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Publication
Journal: Journal of women's health (2002)
November/11/2018
Abstract
Egg donation is a common fertility treatment in female cancer survivors with reproductive wish and iatrogenic ovarian failure. We examined whether women previously treated for cancer have a higher risk of pregnancy complications after egg donation treatments when compared to women without cancer history.
In this prospective cohort treated during 2003-2015 at a single center, 31 women with previous history of cancer achieved 25 deliveries and 212 women without cancer history achieved 244 deliveries. All egg donor treatments were performed with a strict policy of single embryo transfer to reduce pregnancy and perinatal complications. Data were analyzed using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders, to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for perinatal and obstetric outcomes. Women without previous history of cancer were used as the reference group in the regression models.
Women with a history of cancer presented with a significantly increased risk of pregnancy complications, including preterm birth (aOR 5.54, 95% CI 2.01-15.31) and preeclampsia (aOR 2.79, 95% CI 1.07-7.34), compared to women without cancer history.
The findings of this study suggest that the risks of preterm birth and preeclampsia in women with prior cancers who become pregnant by egg donor treatment significantly exceed those of women without cancer history undergoing similar treatments. As pregnancies using donor eggs are already acknowledged of higher risk for hypertensive pathologies, this study alerts toward characterization of specific increased risks in women who are cancer survivors to provide adapted pregnancy monitoring.
Publication
Journal: Journal of oncology practice
October/21/2013
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) formed an Early-Phase Working Group to facilitate site participation in early-phase (EP) trials. The Working Group conducted a baseline assessment (BA) to describe the sites' EP trial infrastructure and its association with accrual.
METHODS
EP accrual and infrastructure data for the sites were obtained for July 2010-June 2011 and 2010, respectively. Sites with EP accrual rates at or above the median were considered high-accruing sites. Analyses were performed to identify site characteristics associated with higher accrual onto EP trials.
RESULTS
Twenty-seven of the 30 NCCCP sites participated. The median number of EP trials open per site over the course of July 2010-June 2011 was 19. Median EP accrual per site was 14 patients in 1 year. Approximately half of the EP trials were Cooperative Group; most were phase II. Except for having a higher number of EP trials open (P = .04), high-accruing sites (n = 14) did not differ significantly from low-accruing sites (n = 13) in terms of any single site characteristic. High-accruing sites did have shorter institutional review board (IRB) turnaround time by 20 days, and were almost three times as likely to be a lead Community Clinical Oncology Program site (small sample size may have prevented statistical significance). Most sites had at least basic EP trial infrastructure.
CONCLUSIONS
Community cancer centers are capable of conducting EP trials. Infrastructure and collaborations are critical components of success. This assessment provides useful information for implementing EP trials in the community.
Publication
Journal: Journal of oncology practice
October/21/2013
Publication
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
October/25/2004
Abstract
In Japan, local government is responsible for organization of population-based cancer registries and the quality of the registration remains modest, mainly due to dependence on voluntary-based operations without legal obligations. Aichi Prefecture cancer registry covers a large population, estimated at 7 million, and its quality has yet to reach the level required internationally. The derived cancer incidences for Aichi Prefecture therefore tend to be underestimated. In the present study we set up a model area, located in the central part of Aichi Prefecture, with a good quality of registry data, covering a reasonable population, including both urban and rural areas. Our model area has typical demographic features of Aichi Prefecture. The materials were data on cancer incidence and deaths during the period of 1996-2000 in this model area of Aichi prefecture, with a population of approximately one million, under the jurisdiction of three public health centers, covering nine municipalities. The percentage of death certificated notified (DCN) cases for all sites was around 14% and the incidence/death ratio was around 1.9. Estimated age-adjusted incidence rates were found to be 256.0 (per 100,000) for males and 177.6 for females, these values being 10-15 % higher than those generated using data for the whole prefecture, and quite close to incidence rates in Japan estimated from the highest quality of data available. It is suggested that the cancer incidence in the Aichi prefecture is indeed being underestimated and that the actual figures may be closer to the estimates provided here.
Publication
Journal: American journal of epidemiology
April/28/2014
Abstract
Evidence from experimental studies suggests that the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have beneficial effects that may lead to reduced mortality from chronic diseases, but epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Our objective was to evaluate whether intake of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids from diet and supplements is associated with cause-specific and total mortality. Study participants (n = 70,495) were members of a cohort study (the Vitamins and Lifestyle Study) who were residents of Washington State aged 50-76 years at the start of the study (2000-2002). Participants were followed for mortality through 2006 (n = 3,051 deaths). Higher combined intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from diet and supplements was associated with a decreased risk of total mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 0.93) and mortality from cancer (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.92) but only a small reduction in risk of death from cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.68, 1.10). These results suggest that intake of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids may reduce risk of total and cancer-specific mortality.
