Obesity
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Publication
Journal: Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
November/28/2019
Abstract
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary, the gut microbiota seems to impact WAT and BAT physiology at multiple levels.
Publication
Journal: Journal of pediatric nursing
December/1/2019
Abstract
The prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in adolescents worldwide. Most studies have focused on the clinical features, treatment, and complications for adolescents and so the need to generate insight into the risk factors and prevalence of undiagnosed prediabetes and T2D in adolescents across the globe remains.Relevant articles that were published from 2007 up to and including January 2017 were identified through electronic searches of CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Sociological Abstracts (Proquest). Four independent researchers examined the articles for eligibility.Sixteen studies were included that investigated the risk and prevalence of undiagnosed prediabetes and T2D in adolescents aged 12-19.The most commonly measured risk factors included obesity/overweight, family history, and ethnicity. Other studies measured risk factors associated with insulin resistance, including hypertension, acanthosis nigricans, and dyslipidemia. Prevalence of undiagnosed prediabetes and T2D varied among regions globally with rates ranging from 3.3 to 14.3% and 0.1 to 2.2%, respectively.Undiagnosed prediabetes and T2D and the associated risk factors are prevalent in many regions in countries worldwide, significantly impacting adolescents and their families.Future research is required to inform interventions aimed at preventative measures for early screening and detection of prediabetes and T2D in adolescents, as well as the development of multi-disciplinary teams that include pediatric nurses and the specialized care they provide.
Publication
Journal: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
November/28/2019
Abstract
Long-term studies have demonstrated a slight increased risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) for living kidney donors (LKD). In France, living kidney donation doubled within the past 10 years. We investigated the change in characteristics of LKD between 2007 and 2017 and the adequacy of follow-up.Data were obtained from the national registry for LKD. We compared characteristics of LKD between two study periods: 2007-11 and 2012-17, and stratified donors by age and relation to recipient. We aggregated four characteristics associated with higher ESRD risk [young age, first-degree relation to recipient, obesity, low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for age] in a single risk indicator ranging from 0 to 4.We included 3483 donors. The proportion of unrelated donors >56 years of age increased significantly. The proportion of related donors <56 years of age decreased significantly. The body mass index and proportion of obese donors did not change significantly. The proportion of donors with low estimated GFR for age decreased significantly from 5% to 2.2% (P < 0.001). The proportion of donors with adequate follow-up after donation increased from 19.6% to 42.5% (P < 0.001). No donor had a risk indicator equal to 4, and the proportion of donors with a risk indicator equal to 0 increased significantly from 19.2% to 24.9% (P < 0.001).An increase in living kidney donation in France does not seem to be associated with the selection of donors at higher risk of ESRD and the proportion of donors with adequate annual follow-up significantly increased.
Publication
Journal: Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
November/28/2019
Abstract
Female gender is reported as an independent risk factor for a poor outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting. We analysed the influence of gender on surgical outcome in patients with single-vessel disease undergoing minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB).From January 1998 to December 2016, a total of 607 consecutive patients with single-vessel disease (31.9% women) underwent MIDCAB at our institution. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were recorded during a median follow-up period of 8.0 years. Survival time was estimated for all patients and after applying propensity score matching (138 women vs 138 men). Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified risk factors predicting a long-term mortality rate.In women, a longer surgical time (125 vs 113 min; P < 0.001) and a higher transfusion rate were recorded (13.0% vs 5.1%; P = 0.001) with similar rates of in-hospital deaths (1.0% vs 0.5%; P = 0.60) and MACCE (1.5% vs 0.7%; P = 0.39). Survival and MACCE-free survival during the follow-up period did not differ significantly between genders (P = 1.0, P = 0.36). Survival and MACCE-free survival rates after 5 years were 94% and 90% in women compared to 91% and 86% in men. Propensity score matching demonstrated improved long-term survival rates in women (P = 0.029). Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, postoperative atrial fibrillation and prolonged intensive care unit stay were associated with long-term deaths for both genders, whereas obesity, former myocardial infarction and preoperative atrial fibrillation were significant risk factors in men.Female patients showed no adverse outcomes after MIDCAB, although risk factors were gender-specific. Overall, MIDCAB demonstrated excellent short- and long-term results as a treatment for single-vessel disease in both genders.
