Obesity
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Publication
Journal: Obesity Reviews
November/29/2019
Abstract
White adipose tissue is one of the largest organs of the body. It plays a key role in whole-body energy status and metabolism; it not only stores excess energy but also secretes various hormones and metabolites to regulate body energy balance. Healthy adipose tissue capable of expanding is needed for metabolic well-being and to prevent accumulation of triglycerides to other organs. Mitochondria govern several important functions in the adipose tissue. We review the derangements of mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue in the obese state. Downregulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis in the white adipose tissue is a central driver for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial functions compromised in obesity include oxidative functions and renewal and enlargement of the adipose tissue through recruitment and differentiation of adipocyte progenitor cells. These changes adversely affect whole-body metabolic health. Dysfunction of the white adipose tissue mitochondria in obesity has long-term consequences for the metabolism of adipose tissue and the whole body. Understanding the pathways behind mitochondrial dysfunction may help reveal targets for pharmacological or nutritional interventions that enhance mitochondrial biogenesis or function in adipose tissue.
Publication
Journal: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
November/29/2019
Abstract
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary, the gut microbiota seems to impact WAT and BAT physiology at multiple levels.
Publication
Journal: Food and Function
November/29/2019
Abstract
The current study applied an ob/ob mouse model of obesity for investigating the impact of different RS doses in a high-fat (HF) diet on the attenuation of metabolic syndrome. Although a significant reduction of body weight was not achieved, RS intervention significantly decreased liver weight with suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver tissue and reduced adipocyte size in the fat tissue. All levels of RS intervention were associated with significantly enriched pathways for PPAR, NAFLD and cGMP-PKG signaling. In contrast, either a medium or a higher RS intake (MRS and HRS, respectively) led the AMPK signaling pathway to be significantly enriched but not a diet with lower RS intake. More importantly, sphingolipid biosynthesis activity was noted with MRS and HRS intervention, which is highly associated with the improvement in insulin resistance, and the pathway of type II diabetes mellitus was correspondingly significantly enriched in the HRS group, demonstrating a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes between high-fat diet and RS groups until RS reached a certain level (i.e. in the HRS group). Furthermore, increased profiles of both Prevotellaceae and Coriobacteriaceae in the HF group were noted for the first time with a revised function from RS intervention, which is consistent with the content of lipopolysaccharides in their corresponding serum. Gut microbiota functional analysis showed that primary and secondary bile acid biosynthesis was also noted to be enriched following the RS intervention, benefiting cholesterol homeostasis. This study further highlights the association of RS consumption with the attenuation of metabolic syndrome in an obesity model, and its functionality is characterized by dose-dependence.
Publication
Journal: Cancer health disparities
November/29/2019
Abstract
Identifying health status and disparities for Indigenous populations is the first logical step toward better health. We compare the mortality profile of the American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population with that of non-Hispanic whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations in New York State, the Indian Health Service (IHS) East region (Nashville Area) and the United States. Data from the linkage of IHS registration records with decedents from the National Death Index (1990-2009) were used to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN. Analyses were limited to persons of non-Hispanic origin. We analyzed trends for 1990-2009 and compared AI/AN and white persons in the Haudenosaunee Nations in New York State, IHS East region and the United States. All-cause death rates over the past two decades for Haudenosaunee men declined at a greater percentage per year than for AI/AN men in the East region and United States. This decrease was not observed for Haudenosaunee women with all-cause death rates appearing to be stable over the past two decades. Haudenosaunee all-cause death rates were 16% greater than that for whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations. The most prominent disparities between Haudenosaunee and whites are concentrated in the 25-44 year age group (Risk Ratio=1.85). Chronic liver disease, diabetes, unintentional injury, and kidney disease death rates were higher in Haudenosaunee than in whites in the Haudenosaunee Nations. The Haudenosaunee cancer death rate (180.8 per 100,000) was higher than that reported for AI/AN in the East (161.5 per 100,000).Haudenosaunee experienced higher rates for the majority of the leading causes of death than East AI/AN. These results highlight the importance of Haudenosaunee-specific data to target prevention efforts to address health disparities and inequalities in health.
