Obesity
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Publication
Journal: Nature Reviews Endocrinology
November/29/2019
Abstract
Neuroimmunology and immunometabolism are burgeoning topics of study, but the intersection of these two fields is scarcely considered. This interplay is particularly prevalent within adipose tissue, where immune cells and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have an important role in metabolic homeostasis and pathology, namely in obesity. In the present Review, we first outline the established reciprocal adipose-SNS relationship comprising the neuroendocrine loop facilitated primarily by adipose tissue-derived leptin and SNS-derived noradrenaline. Next, we review the extensive crosstalk between adipocytes and resident innate immune cells as well as the changes that occur in these secretory and signalling pathways in obesity. Finally, we discuss the effect of SNS adrenergic signalling in immune cells and conclude with exciting new research demonstrating an immutable role for SNS-resident macrophages in modulating SNS-adipose crosstalk. We posit that the latter point constitutes the existence of a new field - neuroimmunometabolism.
Publication
Journal: Obesity Reviews
November/29/2019
Abstract
White adipose tissue is one of the largest organs of the body. It plays a key role in whole-body energy status and metabolism; it not only stores excess energy but also secretes various hormones and metabolites to regulate body energy balance. Healthy adipose tissue capable of expanding is needed for metabolic well-being and to prevent accumulation of triglycerides to other organs. Mitochondria govern several important functions in the adipose tissue. We review the derangements of mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue in the obese state. Downregulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis in the white adipose tissue is a central driver for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial functions compromised in obesity include oxidative functions and renewal and enlargement of the adipose tissue through recruitment and differentiation of adipocyte progenitor cells. These changes adversely affect whole-body metabolic health. Dysfunction of the white adipose tissue mitochondria in obesity has long-term consequences for the metabolism of adipose tissue and the whole body. Understanding the pathways behind mitochondrial dysfunction may help reveal targets for pharmacological or nutritional interventions that enhance mitochondrial biogenesis or function in adipose tissue.
Publication
Journal: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
November/29/2019
Abstract
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary, the gut microbiota seems to impact WAT and BAT physiology at multiple levels.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Health Geographics
November/29/2019
Abstract
Although a preponderance of research indicates that increased income inequality negatively impacts population health, several international studies found that a greater income inequality was associated with better population health when measured on a fine geographic level of aggregation. This finding is known as a "Swiss paradox". To date, no studies have examined variability in the associations between income inequality and health outcomes by spatial aggregation level in the US. Therefore, this study examined associations between income inequality (Gini index, GI) and population health by geographic level using a large, nationally representative dataset of older adults. We geographically linked respondents' county data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to 2012 American Community Survey data. Using generalized linear models, we estimated the association between GI decile on the state and county levels and five population health outcomes (diabetes, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and self-rated health), accounting for confounders and complex sampling. Although state-level GI was not significantly associated with obesity rates (b = - 0.245, 95% CI - 0.497, 0.008), there was a significant, negative association between county-level GI and obesity rates (b = - 0.416, 95% CI - 0.629, - 0.202). State-level GI also associated with an increased diabetes rate (b = 0.304, 95% CI 0.063, 0.546), but the association was not significant for county-level GI and diabetes rate (b = - 0.101, 95% CI - 0.305, 0.104). Associations between both county-level GI and state-level GI and current smoking status were also not significant. These findings show the associations between income inequality and health vary by spatial aggregation level and challenge the preponderance of evidence suggesting that income inequality is consistently associated with worse health. Further research is needed to understand the nuances behind these observed associations to design informed policies and programs designed to reduce socioeconomic health inequities among older adults.