Publication
Journal: Metabolic brain disease
December/1/2019
Abstract
Fat-mass and obesity-associated protein (Fto) plays important roles in energy metabolism. It also acts as a demethylase and is most abundantly found in the brain. In the present study, we examined the spatial and temporal changes of Fto immunoreactivity after five minutes of transient forebrain ischemia in the hippocampus. In the control group, Fto immunoreactivity was mainly observed in the nucleus of pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 regions as well as the polymorphic layer, granule cell layer, and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Fto immunoreactivity was transiently, but not significantly, increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the dentate gyrus two days after ischemia compared to mice without ischemia in the sham-operated group. Four days after ischemia, low Fto immunoreactivity was observed in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region because of neuronal death, but Fto immunoreactive cells were abundantly detected in the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, which is relatively resistant to ischemic damage. Thereafter, Fto immunoreactivity progressively decreased in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus until ten days after ischemia. At this time-point, Fto immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus compared to that in the sham-operated group. The reduction of Fto immunoreactive structures in the hippocampus may be associated with impairments in Fto-related hippocampal function.
Publication
Journal: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
November/28/2019
Abstract
This study was undertaken to identify metabolites associated with BMI and waist circumference (WC) in women and to determine whether these metabolites are associated with biomarkers of metabolic health.Untargeted metabolomic analysis was done on serum from 1,534 women. Metabolites associated with BMI and WC were identified using linear regression with a Bonferroni-corrected P value. Clustered blocks of these metabolites were then defined whose association with the anthropometric measures could be represented by a single metabolite. The association of these representative metabolites with biomarkers for diabetes and inflammation was then determined.

RESULTS
About one-third of 781 metabolites included in the analyses were associated with BMI and/or WC. Associations were found for some novel metabolites, including several sphingolipids, nucleotides, and modified fatty acids. Among metabolites most strongly inversely associated with BMI, the choline-containing plasmalogen (O-16:0/18:1) (β = -0.30, P = 6.62 × 10-32 ) was also inversely associated with c-peptide and positively associated with adiponectin. Adjustment for BMI attenuated the metabolite-biomarker associations more for hemoglobin A1c (> 100%) and c-peptide (58.8% to > 100%) than for C-reactive protein (10.5%-40.0%) and adiponectin (7.0%-30.4%).

These results add to the list of metabolites associated with adiposity and indicate that some may influence processes that contribute to the development of obesity-related diseases.
Publication
Journal: Bioscience reports
November/28/2019
Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Previous studies have confirmed that the disorder of SIRT1/PGC-1α deacetylation pathway aggravated mitochondrial dysfunction. HuoXue QianYang QuTan Recipe (HQQR) is a commonly used prescription which has shown therapeutic effects on obesity hypertension and its complications. However, the potential mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, obesity hypertension (OBH) was established in rats and we investigated the efficacy and mechanisms of HQQR on LVH. Rats were divided into the five groups: (1) WKY-ND group, (2) SHR-ND group, (3) OBH-HF group, (4) OBH-HF/V group, (5) OBH-HF/H group. We evaluated body weight, Lee index and blood pressure (BP) before and every 2 weeks after treatment. After 10 weeks of treatment, we mainly detected glycolipid metabolic index, the severity of LVH, mitochondrial function along with SIRT1/PGC-1α deacetylation pathway. Our results showed that HQQR significantly lowered body weight, Lee index, BP and improved the disorder of glycolipid metabolism in OBH rats. Importantly, we uncovered HQQR could alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction in OBH rats by regulating SIRT1/PGC-1α deacetylation pathway. These changes could be associated with the inhibition of LVH.
Publication
Journal: ACR open rheumatology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) is conflicting. The impact of sex, including menopause, has not been described. We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with MetS in men and women with ERA.A cross-sectional study of the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) was performed. Participants with baseline data to estimate key MetS components were included. Sex-stratified logistic regression identified baseline variables associated with MetS.