Publication
Journal: Expert opinion on drug delivery
March/4/2010
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Cancer is both a major health concern and a care-cost issue in the US and the rest of the world. It is estimated that there will be a total of 1,479,350 new cancer cases and 562,340 cancer deaths in 2009 within the US alone. One of the major obstacles in cancer therapy is the ability to target specifically cancer cells. Most existing chemotherapies and other routine therapies (such as radiation therapy and hormonal manipulation) use indiscriminate approaches in which both cancer cells and non-cancerous surrounding cells are treated equally by the toxic treatment. As a result, either the cancer cell escapes the toxic dosage necessary for cell death and consequently resumes replication, or an adequate lethal dose that kills the cancer cell also causes the cancer patient to perish. Owing to this dilemma, cancer- or organ/tissue-specific targeting is greatly desired for effective cancer treatment and the reduction of side effect cytotoxicity within the patient.
METHODS
In this review, the strategies of targeted cancer therapy are discussed, with an emphasis on viral-based gene delivery and regulated gene expression.
RESULTS
Numerous approaches and updates in this field are presented for several common cancer types.
CONCLUSIONS
A summary of existing challenges and future directions is also included.
Publication
Journal: Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine
March/3/2010
Abstract
The definition of cancerous toxin and the relationships between cancerous toxin and other factors including the etiopathogenesis, pathogenesis and treatment of malignant tumor were discussed in this paper. The author suggests that the cancerous toxin is engendered by the disequilibrium of human body, which is the foundation of tumorigenesis. Cancerous toxin is the main pathogenic factor or one of the main pathogenic factors during the development of malignant tumor, hence it is also the key point for understanding and treating malignant tumor.
Publication
Journal: ONS connect
April/29/2014
Publication
Journal: DNA repair
October/27/2004
Abstract
Radiotherapy is one of the principal modalities of cancer treatment, but the delivery of a curative dose of ionizing radiation (IR) to the tumour is frequently limited by the need to protect the normal tissues within the irradiated area from radiation damage. This problem could be circumvented if tumour cells could be selectively sensitized to killing by IR. One way to achieve this goal would be to transduce the tumour cells with expression vectors carrying toxin genes under the control of promoters that are inactive unless induced by IR. For this approach to be successful, two parameters must be met: (i) the expression vector has to be delivered to the tumour or its immediate vicinity (e.g. its vasculature) and (ii) the promoter driving the expression of the toxin gene has to have negligible basal activity, yet has to be activated by clinically-achievable doses of IR. Several vectors that fulfil these criteria are currently reaching clinical trials. In this review, we examine the response of mammalian cells to IR, and the current status of radiation-induced suicide gene therapy that is dependent on this response.
Publication
Journal: European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
March/4/2010
Abstract
Cancer is the second cause of death in Argentina; nevertheless the distribution of the cancer incidence rates throughout the country is unknown. This study was conducted to describe cancer incidence patterns in Córdoba Province. Incidence data were supplied by the Government Córdoba Cancer Registry. Demographic information (age, sex, and place of residence) and diagnosis, certified by a pathologist, about all incident cases from June 2003 to May 2005 by type and 5-year age groups were obtained. Comparison of the incidence rate of cancer in various counties was performed by using standardized incidence rates (SIR) per 100,000 inhabitants using the world standard population. Estimated SIRs were used to build up incidence maps. Two indicators were created: sex ratio and site-specific ratio. Mixed Poisson models were fitted. Taken as a whole for all counties, SIR was 121.42 and 141.57 for men and women, respectively. The most common sites in men were prostate (13.62), lung (10.12), colon (7.53), and bladder (7.03); in women were breast (22.51) and colon (3.31). The highest and lowest rates were in urban and rural areas, respectively. Cancer registry has a pivotal role in cancer control. Such information is the primary resource of information not only for epidemiological research on cancer determinants but also for planning and evaluating health services for the policies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Publication
Journal: Annals of the rheumatic diseases
April/27/2014
Publication
Journal: European journal of public health
December/16/2008
Abstract
BACKGROUND
EUROCARE found marked differences in cancer survival across European populations, provoking extensive discussion as to the cause. We investigated the influence of socioeconomic indicators on survival, making use of the indicator population-based age-standardized and cancer site-standardized relative survival for all cancers combined (all cancer survival).