Publication
Journal: Maternal and Child Nutrition
November/29/2019
Abstract
This study examined associations between a maternal "mixed, high sugar" dietary pattern during pregnancy and ultrasound-determined fetal growth in 495 urban African women and explored whether these associations were independent of maternal baseline body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Linear mixed effects modelling (LMM) was used to test the associations between maternal mixed, high sugar dietary pattern score, baseline BMI (kg/m2 ), and GWG (kg/week) and the following fetal growth outcomes: (a) biparietal diameter (cm), (b) head circumference (cm), (c) abdominal circumference (cm), and (d) femur length (cm). In the pooled LMM, a +1 standard deviation (SD) increase in the mixed, high sugar dietary pattern score was associated with higher biparietal diameter (0.03 cm/+1 SD; p = .007), head circumference (0.07 cm/+1 SD; p = .026), abdominal circumference (0.08 cm/+1 SD; p = .038), and femur length (0.02 cm/+1 SD; p = .015). Although these associations were independent of maternal BMI and GWG, higher baseline BMI was independently and positively associated with abdominal circumference (0.03 cm/+1 kg/m2 ; p = .011) and femur length (0.01 cm/+1 kg/m2 ; p = .007) and 1 kg/week greater GWG was associated with a 0.82 cm increase in abdominal circumference (p = .007). In urban African settings, where preconception maternal obesity prevalence is high and processed, high sugar diets are common, improving maternal dietary intake and BMI prior to conception should be prioritised for optimising pregnancy and birth outcomes as well as longer-term offspring health. In addition, dietary management strategies during pregnancy may be beneficial in facilitating healthy fetal growth.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Research
December/2/2019
Abstract
Phthalic acid esters are established as endocrine disruptors. The study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary phthalate metabolites and prostate cancer occurrence.The study was based on the Taiwan Community-Based Cancer Screening Program, which was set up in 1991-1992 and followed periodically. By 2010, 80 incident prostate cancer cases were identified in the 12,020 men. For each case, 2 controls were randomly selected, matched by age (±3 years), urine collection date (±3 months), and residential township. Frequently used phthalate metabolites from the urine samples were quantified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between the exposure levels and prostate cancer occurrence.Exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl), butyl-benzyl and di-isobutyl phthalates (DEHP, BBzP, DiBP) was positively associated with prostate cancer in men with waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm but not in the leans. Odds ratio for the DEHP metabolite summary score (upper tertile compared to the rest) and prostate cancer were 7.76 (95% CI = 1.95-30.9) for WC ≥ 90 cm.DEHP, BBzP, and DiBP exposure were associated with prostate cancer occurrence in abdominally obese men. The main limitation remains the lack of mechanistic experiments and comparable toxicological data.
Publication
Journal: Paediatrics and international child health
November/29/2019
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. It is important to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents in this region.Aim: To assess the risk of metabolic syndrome and early vascular markers for atherosclerosis in obese Indonesian adolescentsMethods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in obese high school students aged 15-<18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. All eligible adolescents were interviewed about their medical history, were physically examined and had a fasting blood sample taken. Arterial stiffness was measured during systole and diastole blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction was estimated using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and arterial wall thickness using carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT).Results: A total of 4268 students were screened, 298 (7%) of whom were classified as obese. Of those, 229 had blood samples taken, 173 had FMD performed and 156 had CIMT examination. Adolescents with a higher body mass index or BMI Z-score (>3.0) had a significantly poorer lipid profile, insulin level and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) than those with a lower BMI Z-score. There were no significant differences for early vasculature markers for atherosclerosis between these two groups.Conclusion: The prevalence of risks of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents was significant. The higher the BMI Z-score, the higher the risks of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to reduce obesity and its cardiovascular disease morbidities are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries.Abbreviations: BMI; body mass index; CIMT, carotid artery intima-media thickness; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FMD flow-mediated dilation; HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HbA1c haemoglobin A1c; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IOTF, International Obesity Task Force; LDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; WHO, World Health Organization.
Publication
Journal: ERJ Open Research
November/29/2019
Abstract
Analysis of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients in Scotland across 20 years supports a recent French study suggesting there is no protective effect from obesity for this disease, in contrast to emerging evidence from the USA and China http://bit.ly/34WCZ7W.