Results
The sample included 1543 participants; 71% were female and the mean age was 54 (SD 15) years. MetS prevalence was higher in men 188 (42%) than women 288 (26%, P < 0.0001) and increased with age. Frequent MetS components in men were hypertension (62%), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, 40%), obesity (36%), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (36%). Postmenopausal women had greater frequency of hypertension (65%), IGT (32%), and high triglycerides (21%) compared with premenopausal women (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, MetS was negatively associated with seropositivity and pulmonary disease in men. Increasing age was associated with MetS in women. In postmenopausal women, corticosteroid use was associated with MetS. Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with MetS in premenopausal women. MetS status was not explained by disease activity or core RA measures.

The characteristics and associations of MetS differed in men and women with ERA. Sex differences, including postmenopausal status, should be considered in comorbidity screening. With this knowledge, the interplay of MetS, sex, and RA therapeutic response on cardiovascular outcomes should be investigated.
Publication
Journal: BMC public health
November/28/2019
Abstract
Studies have reported that improvement of dietary habits through increased whole grain foods consumption at an early age has the potential to lead to betterment in lifelong health and wellness. The GReat-Child Trial™ was a 12-week quasi-experimental study with 6 months follow-up investigating a multi-component whole grain intervention, which consisted of behavioral, personal and environmental factors based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the GReat-Child Trial™, as well as to determine the changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of whole grains consumption among overweight/obese children.Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar socio-demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG), respectively. Inclusion criteria were healthy Malaysian overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming whole grain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during recruitment were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG) completed the intervention. KAP questionnaire was self-administered at baseline [T0] and post intervention (at 3rd [T1] and 9th month [T2]). The baseline differences between the IG and CG across socio-demographics and scores of KAP toward whole grains were determined using chi-square and t-test, respectively. ANCOVA was performed to determine the effect of the GReat-Child Trial™ on KAP towards whole grains at post-intervention and follow-up. Baseline variables were considered as covariates.The IG attained significantly higher scores in knowledge (mean difference = 4.23; 95% CI: 3.82, 4.64; p < 0.001), attitudes (mean difference = 7.39; 95% CI: 6.36, 8.42; p < 0.001) and practice (mean difference = 6.13; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.77; p < 0.001) of whole grain consumption compared to the CG, after adjusting for confounders. The IG reported significantly higher scores in knowledge (mean difference = 6.84; 95% CI: 6.53, 7.15; p < 0.001), attitudes (mean difference = 9.16; 95% CI: 8.08, 10.24; p < 0.001) and practice (mean difference = 8.03; 95% CI: 5.34, 10.73; p < 0.001) towards whole grains at T2 compared to T0.These findings indicate that this intervention made a positive impact on improving children's KAP on whole grains. We anticipate the GReat-Child Trial™ to be a program that could be incorporated into school interventions to improve whole grain consumption among Malaysian children for obesity prevention.
Publication
Journal: Nature reviews. Endocrinology
November/28/2019
Abstract
Neuroimmunology and immunometabolism are burgeoning topics of study, but the intersection of these two fields is scarcely considered. This interplay is particularly prevalent within adipose tissue, where immune cells and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have an important role in metabolic homeostasis and pathology, namely in obesity. In the present Review, we first outline the established reciprocal adipose-SNS relationship comprising the neuroendocrine loop facilitated primarily by adipose tissue-derived leptin and SNS-derived noradrenaline. Next, we review the extensive crosstalk between adipocytes and resident innate immune cells as well as the changes that occur in these secretory and signalling pathways in obesity. Finally, we discuss the effect of SNS adrenergic signalling in immune cells and conclude with exciting new research demonstrating an immutable role for SNS-resident macrophages in modulating SNS-adipose crosstalk. We posit that the latter point constitutes the existence of a new field - neuroimmunometabolism.