Publication
Journal: BMC Medicine
November/29/2019
Abstract
Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Hg exposure. This study aimed to investigate the association between in utero Hg exposure and child overweight or obesity (OWO) and to explore if adequate maternal folate can mitigate Hg toxicity.This prospective study included 1442 mother-child pairs recruited at birth and followed up to age 15 years. Maternal Hg in red blood cells and plasma folate levels were measured in samples collected 1-3 days after delivery (a proxy for third trimester exposure). Adequate folate was defined as plasma folate ≥ 20.4 nmol/L. Childhood OWO was defined as body mass index ≥ 85% percentile for age and sex.The median (interquartile range) of maternal Hg levels were 2.11 (1.04-3.70) μg/L. Geometric mean (95% CI) of maternal folate levels were 31.1 (30.1-32.1) nmol/L. Maternal Hg levels were positively associated with child OWO from age 2-15 years, independent of maternal pre-pregnancy OWO, diabetes, and other covariates. The relative risk (RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47) of child OWO associated with the highest quartile of Hg exposure was 24% higher than those with the lowest quartile. Maternal pre-pregnancy OWO and/or diabetes additively enhanced Hg toxicity. The highest risk of child OWO was found among children of OWO and diabetic mothers in the top Hg quartile (RR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.56-2.71) compared to their counterparts. Furthermore, adequate maternal folate status mitigated Hg toxicity. Given top quartile Hg exposure, adequate maternal folate was associated with a 34% reduction in child OWO risk (RR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.85) as compared with insufficient maternal folate. There was a suggestive interaction between maternal Hg and folate levels on child OWO risk (p for interaction = 0.086).In this US urban, multi-ethnic population, elevated in utero Hg exposure was associated with a higher risk of OWO in childhood, and such risk was enhanced by maternal OWO and/or diabetes and reduced by adequate maternal folate. These findings underscore the need to screen for Hg and to optimize maternal folate status, especially among mothers with OWO and/or diabetes.
Publication
Journal: IET Systems Biology
November/29/2019
Abstract
Stroke is the third major cause of mortality in the world. The diagnosis of stroke is a very complex issue considering controllable and uncontrollable factors. These factors include age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, heart disease, smoking, and so on, having a considerable influence on the diagnosis of stroke. Hence, designing an intelligent system leading to immediate and effective treatment is essential. In this study, the soft computing method known as fuzzy cognitive mapping was proposed for diagnosis of the risk of ischemic stroke. Non-linear Hebbian learning method was used for fuzzy cognitive maps training. In the proposed method, the risk rate for each person was determined based on the opinions of the neurologists. The accuracy of the proposed model was tested using 10-fold cross-validation, for 110 real cases, and the results were compared with those of support vector machine and K-nearest neighbours. The proposed system showed a superior performance with a total accuracy of (93.6 ± 4.5)%. The data used in this study is available by emailing the first author for academic and non-commercial purposes.
Publication
Journal: Revista Paulista de Pediatria
November/29/2019
Abstract
To assess demographic data and characteristics of children and adolescents with pediatric chronic diseases (PCD), according to the number of specialties/patient.We performed a cross-sectional study with 16,237 PCD patients at outpatient clinics in one year. Data were analyzed by an electronic data system, according to the number of physician appointments for PCD. This study assessed: demographic data, follow-up characteristics, types of medical specialty, diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD-10), number of day hospital clinic visits, and acute complications.Patients followed by ≥3 specialties simultaneously showed a significantly higher duration of follow-up compared to those followed by ≤2 specialties [2.1 (0.4-16.4) vs. 1.4 (0.1-16.2) years; p<0.001] and a higher number of appointments in all specialties. The most prevalent medical areas in patients followed by ≥3 specialties were: Psychiatry (Odds Ratio - OR=8.0; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 6-10.7; p<0.001), Palliative/Pain Care (OR=7.4; 95%CI 5.7-9.7; p<0.001), Infectious Disease (OR=7.0; 95%CI 6.4-7.8; p<0.001) and Nutrology (OR=6.9; 95%CI 5.6-8.4; p<0.001). Logistic regressions demonstrated that PCD patients followed by ≥3 specialties were associated with high risk for: number of appointments/patient (OR=9.2; 95%CI 8.0-10.5; p<0.001), day hospital clinic visits (OR=4.8; 95%CI 3.8-5.9; p<0.001), emergency department visits (OR=3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3.5; p<0.001), hospitalizations (OR=3.0; 95%CI 2.7-3.3; p<0.001), intensive care admissions (OR=2.5; 95%CI 2.1-3.0; p<0.001), and deaths (OR=2.8; 95%CI 1.9-4.0; p<0.001). The diagnosis of asthma, obesity, chronic pain, and transplant was significantly higher in patients followed by ≥3 specialties.The present study showed that PCD patients who required simultaneous care from multiple medical specialties had complex and severe diseases, with specific diagnoses.