Publication
Journal: Metabolic Brain Disease
December/2/2019
Abstract
Fat-mass and obesity-associated protein (Fto) plays important roles in energy metabolism. It also acts as a demethylase and is most abundantly found in the brain. In the present study, we examined the spatial and temporal changes of Fto immunoreactivity after five minutes of transient forebrain ischemia in the hippocampus. In the control group, Fto immunoreactivity was mainly observed in the nucleus of pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 regions as well as the polymorphic layer, granule cell layer, and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Fto immunoreactivity was transiently, but not significantly, increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the dentate gyrus two days after ischemia compared to mice without ischemia in the sham-operated group. Four days after ischemia, low Fto immunoreactivity was observed in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region because of neuronal death, but Fto immunoreactive cells were abundantly detected in the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, which is relatively resistant to ischemic damage. Thereafter, Fto immunoreactivity progressively decreased in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus until ten days after ischemia. At this time-point, Fto immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus compared to that in the sham-operated group. The reduction of Fto immunoreactive structures in the hippocampus may be associated with impairments in Fto-related hippocampal function.
Publication
Journal: Revista Paulista de Pediatria
November/29/2019
Abstract
To assess demographic data and characteristics of children and adolescents with pediatric chronic diseases (PCD), according to the number of specialties/patient.We performed a cross-sectional study with 16,237 PCD patients at outpatient clinics in one year. Data were analyzed by an electronic data system, according to the number of physician appointments for PCD. This study assessed: demographic data, follow-up characteristics, types of medical specialty, diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD-10), number of day hospital clinic visits, and acute complications.Patients followed by ≥3 specialties simultaneously showed a significantly higher duration of follow-up compared to those followed by ≤2 specialties [2.1 (0.4-16.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years; p<0.001] and a higher number of appointments in all specialties. The most prevalent medical areas in patients followed by ≥3 specialties were: Psychiatry (Odds Ratio - OR=8.0; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 6-10.7; p<0.001), Palliative/Pain Care (OR=7.4; 95%CI 5.7-9.7; p<0.001), Infectious Disease (OR=7.0; 95%CI 6.4-7.8; p<0.001) and Nutrology (OR=6.9; 95%CI 5.6-8.4; p<0.001). Logistic regressions demonstrated that PCD patients followed by ≥3 specialties were associated with high risk for: number of appointments/patient (OR=9.2; 95%CI 8.0-10.5; p<0.001), day hospital clinic visits (OR=4.8; 95%CI 3.8-5.9; p<0.001), emergency department visits (OR=3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3.5; p<0.001), hospitalizations (OR=3.0; 95%CI 2.7-3.3; p<0.001), intensive care admissions (OR=2.5; 95%CI 2.1-3.0; p<0.001), and deaths (OR=2.8; 95%CI 1.9-4.0; p<0.001). The diagnosis of asthma, obesity, chronic pain, and transplant was significantly higher in patients followed by ≥3 specialties.The present study showed that PCD patients who required simultaneous care from multiple medical specialties had complex and severe diseases, with specific diagnoses.