Publication
Journal: Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
November/28/2019
Abstract
Adipose tissue is classically recognized as the primary site of lipid storage, but in recent years has garnered appreciation for its broad role as an endocrine organ comprising multiple cell types whose collective secretome, termed as adipokines, is highly interdependent on metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. Anatomical location (e.g. visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial etc) and cellular composition of adipose tissue (e.g. white, beige, and brown adipocytes, macrophages etc.) also plays a critical role in determining its response to metabolic state, the resulting secretome, and its potential impact on remote tissues. Compared with other tissues, the heart has an extremely high and constant demand for energy generation, of which most is derived from oxidation of fatty acids. Availability of this fatty acid fuel source is dependent on adipose tissue, but evidence is mounting that adipose tissue plays a much broader role in cardiovascular physiology. In this review, we discuss the impact of the brown, subcutaneous, and visceral white, perivascular (PVAT), and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) secretome on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with a particular focus on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.
Publication
Journal: The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity
November/28/2019
Abstract
Certain eating behaviors are common among women with obesity. Whether these behaviors influence outcomes in weight loss programs, and whether such programs affect eating behaviors, is unclear.

METHODS
Our aim was to examine the effect of baseline eating behaviors on intervention adherence and weight among postmenopausal women with overweight or obesity, and to assess intervention effects on eating behaviors. Four hundred and 39 women (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) were randomized to 12 months of: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal ('diet'; n = 118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 225 mins/week ('exercise'; n = 117); iii) combined dietary weight loss and exercise ('diet + exercise'; n = 117); or iv) no-lifestyle change control (n = 87). At baseline and 12 months, restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and binge eating were measured by questionnaire; weight and body composition were assessed. The mean change in eating behavior scores and weight between baseline and 12 months in the diet, exercise, and diet + exercise arms were each compared to controls using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) modification of linear regression adjusted for age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity.

Baseline restrained eating was positively associated with change in total calories and calories from fat during the dietary intervention but not with other measures of adherence. Higher baseline restrained eating was associated with greater 12-month reductions in weight, waist circumference, body fat and lean mass. Women randomized to dietary intervention had significant reductions in binge eating (- 23.7%, p = 0.005 vs. control), uncontrolled eating (- 24.3%, p < 0.001 vs. control), and emotional eating (- 31.7%, p < 0.001 vs. control) scores, and a significant increase in restrained eating (+ 60.6%, p < 0.001 vs. control); women randomized to diet + exercise reported less uncontrolled eating (- 26.0%, p < 0.001 vs. control) and emotional eating (- 22.0%, p = 0.004 vs. control), and increased restrained eating (+ 41.4%, p < 0.001 vs. control). Women randomized to exercise alone had no significant change in eating behavior scores compared to controls.A dietary weight loss intervention helped women modify eating behaviors. Future research should investigate optimal behavioral weight loss interventions for women with both disordered eating and obesity.NCT00470119 (https://clinicaltrials.gov). Retrospectively registered May 7, 2007.
Publication
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health
November/28/2019
Abstract
With the remarkable improvement in people's socioeconomic living standards around the world, adolescent obesity has increasingly become an important public health issue that cannot be ignored. Thus, we have implemented its use in an attempt to explore the viability of scenario-based simulations through the use of a data mining approach. In doing so, we wanted to explore the merits of using a General Bayesian Network (GBN) with What-If analysis while exploring how it can be utilized in other areas of public health. We analyzed data from the 2017 Korean Youth Health Behavior Survey conducted directly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, including 19 attributes and 11,206 individual data points. Our simulations found that by manipulating the amount of pocket money-between $60 and $80-coupled with a low-income background, it has a high potential to increase obesity compared with other simulated factors. Additionally, when we manipulated an increase in studying time with a mediocre academic performance, it was found to potentially increase pressure on adolescents, which subsequently led to an increased obesity outcome. Lastly, we found that when we manipulated an increase in a father's education level while manipulating a decrease in mother's education level, this had a large effect on the potential adolescent obesity level. Although obesity was the chosen case, this paper acts more as a proof of concept in analyzing public health through GBN and What-If analysis. Therefore, it aims to guide health professionals into potentially expanding their ability to simulate certain outcomes based on predicted changes in certain factors concerning future public health issues.