Publication
Journal: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
November/29/2019
Abstract
Female gender is reported as an independent risk factor for a poor outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting. We analysed the influence of gender on surgical outcome in patients with single-vessel disease undergoing minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB).From January 1998 to December 2016, a total of 607 consecutive patients with single-vessel disease (31.9% women) underwent MIDCAB at our institution. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were recorded during a median follow-up period of 8.0 years. Survival time was estimated for all patients and after applying propensity score matching (138 women vs 138 men). Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified risk factors predicting a long-term mortality rate.In women, a longer surgical time (125 vs 113 min; P < 0.001) and a higher transfusion rate were recorded (13.0% vs 5.1%; P = 0.001) with similar rates of in-hospital deaths (1.0% vs 0.5%; P = 0.60) and MACCE (1.5% vs 0.7%; P = 0.39). Survival and MACCE-free survival during the follow-up period did not differ significantly between genders (P = 1.0, P = 0.36). Survival and MACCE-free survival rates after 5 years were 94% and 90% in women compared to 91% and 86% in men. Propensity score matching demonstrated improved long-term survival rates in women (P = 0.029). Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, postoperative atrial fibrillation and prolonged intensive care unit stay were associated with long-term deaths for both genders, whereas obesity, former myocardial infarction and preoperative atrial fibrillation were significant risk factors in men.Female patients showed no adverse outcomes after MIDCAB, although risk factors were gender-specific. Overall, MIDCAB demonstrated excellent short- and long-term results as a treatment for single-vessel disease in both genders.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
November/29/2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease in Western nations and ranges in severity from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a genetic-environmental-metabolic stress-related disease of unclear pathogenesis. NAFLD is triggered by caloric overconsumption and physical inactivity, which lead to insulin resistance and oxidative stress. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Mitochondrial dysfunction not only promotes fat accumulation, but also leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, resulting in oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important modulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress. The pharmacological induction of Nrf2 ameliorates obesity-associated insulin resistance and NAFLD in a mouse model. Sulforaphane and its precursor glucoraphanin are derived from broccoli sprouts and are the most potent natural Nrf2 inducers-they may protect mitochondrial function, thus suppressing the development of NASH. In this review, we briefly describe the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH and the effects of glucoraphanin on its development.
Publication
Journal: Pediatric Diabetes
November/29/2019
Abstract
Exercise and lifestyle interventions have been shown to reduce hepatic fat (HF) and adiposity in youth. However, the interindividual response in HF after a lifestyle intervention with or without exercise in children is unknown.To compare interindividual variability for HF, adiposity, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (AST/ALT) in children with overweight/obesity participating in a 22-week lifestyle intervention with (intensive intervention) or without exercise (control intervention).data from 102 children (9-12 years, 55% girls) with overweight/obesity participating in the EFIGRO randomized controlled trial were analyzed.Percentage HF (magnetic resonance imaging), weight, body and fat mass index (BMI and FMI), GGT, AST/ALT, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, 20 meters shuttle run test) were assessed before and after the intervention by the same trained researchers. The control intervention consisted in 11 sessions of a family-based lifestyle and psycho-educational program. The intensive intervention included the control intervention plus supervised exercise (3 sessions/week).The prevalence of responders for HF (54% vs. 34%), weight (27% vs. 11%), BMI (71% vs. 47%), FMI (90% vs. 60%), and GGT (69% vs. 39%) was higher in the intensive than in the control group (Ps<0.05). Responders for weight (16±3 vs. 6±2 laps) and BMI (11±2 vs. 3±4 laps) improved more CRF levels than non-responders (Ps<0.05).The addition of exercise to a lifestyle intervention may increase the responders rates for HF, adiposity, and GGT in children with overweight/obesity. Improvements in CRF may explain differences between weight and BMI responders and non-responders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Obesity
November/29/2019
Abstract
The authors found a critical mistake in the assembly of Fig. 2; in Fig. 2A the right two images were erroneously duplicated. The authors have re-analysed all the data, checked for accuracy and provided the updated Fig. 2 here. Nothing is affected with regards to data summary and conclusion.