Publication
Journal: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
November/29/2019
Abstract
Long-term studies have demonstrated a slight increased risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) for living kidney donors (LKD). In France, living kidney donation doubled within the past 10 years. We investigated the change in characteristics of LKD between 2007 and 2017 and the adequacy of follow-up.Data were obtained from the national registry for LKD. We compared characteristics of LKD between two study periods: 2007-11 and 2012-17, and stratified donors by age and relation to recipient. We aggregated four characteristics associated with higher ESRD risk [young age, first-degree relation to recipient, obesity, low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for age] in a single risk indicator ranging from 0 to 4.We included 3483 donors. The proportion of unrelated donors >56 years of age increased significantly. The proportion of related donors <56 years of age decreased significantly. The body mass index and proportion of obese donors did not change significantly. The proportion of donors with low estimated GFR for age decreased significantly from 5% to 2.2% (P < 0.001). The proportion of donors with adequate follow-up after donation increased from 19.6% to 42.5% (P < 0.001). No donor had a risk indicator equal to 4, and the proportion of donors with a risk indicator equal to 0 increased significantly from 19.2% to 24.9% (P < 0.001).An increase in living kidney donation in France does not seem to be associated with the selection of donors at higher risk of ESRD and the proportion of donors with adequate annual follow-up significantly increased.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
November/29/2019
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions. In 2014, the total prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 442 million people worldwide. Due to the aging population and continued increase in obesity rates, the prevalence is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. Diabetes can lead to several complications, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, lower extremity amputation and musculoskeletal impairments. Up to 80% of patients referred for outpatient physical therapy have diabetes or are at risk for diabetes. Physical therapists are key members of the healthcare team: prescribing physical activity for the treatment of diabetes and other chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis. Physical therapists can screen for risk factors for diabetes and diabetes-related complications that modify traditional musculoskeletal exercise prescription. Physical therapists must advocate for regular physical activity as a key component for the treatment of chronic diseases in all patient interactions. This report 1) describes the diabetes epidemic and the health impact of diabetes and diabetes-related complications, 2) highlights the physical therapist's role as front-line provider, and 3) provides recommendations for physical therapists in screening for diabetes risk factors and diabetes-related complications and considerations for patient management. We focus on type 2 diabetes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 28 Nov 2019. doi:10.2519/jospt.2020.9154.
Publication
Journal: Obesity Surgery
November/29/2019
Abstract
Since a few years, the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become the most performed bariatric operation worldwide. However, as with all bariatric procedures, SG also leads to vitamin and mineral deficiencies post-operatively and standard multivitamin supplements are probably not sufficient.The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a specialized multivitamin supplement for SG patients (WLS Optimum 1.0, FitForMe, Rotterdam, the Netherlands), compared to a standard multivitamin supplement (sMVS).A double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed. For 12 months, patients in the intervention group received WLS Optimum, containing elevated doses of multiple vitamins and minerals. Patients in the control group were provided with sMVS, containing 100% of the recommended dietary allowance.In total, 139 patients were available for analysis (WLS Optimum, n = 69; sMVS, n = 70). Intention-to-treat analyses revealed more folic acid deficiencies and higher serum vitamin B1 levels in the WLS Optimum group. Per protocol analyses showed that in patients using WLS Optimum, serum folic acid and vitamin B1 levels were higher, serum PTH levels were lower, and only one patient (2.6%) was anemic compared to 11 patients (17.5%) using a sMVS (p < 0.05 for all). No differences were found in prevalence of deficiencies for iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and other vitamins and minerals.This optimized multivitamin supplement only affected serum levels of folic acid, PTH and vitamin B1, and anemia rates compared to a sMVS. There is a clear need to further optimize multivitamin supplementation for SG patients. Besides, non-compliance with multivitamin supplements remains an important issue that should be dealt with.The study protocol was registered at the clinical trials registry of the National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier NCT01609387).
Publication
Journal: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
November/29/2019
Abstract
To determine association between maternal lipaemia and neonatal anthropometrics in Malaysian mother-offspring pairs.

DESIGN
Prospective observational cohort study SETTING: Single tertiary multi-disciplinary antenatal clinic in Malaysia POPULATION: 507 mothers: 145 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 94 obese with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)( pregravid BMI>27.5 kg/m2 ) and 268 non-obese NGT.

Maternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected during an interview/examination using a structured questionnaire. Blood was drawn for insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride (Tg) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) during screening 75g OGTT, and at 36 weeks. At birth, neonatal anthropometrics were assessed and data such as gestational weight gain (GWG) were extracted from records.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA) status, cohort-specific birth weight (BW), neonatal fat mass (NFM), sum of skinfold thickness (SSFT) >90th centile.