Publication
Journal: Nestle Nutrition Institute workshop series
November/28/2019
Abstract
The risk of chronic disease is widespread. In the United States, nearly 60% of the population has at least 1 chronic health condition. Among the most common are cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, all of which are associated with poor diet quality. At these levels, strategies are needed that can effectively impact widespread dietary practices and population nutrition and health. Increasingly, the food environment has been recognized as a powerful influencer of the quality of diets of community members. Local nutrition policies can effectively change the food environment in ways that increase access and affordability to healthful food and beverage choices and reduce access to and affordability of less healthful food and beverage choices. While much of the effort to change dietary practices is focused on education, this paper discusses 3 strategies by which nutrition policy can improve the dietary practices of individuals: (1) promoting healthy food purchases in the retail food environment, (2) improving access to healthy foods and beverages in food assistance programs, and (3) reducing access to less healthy foods and beverages through the use of taxes. Often enhanced by educational efforts, these strategies, used by government, business, and voluntary organizations, together make it easier for the public to make healthful dietary choices and thereby reduce the risk of chronic disease.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric research
December/2/2019
Abstract
Childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory classes are rarely linked to early puberty risk, particularly among Chinese children. We estimated early puberty risk across BMI trajectory classes, investigated factors contributing to pubertal development, and examined differences in final adult height between children exhibiting early and nonearly pubertal maturation across the classes.The Taiwan Children Health Study recruited 10-year-old children in 2010 from 14 Taiwanese communities and resurveyed them at age 11, 12, and 18 years. The study comprised 3109 children (50.4% boys) with available data for BMI (age 6-11 years) and pubertal stages (age 11, 12, and 18 years).Classes 1-4 were persistently healthy weight, rapid BMI growth, chronically overweight/obese, and early transient overweight/obese. Children in class 3 exhibited the highest risk of early pubertal maturation. Puberty genetic score, low sleep quality, and high fat-free mass collectively explained 15% of the variance in Tanner stages among class 3 children. Early pubertal maturation was considered to cause short and tall stature in boys and girls, respectively.Modifying sleep quality and fat-free mass may reduce early puberty risk in children with chronic overweight/obesity. Vigorous physical activity may reduce adiposity and increase the final adult height in the children.
Publication
Journal: Obesity surgery
November/28/2019
Publication
Journal: Health promotion perspectives
November/28/2019
Abstract
Background: Weight disorders are highly prevalent at the global level. Vitamin B groups are clearly involved in intracellular mechanisms, energy equation, and weight gain. The present study aims to evaluate the association of dietary vitamin B intake and obesity in a large pediatric population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among children and adolescents, aged 6-18years, living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. The BMI-for-age classifications were as follow: percentile <0.1, (emaciated), 0.1 ≤percentile <2.35 (thin), 2.35 ≤percentile≤84.1 (normal), 84.1 <percentile ≤97.7 (overweight), 97.1 <percentile (obese). A valid 168-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the usual dietary intake including vitamin B. Results: Out of 5606 children and adolescents participated (mean age: 11.62, SD: 3.32),46.8% were girls. The intake of thiamin, pyridoxine, niacin and pantothenic acid increased the likelihood of obesity, compared with the normal-weight group. Odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) of obesity for vitamin B1, B3, B5, and B6 were 1.32 (1.14-1.53), 1.01 (1.00-1.02), 1.04 (1.00-1.08),and 1.20 (1.04-1.38), respectively. Riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, biotin and folic acid did not have any significant association with weight disorders (B2: OR=1.09, 95% CI =0.99-1.20); B12:OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.98-1.03; B8: OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.99-1.00 B9: OR=1.00, 95% CI=1.00-1.00). Conclusion: The current study showed a significant correlation between consumption of vitamin B group and increased risk of excess weight.