Publication
Journal: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
November/29/2019
Abstract
This study was undertaken to identify metabolites associated with BMI and waist circumference (WC) in women and to determine whether these metabolites are associated with biomarkers of metabolic health.Untargeted metabolomic analysis was done on serum from 1,534 women. Metabolites associated with BMI and WC were identified using linear regression with a Bonferroni-corrected P value. Clustered blocks of these metabolites were then defined whose association with the anthropometric measures could be represented by a single metabolite. The association of these representative metabolites with biomarkers for diabetes and inflammation was then determined.

RESULTS
About one-third of 781 metabolites included in the analyses were associated with BMI and/or WC. Associations were found for some novel metabolites, including several sphingolipids, nucleotides, and modified fatty acids. Among metabolites most strongly inversely associated with BMI, the choline-containing plasmalogen (O-16:0/18:1) (β = -0.30, P = 6.62 × 10-32 ) was also inversely associated with c-peptide and positively associated with adiponectin. Adjustment for BMI attenuated the metabolite-biomarker associations more for hemoglobin A1c (> 100%) and c-peptide (58.8% to > 100%) than for C-reactive protein (10.5%-40.0%) and adiponectin (7.0%-30.4%).

These results add to the list of metabolites associated with adiposity and indicate that some may influence processes that contribute to the development of obesity-related diseases.
Publication
Journal: ACR open rheumatology
November/29/2019
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) is conflicting. The impact of sex, including menopause, has not been described. We estimated the prevalence and factors associated with MetS in men and women with ERA.A cross-sectional study of the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) was performed. Participants with baseline data to estimate key MetS components were included. Sex-stratified logistic regression identified baseline variables associated with MetS.

Results
The sample included 1543 participants; 71% were female and the mean age was 54 (SD 15) years. MetS prevalence was higher in men 188 (42%) than women 288 (26%, P < 0.0001) and increased with age. Frequent MetS components in men were hypertension (62%), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, 40%), obesity (36%), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (36%). Postmenopausal women had greater frequency of hypertension (65%), IGT (32%), and high triglycerides (21%) compared with premenopausal women (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, MetS was negatively associated with seropositivity and pulmonary disease in men. Increasing age was associated with MetS in women. In postmenopausal women, corticosteroid use was associated with MetS. Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with MetS in premenopausal women. MetS status was not explained by disease activity or core RA measures.

The characteristics and associations of MetS differed in men and women with ERA. Sex differences, including postmenopausal status, should be considered in comorbidity screening. With this knowledge, the interplay of MetS, sex, and RA therapeutic response on cardiovascular outcomes should be investigated.
Publication
Journal: Metabolic Brain Disease
December/2/2019
Abstract
Fat-mass and obesity-associated protein (Fto) plays important roles in energy metabolism. It also acts as a demethylase and is most abundantly found in the brain. In the present study, we examined the spatial and temporal changes of Fto immunoreactivity after five minutes of transient forebrain ischemia in the hippocampus. In the control group, Fto immunoreactivity was mainly observed in the nucleus of pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 regions as well as the polymorphic layer, granule cell layer, and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Fto immunoreactivity was transiently, but not significantly, increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the dentate gyrus two days after ischemia compared to mice without ischemia in the sham-operated group. Four days after ischemia, low Fto immunoreactivity was observed in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region because of neuronal death, but Fto immunoreactive cells were abundantly detected in the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, which is relatively resistant to ischemic damage. Thereafter, Fto immunoreactivity progressively decreased in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus until ten days after ischemia. At this time-point, Fto immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate gyrus compared to that in the sham-operated group. The reduction of Fto immunoreactive structures in the hippocampus may be associated with impairments in Fto-related hippocampal function.