RESULTS
Fasting Tg>95th centile (3.6 mmol/L) at screening OGTT was independently associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.82, 95% CI 1.26-93.37) after adjustment for maternal glucose, pregravid BMI and insulin sensitivity. Fasting glucose was independently associated with BWR >90th centile(aOR 2..06 95% CI 1.17-3.64) but not LGA status in this well-treated GDM cohort with pre-delivery HbA1c of 5.27%. 45% mothers had pregravid BMI<23 kg/m2 and 61% BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 ; yet GWG>10kg was associated with 4.25-fold-risk(95% CI 1.71-10.53) of BW>90th centile.

Maternal lipaemia and GWG at a low threshold (>10kg) adversely impact neonatal adiposity in Asian offspring independent of glucose/insulin resistance/pregravid BMI. These may therefore be important modifiable metabolic targets in pregnancy.
Publication
Journal: Current treatment options in gastroenterology
December/2/2019
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to describe the trends in dietary patterns and food quality over time along with the possible role of ultra-processed foods in obesity, chronic diseases, and all-cause mortality in the US population.There is a rising obesity epidemic, corresponding chronic diseases, and increases in ultra-processed food consumption. In mice and in vitro trials, emulsifiers, found in processed foods, have been found to alter microbiome compositions, elevate fasting blood glucose, cause hyperphagia, increase weight gain and adiposity, and induce hepatic steatosis. Recent human trials have found ultra-processed foods as a contributor to decreased satiety, increased meal eating rates, worsening biochemical markers, and more weight gain. In contrast, Blue Zone, indigenous South American, and Mediterranean populations with low meat intake, high fiber, and minimally processed foods have far less chronic diseases, obesity rates, and live longer disease-free. As the USA continues to industrialize, food has become more processed and cheaper and more convenient along with the coexistent rise in obesity prevalence. This review highlights the overall trends in food: mild improvements in dietary quality in higher socioeconomic populations, but no significant increases in whole fruit, vegetables, legumes, or nuts. Consumption of ultra-processed food is associated with weight gain and may contribute to metabolic syndrome and chronic disease. To combat this epidemic, we must create and disseminate detailed recommendations to improve diet quality and overall nutrition.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
November/29/2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease in Western nations and ranges in severity from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a genetic-environmental-metabolic stress-related disease of unclear pathogenesis. NAFLD is triggered by caloric overconsumption and physical inactivity, which lead to insulin resistance and oxidative stress. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Mitochondrial dysfunction not only promotes fat accumulation, but also leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, resulting in oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important modulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress. The pharmacological induction of Nrf2 ameliorates obesity-associated insulin resistance and NAFLD in a mouse model. Sulforaphane and its precursor glucoraphanin are derived from broccoli sprouts and are the most potent natural Nrf2 inducers-they may protect mitochondrial function, thus suppressing the development of NASH. In this review, we briefly describe the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH and the effects of glucoraphanin on its development.
Publication
Journal: Biology of Sex Differences
November/29/2019
Abstract
Obesity and elevated serum lipids are associated with a threefold increase in the risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that underlies stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Strategies that aim to reduce serum cholesterol through modulation of liver enzymes have been successful in decreasing the risk of developing atherosclerosis and reducing mortality. Statins, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver, are considered among the most successful compounds developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, recent debate surrounding their effectiveness and safety prompts consideration of alternative cholesterol-lowering therapies, including increasing cholesterol catabolism through bile acid (BA) synthesis. Targeting the enzymes that convert cholesterol to BAs represents a promising alternative to other cholesterol-lowering approaches that treat atherosclerosis as well as fatty liver diseases and diabetes mellitus. Compounds that modify the activity of these pathways have been developed; however, there remains a lack of consideration of biological sex. This is necessary in light of strong evidence for sexual dimorphisms not only in the incidence and progression of the diseases they influence but also in the expression and activity of the proteins affected and in the manner in which men and women respond to drugs that modify lipid handling in the liver. A thorough understanding of the enzymes involved in cholesterol catabolism and modulation by biological sex is necessary to maximize their therapeutic potential.