Publication
Journal: Nestle Nutrition Institute workshop series
November/28/2019
Abstract
Healthy growth during the first 1,000 days, spanning from conception to age 24 months, represents a crucial period which influences the long-term physical and cognitive development of individuals. International public health recommendations and nutrition education interventions targeting early life focus on building individuals' capacities through a variety of educational strategies, accompanied by environmental support, with an ultimate goal being the voluntary adoption of food choices and other nutrition-related behaviors conducive to health and wellness of the expectant mother during pregnancy, parents and caregivers who have a role in feeding the infant, and the infant in later childhood and beyond. Nutrition education interventions that hold promise in the promotion of healthy infant growth are designed on the basis of applicable theory of health behavior, focus on multiple modifiable nutrition-related behaviors, and address various mediators, such as motivators and barriers relevant to acting on these modifiable behaviors. A limited number of randomized controlled trials have been published to date, with modest effect sizes, some of which show sustained benefits related to obesity prevention. Considerations related to intervention design, behavior change strategies, and scale-up efforts are needed to improve the efficacy of nutrition education strategies in early nutrition.
Publication
Journal: BMJ case reports
November/28/2019
Abstract
A 49-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of gradual onset progressively worsening left upper quadrant pain. Ten months prior, he had a laparoscopic roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) for severe gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and obesity. On examination, his abdomen was not distended and was soft to palpation. The haemoglobin, white cell count, liver function test, lipase and lactate were normal. An abdominal CT scan demonstrated swirl sign. Given the suspicion of internal herniation, laparoscopy was performed demonstrating only partial closure of the jejuno-jejunal mesodefect resulting in herniation of the small bowel alimentary limb. Internal herniation should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients with previous LRYGBP and unexplained abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. If closure of a mesodefect is to be attempted, a running, braided, non-absorbable suture should be used as a purse-string to avoid small defects with subsequent weight and mesenteric fat loss following bariatric surgery.
Publication
Journal: Food & function
November/28/2019
Abstract
The current study applied an ob/ob mouse model of obesity for investigating the impact of different RS doses in a high-fat (HF) diet on the attenuation of metabolic syndrome. Although a significant reduction of body weight was not achieved, RS intervention significantly decreased liver weight with suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver tissue and reduced adipocyte size in the fat tissue. All levels of RS intervention were associated with significantly enriched pathways for PPAR, NAFLD and cGMP-PKG signaling. In contrast, either a medium or a higher RS intake (MRS and HRS, respectively) led the AMPK signaling pathway to be significantly enriched but not a diet with lower RS intake. More importantly, sphingolipid biosynthesis activity was noted with MRS and HRS intervention, which is highly associated with the improvement in insulin resistance, and the pathway of type II diabetes mellitus was correspondingly significantly enriched in the HRS group, demonstrating a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes between high-fat diet and RS groups until RS reached a certain level (i.e. in the HRS group). Furthermore, increased profiles of both Prevotellaceae and Coriobacteriaceae in the HF group were noted for the first time with a revised function from RS intervention, which is consistent with the content of lipopolysaccharides in their corresponding serum. Gut microbiota functional analysis showed that primary and secondary bile acid biosynthesis was also noted to be enriched following the RS intervention, benefiting cholesterol homeostasis. This study further highlights the association of RS consumption with the attenuation of metabolic syndrome in an obesity model, and its functionality is characterized by dose-dependence.
Publication
Journal: Paediatrics and international child health
November/28/2019
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. It is important to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents in this region.Aim: To assess the risk of metabolic syndrome and early vascular markers for atherosclerosis in obese Indonesian adolescentsMethods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in obese high school students aged 15-<18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. All eligible adolescents were interviewed about their medical history, were physically examined and had a fasting blood sample taken. Arterial stiffness was measured during systole and diastole blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction was estimated using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and arterial wall thickness using carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT).Results: A total of 4268 students were screened, 298 (7%) of whom were classified as obese. Of those, 229 had blood samples taken, 173 had FMD performed and 156 had CIMT examination. Adolescents with a higher body mass index or BMI Z-score (>3.0) had a significantly poorer lipid profile, insulin level and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) than those with a lower BMI Z-score. There were no significant differences for early vasculature markers for atherosclerosis between these two groups.Conclusion: The prevalence of risks of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents was significant. The higher the BMI Z-score, the higher the risks of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to reduce obesity and its cardiovascular disease morbidities are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries.Abbreviations: BMI; body mass index; CIMT, carotid artery intima-media thickness; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FMD flow-mediated dilation; HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HbA1c haemoglobin A1c; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IOTF, International Obesity Task Force; LDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; WHO, World Health Organization.
