and incidence of CAD in population subgroups based on gender, age, educational level, and parental history of myocardial infarction.A total of 26,323 men and women from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study were prospectively followed-up for 18 years. A favorable lifestyle was determined using a four-component lifestyle score based on data collected at baseline: no smoking, no obesity, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relative risk of CAD during follow-up and cumulative risk during a 10-year interval.A favorable lifestyle was associated with a 44% (95% confidence interval, 38-48%) lower risk of CAD compared to an unfavorable lifestyle. The relative risk was similarly reduced among subjects subdivided by gender, age group, educational level, and parental history of myocardial infarction. These findings corresponded with a reduced standardized 10-year incidence of CAD of around 40% in each subgroup.In this population-based cohort, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a significant reduction of CAD across strata of non-modifiable risk factors. These findings provide support for lifestyle modification as a means for risk reduction in a range of subgroups within a general healthy population.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Obesity
November/29/2019
Abstract
Obesity is a global rising problem with epidemiological dimension. Obese parents can have programming effects on their offspring leading to obesity and associated diseases in later life. This constitutes a vicious circle. Epidemiological data and studies in rodents demonstrated differential programming effects in male and female offspring, but the timing of their developmental origin is not known.This study investigated if sex-specific programming effects of parental obesity can already be detected in the pre-implantation period. Diet-induced obese male or female mice were mated with normal-weight partners and blastocysts were recovered.Gene expression profiling revealed sex-specific responses of the blastocyst transcriptome to maternal and paternal obesity. The changes in the transcriptome of male blastocysts were more pronounced than those of female blastocysts, with a stronger impact of paternal than of maternal obesity. The sperm of obese mice revealed an increased abundance of several miRNAs compared with lean mice.Our study indicates that sex-specific programming effects of parental obesity already start in the pre-implantation period and reveals specific alterations of the sperm miRNA profile as mechanistic link to programming effects of paternal obesity.
Publication
Journal: New Zealand Medical Journal
November/29/2019
Abstract
Four year-olds in New Zealand are offered a B4 School Check, during which they have their BMI percentile calculated and BMI category flagged-essentially diagnosing children as underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese. The obese child is then referred onwards for treatment. It is assumed that parents need to be told which BMI category their child falls into so those with a child in the overweight or obese categories will be motivated to make healthy lifestyle changes. There are two fundamental problems with this: 1) BMI is flawed 2) A targeted approach like this is potentially harmful. In this paper, the current limitations of using BMI categories to essentially diagnose obesity are examined, recent research is discussed which calls into question the very idea of telling parents their child is obese, and an inclusive, universal approach is proposed instead.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences
November/29/2019
Abstract
To assess association of Body mass index (BMI) on respiratory parameters by performing spirometry in apparently healthy adults living in the district Jamshoro and Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.A cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Physiology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, Pakistan from January to September 2015. A total of 180 underweight, normal, overweight and obese participants, aged between 18 to 40 years were included in the study. BMI was calculated by measuring weight and height by BMI scale (RGZ-160) in standing position. Pulmonary parameters were determined by spirometry on Power lab (AD instruments). Pulmonary parameters were compared between subjects in different categories of BMI.

Results
Mean age of participants was 21.83±5.88 years and the mean BMI was 25.10±6.55 kg/m2. The study results revealed that except for FVC, which was not statistically significant (p=0.45) all other respiratory parameters were significantly different (p≤0.05) in all BMI categories. Mean FEV1/FVC ratio (93.1 vs. 90.3, 86.4 and 86.6 respectively) was highest among underweight as compared to overweight, obese and normal weight individuals. The mean VT was 1.22 vs. 0.90, 1.01 and 0.84 respectively, IRV was 1.04 vs. 1.18, 1.23 and 1.20 respectively, IC was 2.26 vs. 2.08, 2.25 and 2.05 respectively, VC was 2.63 vs. 2.42, 2.54 and 2.54 respectively, TLC was 2.98 vs. 3.03 vs. 3.18 and 3.17 respectively among underweight, overweight, obese and normal weight participants.

We found a significant association between body mass index and pulmonary function parameters. Obesity causes detrimental effects on respiratory system.
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