Publication
Journal: JMIR Research Protocols
November/29/2019
Abstract
Postpartum weight retention contributes to long-term weight gain and obesity for many women. Lifestyle interventions with numerous visits are logistically challenging for many postpartum women. Delivering a lifestyle intervention via social media may overcome logistic challenges to participation in in-person weight loss programs.The objective of this study is to conduct a randomized feasibility pilot trial of a 6-month postpartum weight loss intervention delivered via Facebook or in-person groups with 72 postpartum women with overweight or obesity.Women with overweight or obesity who are 8 weeks to 12 months postpartum (N=72) will be recruited from the Hartford, Connecticut community. Eligible participants must also own an iPhone or Android smartphone and be an active Facebook user. Participants will receive a 6-month postpartum weight loss intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention and adapted for postpartum women. Participants will be randomized to receive the intervention via a private Facebook group or in-person group meetings. Assessments will occur at baseline, weekly during the intervention, at 6 months (at the end of the intervention), and at 12 months. Primary feasibility outcomes are recruitment, sustained participation, contamination, retention, and feasibility of assessment procedures including measurement of costs to deliver and receive the intervention. We will describe 6- and 12-month weight loss as an exploratory outcome.Recruitment began in September 2018. The first wave of the intervention began in February 2019, and the second wave of the intervention is expected to begin in fall 2019. We anticipate completing follow-up assessments in fall 2020, and results will be analyzed at that time.Results will inform the design of a large randomized controlled trial to assess whether delivering a postpartum weight loss intervention via Facebook is noninferior for weight loss and more cost-effective than delivering the intervention via traditional in-person groups.DERR1-10.2196/15530.
Publication
Journal: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
November/29/2019
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are well-established screening protocols involving fecal testing, radiographic, and endoscopic evaluations that have led to decreased incidence and mortality of CRC in the United States. In addition to screening for CRC, there is interest in preventing colorectal neoplasia by targeting the signaling pathways that have been identified in the pathway of dysplasia progressing to carcinoma. This review will detail the efficacy of multiple potential preventative strategies including lifestyle changes (physical activity, alcohol use, smoking cessation, and obesity); dietary factors (dietary patterns, calcium, vitamin D, fiber, folate, and antioxidants and micronutrients); and chemopreventive agents (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, metformin, bisphosphonates, and postmenopausal hormonal therapy).
Publication
Journal: Neurobiology of Disease
December/2/2019
Publication
Journal: Clinical Science
November/29/2019
Abstract
Adipose tissue is classically recognized as the primary site of lipid storage, but in recent years has garnered appreciation for its broad role as an endocrine organ comprising multiple cell types whose collective secretome, termed as adipokines, is highly interdependent on metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. Anatomical location (e.g. visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial etc) and cellular composition of adipose tissue (e.g. white, beige, and brown adipocytes, macrophages etc.) also plays a critical role in determining its response to metabolic state, the resulting secretome, and its potential impact on remote tissues. Compared with other tissues, the heart has an extremely high and constant demand for energy generation, of which most is derived from oxidation of fatty acids. Availability of this fatty acid fuel source is dependent on adipose tissue, but evidence is mounting that adipose tissue plays a much broader role in cardiovascular physiology. In this review, we discuss the impact of the brown, subcutaneous, and visceral white, perivascular (PVAT), and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) secretome on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with a particular focus on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.