Publication
Journal: BMC public health
November/28/2019
Abstract
A healthy lifestyle has been shown to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The extent to which lifestyle influences the risk of CAD for people with pre-existing non-modifiable risk factors is less studied. We therefore examined the associations between a favorable lifestyle and incidence of CAD in population subgroups based on gender, age, educational level, and parental history of myocardial infarction.A total of 26,323 men and women from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study were prospectively followed-up for 18 years. A favorable lifestyle was determined using a four-component lifestyle score based on data collected at baseline: no smoking, no obesity, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the relative risk of CAD during follow-up and cumulative risk during a 10-year interval.A favorable lifestyle was associated with a 44% (95% confidence interval, 38-48%) lower risk of CAD compared to an unfavorable lifestyle. The relative risk was similarly reduced among subjects subdivided by gender, age group, educational level, and parental history of myocardial infarction. These findings corresponded with a reduced standardized 10-year incidence of CAD of around 40% in each subgroup.In this population-based cohort, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a significant reduction of CAD across strata of non-modifiable risk factors. These findings provide support for lifestyle modification as a means for risk reduction in a range of subgroups within a general healthy population.
Publication
Journal: Pakistan journal of medical sciences
November/28/2019
Abstract
To investigate the prevalence of obesity and associated factors during childhood in Southeastern Turkey. Another objective was to determine the cut-off points of Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) values for defining obesity/abdominal obesity.The community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Gaziantep Turkey between November 2011 and December 2011 with 2718 primary school/high schools students aged 6-17 years. The SPSS 22.00 was used for the analysis of data.The prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, was 13.2%, 4.2% ,26.4%, respectively. There was a reverse relationship between BMI/WC values and sleep durations (p<0.05). The BMI/WC values were higher in students with computer usage time ≥1 hours in a day (p<0.05). Parental obesity status has an effective role on the WC/BMI values of children (p<0.05). The WHtR was a good predictor of diagnosis on obesity and abdominal obesity (AUC=0.928, p<0.0001; AUC=0.920, p<0.0001; respectively). The optimal cut-off values for obesity and abdominal obesity were detected as 0.5077, 0.4741, respectively.The WHtR can be used for diagnosis of obesity/abdominal obesity. Parental obesity, short sleep duration and computer use more than one hour per day are risk factors for the development of obesity in children and adolescents.
Publication
Journal: Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
November/28/2019
Abstract
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is strongly related to obesity. The relationship between intracranial pressure, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat and distribution of body fat in non-IIH patients remains less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between intracranial pressure and body type in non-IIH patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS
Lumbar puncture manometry was used to measure cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure (CSFOP). BMI, in addition to neck, waist and hip circumferences were calculated. Air displacement plethysmography (BODPOD) was used to assess body composition.

RESULTS
Data was collected from 100 subjects. 11 subjects with conditions known to cause raised intracranial pressure were excluded from analysis. According to Pearson correlation factors displaying a significant relationship with CSFOP included: BMI (R = 0.635, p < 0.0001); waist circumference (R = 0.498, p < 0.0001), hip circumference (R = 0.513, p < 0.0001) and percentage body fat (R = 0.435, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI was the only independent factor which predicted CSFOP. Sub-analysis according to gender indicated that BMI was predictive in females and percentage body fat was predictive in males. We did not identify any differences in BMI, percentage body fat or distribution of body fat in 7 IIH patients and 7 wt-matched non-IIH patients.

CONCLUSION
BMI and percentage body fat both positively correlated with CSFOP, but BMI was more predictive in women and percentage body fat was more predictive in men. We did not find a relationship between distribution of body fat and CSFOP.

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