Publication
Journal: Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
November/29/2019
Abstract
Healthy growth during the first 1,000 days, spanning from conception to age 24 months, represents a crucial period which influences the long-term physical and cognitive development of individuals. International public health recommendations and nutrition education interventions targeting early life focus on building individuals' capacities through a variety of educational strategies, accompanied by environmental support, with an ultimate goal being the voluntary adoption of food choices and other nutrition-related behaviors conducive to health and wellness of the expectant mother during pregnancy, parents and caregivers who have a role in feeding the infant, and the infant in later childhood and beyond. Nutrition education interventions that hold promise in the promotion of healthy infant growth are designed on the basis of applicable theory of health behavior, focus on multiple modifiable nutrition-related behaviors, and address various mediators, such as motivators and barriers relevant to acting on these modifiable behaviors. A limited number of randomized controlled trials have been published to date, with modest effect sizes, some of which show sustained benefits related to obesity prevention. Considerations related to intervention design, behavior change strategies, and scale-up efforts are needed to improve the efficacy of nutrition education strategies in early nutrition.
Publication
Journal: Environmental Research
December/2/2019
Abstract
Phthalic acid esters are established as endocrine disruptors. The study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary phthalate metabolites and prostate cancer occurrence.The study was based on the Taiwan Community-Based Cancer Screening Program, which was set up in 1991-1992 and followed periodically. By 2010, 80 incident prostate cancer cases were identified in the 12,020 men. For each case, 2 controls were randomly selected, matched by age (±3 years), urine collection date (±3 months), and residential township. Frequently used phthalate metabolites from the urine samples were quantified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between the exposure levels and prostate cancer occurrence.Exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl), butyl-benzyl and di-isobutyl phthalates (DEHP, BBzP, DiBP) was positively associated with prostate cancer in men with waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm but not in the leans. Odds ratio for the DEHP metabolite summary score (upper tertile compared to the rest) and prostate cancer were 7.76 (95% CI = 1.95-30.9) for WC ≥ 90 cm.DEHP, BBzP, and DiBP exposure were associated with prostate cancer occurrence in abdominally obese men. The main limitation remains the lack of mechanistic experiments and comparable toxicological data.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
November/29/2019
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions. In 2014, the total prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 442 million people worldwide. Due to the aging population and continued increase in obesity rates, the prevalence is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. Diabetes can lead to several complications, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, lower extremity amputation and musculoskeletal impairments. Up to 80% of patients referred for outpatient physical therapy have diabetes or are at risk for diabetes. Physical therapists are key members of the healthcare team: prescribing physical activity for the treatment of diabetes and other chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis. Physical therapists can screen for risk factors for diabetes and diabetes-related complications that modify traditional musculoskeletal exercise prescription. Physical therapists must advocate for regular physical activity as a key component for the treatment of chronic diseases in all patient interactions. This report 1) describes the diabetes epidemic and the health impact of diabetes and diabetes-related complications, 2) highlights the physical therapist's role as front-line provider, and 3) provides recommendations for physical therapists in screening for diabetes risk factors and diabetes-related complications and considerations for patient management. We focus on type 2 diabetes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 28 Nov 2019. doi:10.2519/jospt.2020.9154.