METHODS
Bivariate correlation and multivariate regression analyses investigated relations between 1995 socioeconomic variables and all cancer survival in EUROCARE-3 patients from 19 European countries diagnosed 1990-94 and followed to 1999.
RESULTS
Gross domestic product (GDP) and total national expenditure on health (TNEH) correlated highly with all cancer survival. Wealthy northern and western European countries had high survival; eastern European countries had low all cancer survival. GDP, TNEH, and number of computed tomography scanners per million--proxy of technological investment in cancer care--explained most survival differences. Low all cancer survival in the UK and Denmark compared to countries of similar wealth was closely related to fewer computed tomography scanners. Low all cancer survival in Poland compared to countries of similar wealth was also related to low TNEH.
CONCLUSIONS
All cancer survival appears a useful and important indicator for monitoring countries' performance in cancer control. The most direct way for poorer European countries to improve all cancer survival would be to get richer; for richer countries more investment in health technology is important. However the sharply increasing costs of cancer care may render this impossible suggesting the need to radically rethink cancer control strategies.
Publication
Journal: Journal of clinical epidemiology
December/15/2008
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To assess whether SF-36 quality-of-life (QOL) subscale scores varied across two survey modes controlling for cancer type and diagnosis cohort.
METHODS
Stratified random samples of 720 cancer survivors from six cancer types and three time-since diagnosis cohorts were selected from two state cancer registries. Selected survivors were randomly assigned to mail, telephone, or choice of these for survey administration. This study analyzes completed questionnaires obtained from 140 and 155 survivors who were assigned to telephone and mail, respectively.
RESULTS
A significant multivariate effect for survey mode was noted. Mean levels for each subscale controlling for age and accounting for cancer type were higher for telephone compared to mail respondents; significant differences were noted for vitality, role physical, and mental health. The impact of cancer type on QOL subscales was not significant, and the effect of mode was consistent across cancer type.
CONCLUSIONS
Previous findings in mode effects for the SF-36 are reproduced here among cancer survivors who may feel more comfortable revealing physical and emotional deficits via mail rather than by telephone. For cancer survivors, it may be that "social desirability" favors responses implying more functioning be it perceived, mental, or physical.
Publication
Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
October/21/2004
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
November/3/2004
Abstract
DNA vaccines, comprised of plasmid DNA encoding proteins from pathogens, allergens, and tumors, are being evaluated as prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic treatments for infectious diseases, allergies, and cancer; plasmids encoding normal human proteins are likewise being tested as vaccines and treatments for autoimmune diseases. Examples of in vivo prophylaxis and immunotherapy, based on different types of immune responses (humoral and cellular), in a variety of disease models and under evaluation in early phase human clinical trials are presented. Viral vectors continue to show better levels of expression than those achieved by DNA plasmid vectors. We have focused our clinical efforts, at this time, on the use of recombinant viral vectors for both vaccine as well as cytokine gene transfer studies. We currently have four clinical programs in cancer immunotherapy. Two nonspecific immunotherapy programs are underway that apply adenoviral vectors for the transfer of cytokine genes into tumors in situ. An adenovirus-IFN gamma construct (TG1042) is currently being tested in phase II clinical trials in cutaneous lymphoma. A similar construct, adenovirus-IL2 (TG1024), also injected directly into solid tumors, is currently being tested in patients with solid tumors (about one-half of which are melanoma). Encouraging results are seen in both programs. Two cancer vaccine immunotherapy programs focus on two cancer-associated antigens: human papilloma virus E6 and E7 proteins and the epithelial cancer-associated antigen MUC1. Both are encoded by a highly attenuated vaccinia virus vector [modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)] and both are coexpressed with IL-2. Encouraging results seen in both of these programs are described.
Publication
Journal: International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
November/12/2018
Publication
Journal: British journal of cancer
November/2/2004
Abstract
We identified 2384 patients in the Danish Cancer Register in whom cancer had been diagnosed in 1960-1996 before they reached the age of 20 and compared them with 53 143 sex- and age-matched controls identified from the Register of Population Statistics. Complete education records and demographic and socioeconomic information for the period 1980-2000 were obtained for both cohorts from Statistics Denmark. The rate ratio (RR) for educational attainment was estimated by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. An overall reduction in attaining basic education was found (RR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.96). Female survivors of central nervous system (CNS) tumours showed the largest educational deficit (RR, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.82). Non-CNS tumour survivors attained education as controls at most levels. When the analyses were conditioned on completion of youth education, further educational attainment was not reduced for any group of survivors. These findings confirm that only survivors of CNS tumours in childhood experience significant educational deficits. The deficit was mainly seen among persons whose tumour was diagnosed before they reached the level of secondary education.