Publication
Journal: American Journal of Human Biology
November/29/2019
Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the secular trends of weight, stature, and BMI values in a Nova Scotian sample from 1946 to 1999, with particular focus on how these trends may relate to nutrition and the evolving obesity epidemic.Data were collected from investigative (autopsy) records of 1645 individuals (1287 males, 358 females) of European descent at the Nova Scotia Medical Examiner Service. Secular trends were evaluated by linear regression of weight, stature, and BMI with respect to the year of birth. Further analysis of this sample was based on five time periods (birth cohorts), in order to determine whether dramatic shifts in diet and nutrition affected weight, stature, and BMI.Overall, the results of this study demonstrate positive secular trends in weight, stature, and BMI from 1946 to 1999 in the Nova Scotian sample. Subsequent analysis among different time periods shows a secular increase in the weight of Nova Scotian males from 1946 to 1979, and a subsequent decrease in weight in after 1980. For Nova Scotian females, the results show a secular increase in weight from 1946 to 1989, and a subsequent decrease in weight after 1990. Such secular increases in weight coincide with the global nutrition transition, while recent decreasing median weight values may reflect economic growth and urbanization in Nova Scotia.Overall, the results of the present study indicate that temporal trends in nutrition may have contributed to positive secular changes in weight, stature, and BMI in Nova Scotia, Canada between 1946 and 1999.
Publication
Journal: Physiotherapy research international : the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy
November/29/2019
Abstract
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by its heterogeneity, with large differences in clinical characteristics between patients. Therefore, a stratified approach to exercise therapy, whereby patients are allocated to homogeneous subgroups and receive a stratified, subgroup-specific intervention, can be expected to optimize current clinical effects. Recently, we developed and pilot tested a model of stratified exercise therapy based on clinically relevant subgroups of knee OA patients that we previously identified. Based on the promising results, it is timely to evaluate the (cost-)effectiveness of stratified exercise therapy compared with usual, "nonstratified" exercise therapy.A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial including economic and process evaluation, comparing stratified exercise therapy with usual care by physical therapists (PTs) in primary care, in a total of 408 patients with clinically diagnosed knee OA. Eligible physical therapy practices are randomized in a 1:2 ratio to provide the experimental (in 204 patients) or control intervention (in 204 patients), respectively. The experimental intervention is a model of stratified exercise therapy consisting of (a) a stratification algorithm that allocates patients to a "high muscle strength subgroup," "low muscle strength subgroup," or "obesity subgroup" and (b) subgroup-specific, protocolized exercise therapy (with an additional dietary intervention from a dietician for the obesity subgroup only). The control intervention will be usual best practice by PTs (i.e., nonstratified exercise therapy). Our primary outcome measures are knee pain severity (Numeric Rating Scale) and physical functioning (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale daily living). Measurements will be performed at baseline, 3-month (primary endpoint), 6-month (questionnaires only), and 12-month follow-up, with an additional cost questionnaire at 9 months. Intention-to-treat, multilevel, regression analysis comparing stratified versus usual care will be performed.This study will demonstrate whether stratified care provided by primary care PTs is effective and cost-effective compared with usual best practice from PTs.
Publication
Journal: Sleep and Breathing
November/29/2019
Abstract
Screening instruments are poor predictors of the severity of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that their performance could be improved by identifying and eliminating redundant features.Baseline scores from three screening questionnaires for pediatric OSA were obtained from the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT). The questionnaires included the (i) modified Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), (ii) the sleep-related breathing disorders subscale of the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ), and the (iii) obstructive sleep apnea-18 (OSA-18) scale. Key features from each questionnaire were identified using variable selection methods. These selected features (SF) were then assessed for their ability to predict the severity of OSA, measured by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI). In addition, prediction performance of SF was also calculated for AHI > 5 and > 10 and ODI > 5 and > 10, respectively.Four hundred fifty-three children aged 5-10 years were included. The majority of the pairwise correlations among the items within the 3 screening questionnaires were statistically significant. The prediction of AHI and ODI by overall questionnaire scores was poor. Four-item SF, comprising apneic pauses, growth problems, mouth breathing, and obesity predicted AHI and ODI significantly better than each of the individual questionnaires. Furthermore, SF also predicted AHI > 5 and > 10, as well as ODI > 5 and > 10 significantly better than the original questionnaires.Elimination of redundant items in screening questionnaires improves their prediction performance for OSA severity in children with high pre-test probability for the condition.
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