Publication
Journal: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
November/29/2019
Abstract
<AbstractText>To determine association between maternal lipaemia and neonatal anthropometrics in Malaysian mother-offspring pairs.</AbstractText><p><div><b>DESIGN</b></div>Prospective observational cohort study SETTING: Single tertiary multi-disciplinary antenatal clinic in Malaysia POPULATION: 507 mothers: 145 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 94 obese with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)( pregravid BMI>27.5 kg/m<sup>2</sup> ) and 268 non-obese NGT.</p><AbstractText>Maternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected during an interview/examination using a structured questionnaire. Blood was drawn for insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride (Tg) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) during screening 75g OGTT, and at 36 weeks. At birth, neonatal anthropometrics were assessed and data such as gestational weight gain (GWG) were extracted from records.</AbstractText><p><div><b>MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES</b></div>Macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA) status, cohort-specific birth weight (BW), neonatal fat mass (NFM), sum of skinfold thickness (SSFT) >90<sup>th</sup> centile.</p><p><div><b>RESULTS</b></div>Fasting Tg>95<sup>th</sup> centile (3.6 mmol/L) at screening OGTT was independently associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.82, 95% CI 1.26-93.37) after adjustment for maternal glucose, pregravid BMI and insulin sensitivity. Fasting glucose was independently associated with BWR >90<sup>th</sup> centile(aOR 2..06 95% CI 1.17-3.64) but not LGA status in this well-treated GDM cohort with pre-delivery HbA1c of 5.27%. 45% mothers had pregravid BMI<23 kg/m<sup>2</sup> and 61% BMI ≤ 25 kg/m<sup>2</sup> ; yet GWG>10kg was associated with 4.25-fold-risk(95% CI 1.71-10.53) of BW>90<sup>th</sup> centile.</p><AbstractText>Maternal lipaemia and GWG at a low threshold (>10kg) adversely impact neonatal adiposity in Asian offspring independent of glucose/insulin resistance/pregravid BMI. These may therefore be important modifiable metabolic targets in pregnancy.</AbstractText>
Publication
Journal: Journal of Travel Medicine
November/29/2019
Abstract
The average risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in long haul travellers is approximately 2.8 per 1000 travellers, which is increased in the presence of other VTE risk factors. In pregnant long-haul travellers, little is known in terms of the absolute risk of VTE in these women and, therefore, there is limited consensus on appropriate thromboprophylaxis in this setting. This review will provide guidance to allow practitioners to safely minimize the risk of travel related VTE in pregnant women. The suggestions provided are based on limited data, extrapolated risk estimates of VTE in pregnant travellers, and recommendations from published guidelines. We found that the absolute VTE risk per flight appears to be <1% for the average pregnant or postpartum traveller. In pregnant travellers with a prior history of VTE, a potent thrombophilia or strong antepartum risk factors (e.g. combination of obesity and immobility), the risk of VTE with travel appears to be >1%. Postpartum, the risk of VTE with travel may be >1% for women with thrombophilias (particularly in those with a family history), other transient risk factors and in women with a prior VTE. Based on our findings, we recommend simple measures be taken by all pregnant travellers, such as frequent ambulation, hydration and calf exercises. In those at an intermediate risk, we suggest a consideration of 20-30mmHg compression stockings. In the highest risk group, we suggest careful consideration for low molecular weight heparin thromboprophylaxis. If there are specific concerns, we advise consultation with a thrombosis expert at the nearest local centre.
Publication
Journal: Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
November/29/2019
Abstract
In the context of child health in the UK, the focus is centered on childhood obesity, with one in 10 children aged 4-5 years being overweight or obese, rising to one in 3 children by the age of 11-15 years. There is also a concern with micronutrient deficiency, as well as low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Many children are also not reaching the recommended 1 h of physical activity per day. The UK government has introduced a number of measures through the Childhood obesity - a plan of action, including a sugar reformulation program, updating marketing restrictions to children, promoting physical activity, and updating school food standards. While the curriculum in England specifically includes "cooking and nutrition," giving schools greater direction and flexibility in their approach, research indicates that since its introduction in 2014 there has been no change (or a decrease) in lesson length, funding, and teaching resource provision. There also appears to be concerns in relation to initial teacher training and professional development. However, a number of organizations provide schools with support, enabling them to ensure pupils receive, and are able to apply, relevant food skills and knowledge for them to lead healthy lives.
Authors
Publication
Journal: Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
November/29/2019
Abstract
The power of physicians to educate patients about nutrition and provide the tools and motivation needed for patients to adopt healthy eating habits is under-utilized. To unleash that power, practicing physicians need to synthesize the latest in nutrition science, integrate it with the established body of evidence on healthy nutrition, and translate and communicate this knowledge to patients in a practical and effective way. Physicians and patients face similar barriers in discussing and incorporating healthy nutrition practices. Tactics and tools that are simple, effective, affordable, and scalable, can be incorporated in clinical practice, thereby making nutrition counseling feasible with only incremental burden to physicians' time and energy. These tactics include: (1) assessing body mass index at every visit, (2) adding obesity or overweight on the problem list, (3) assessing diet, (4) acknowledging risk, (5) being mindful of language, and (6) writing a prescription. Understanding the psychological aspects of food choices and behavioral change, use of technology, and engaging teams are also important. Group visits to address nutrition-related topics are a novel approach to discuss and taste (literally) healthy eating. Finally, physicians' own health and nutrition are powerful predictors of nutrition education to patients and can be a target of intervention as well.
Publication
Journal: Biology of Sex Differences
November/29/2019
Abstract
Obesity and elevated serum lipids are associated with a threefold increase in the risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that underlies stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Strategies that aim to reduce serum cholesterol through modulation of liver enzymes have been successful in decreasing the risk of developing atherosclerosis and reducing mortality. Statins, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver, are considered among the most successful compounds developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, recent debate surrounding their effectiveness and safety prompts consideration of alternative cholesterol-lowering therapies, including increasing cholesterol catabolism through bile acid (BA) synthesis. Targeting the enzymes that convert cholesterol to BAs represents a promising alternative to other cholesterol-lowering approaches that treat atherosclerosis as well as fatty liver diseases and diabetes mellitus. Compounds that modify the activity of these pathways have been developed; however, there remains a lack of consideration of biological sex. This is necessary in light of strong evidence for sexual dimorphisms not only in the incidence and progression of the diseases they influence but also in the expression and activity of the proteins affected and in the manner in which men and women respond to drugs that modify lipid handling in the liver. A thorough understanding of the enzymes involved in cholesterol catabolism and modulation by biological sex is necessary to maximize their therapeutic potential.
Publication
Journal: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research
December/2/2019
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which red raspberry (RR) polyphenolic fractions regulate obesity and inflammation with an emphasis on the crosstalk between adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) and adipocyte progenitors.C57BL/6 male mice were fed either a HF diet or a HF diet supplemented with a RR polyphenolic fraction from whole fruit, pulp, or seed. Supplementation with pulp significantly increased energy expenditure and reduced HF diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The pulp, and to a lesser extent, whole polyphenols decreased the recruitment of ATM, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and adipocyte hypertrophy, which was associated with epigenetic modulation of adipogenesis (e.g., H3K27Ac, H3K9Ac). Results from an IL-1β reporter assay in J774 macrophages recapitulated the inhibitory role of RR polyphenols on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Using conditioned media from macrophages, we demonstrated that RR polyphenols reversed the IL-1β-mediated epigenetic suppression of H3K27Ac in adipocyte progenitor cells.RR polyphenols from pulp and whole fruit serve as an inhibitor for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and an epigenetic modifier to regulate adipogenesis, which confers resistance against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication
Journal: International Journal of Health Geographics
November/29/2019
Abstract
Although a preponderance of research indicates that increased income inequality negatively impacts population health, several international studies found that a greater income inequality was associated with better population health when measured on a fine geographic level of aggregation. This finding is known as a "Swiss paradox". To date, no studies have examined variability in the associations between income inequality and health outcomes by spatial aggregation level in the US. Therefore, this study examined associations between income inequality (Gini index, GI) and population health by geographic level using a large, nationally representative dataset of older adults. We geographically linked respondents' county data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to 2012 American Community Survey data. Using generalized linear models, we estimated the association between GI decile on the state and county levels and five population health outcomes (diabetes, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and self-rated health), accounting for confounders and complex sampling. Although state-level GI was not significantly associated with obesity rates (b = - 0.245, 95% CI - 0.497, 0.008), there was a significant, negative association between county-level GI and obesity rates (b = - 0.416, 95% CI - 0.629, - 0.202). State-level GI also associated with an increased diabetes rate (b = 0.304, 95% CI 0.063, 0.546), but the association was not significant for county-level GI and diabetes rate (b = - 0.101, 95% CI - 0.305, 0.104). Associations between both county-level GI and state-level GI and current smoking status were also not significant. These findings show the associations between income inequality and health vary by spatial aggregation level and challenge the preponderance of evidence suggesting that income inequality is consistently associated with worse health. Further research is needed to understand the nuances behind these observed associations to design informed policies and programs designed to reduce socioeconomic health inequities among older adults.
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