Publication
Journal: Future medicinal chemistry
October/24/2013
Publication
Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
March/10/2010
Publication
Journal: Oncology nursing forum
March/10/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To determine whether the oncology nurse navigator (ONN) role as an intervention decreases the distress of adult inpatients with cancer.
METHODS
Retrospective chart review was used to collect information about patient distress scores at admission and discharge. Scores were compared to determine whether the ONN role is effective in lowering patients' distress levels.
METHODS
261-bed regional medical center in the midwestern United States.
METHODS
Convenience sample of 55 inpatients with diagnoses of cancer.
METHODS
Nurses asked patients with cancer to rate their distress daily during their stays. Correlation studies and two-tailed t tests were used to assess the relationship between the change in distress and the ONN intervention.
METHODS
Distress scores of patients seen by the ONN versus distress scores of patients not seen by the ONN.
RESULTS
Patients seen by the ONN tended to have lower distress scores on dismissal (p = 0.1046). The difference was clinically significant to warrant providing an ONN for patient distress. ONN visits have a statistically significant effect on distress scores of inpatients 65 years of age or younger (p = 0.044) and those from rural settings (p = 0.045).
CONCLUSIONS
An ONN can lower patients' cancer-related distress scores. Other research has shown that ONNs can help increase patient satisfaction; this research shows that the satisfaction may be related to a decrease in distress and increase in overall quality of life.
CONCLUSIONS
Patients experience high distress levels that can interfere with treatment compliance. This research shows that patients benefit from having an ONN to answer their questions and provide them with education about their diseases.
Publication
Journal: Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
March/8/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Cancer patients encounter many problems in the post-diagnosis period and they want to establish a good contact with the treatment team in order to get better information about their condition. This study attempted to investigate in patients with completed treatment the level of satisfaction they derived from the treatment and the treatment team.
METHODS
The archive of medical records of the Medical Oncology Department comprising 4622 patients was randomly screened between the years 2000 and 2006. Charts of 528 patients were reached via phone and analysed for clinical data.
RESULTS
Approximately 78.8% of the patients had been informed about their malignant diseases. The rates of satisfaction from the treatment team, the treatment itself, and communication with the physician was higher among informed patients compared to uninformed ones (p<0.05). Of all the evaluated patients, 38.5% had been recommended to practise general exercises.
CONCLUSIONS
The great majority of our patients were informed about their diseases and treatments, although without being given adequate importance, and the satisfaction rates were higher among informed patients. We believe that our study will provide new approaches in relation to the importance and methods of communicating with and informing patients.
Publication
Journal: Journal of medical genetics
December/30/2008
Abstract
RAS proteins play key roles in normal cell growth, malignant transformation and learning and memory. Somatic mutations in RAS genes and several of their upstream and downstream molecules result in different human malignancies. In recent years germline mutations in genes coding for components of the RAS signalling cascade have been recognised in a group of phenotypically overlapping disorders, referred to as the neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous syndromes. These present with variable degrees of psychomotor delay, cardiac abnormalities, facial dysmorphism, short stature, skin defects and increased cancer risk. These findings point to important roles for this evolutionary conserved pathway not only in oncogenesis, but also in cognition, growth and development. Other constitutional disorders caused by mutated RAS pathway genes point to involvement of the RAS-MAPK pathway in immune modulation and vascular development.
Publication
Journal: Oncology nursing forum
March/10/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To investigate nurses' planning and implementation of individualized patient care in relation to patients' emotional distress as assessed by nurses and whether nurses and patients perceived the implemented care in a similar manner.
METHODS
Prospective, comparative.
METHODS
Five oncologic-hematologic wards in Sweden.
METHODS
90 individual nurse-patient pairs were recruited and 81 were intact after three consecutive days. Each pair consisted of a patient with cancer and a nurse responsible for that patient's care.
METHODS
Nurse-patient pairs were followed using questionnaires. Outcome measures were nurses' identification of patients' emotional distress, care planning, and nurse-patient ratings of implemented care.
METHODS
Patients' emotional distress and nurses' implemented care.
RESULTS
Nurses identified a variety of emotional issues among patients and planned individual nursing interventions. Nurse and patient perceptions of implemented care demonstrated weak correlations for individually planned interventions and nurses' general caring behavior. With one exception, nurse self-reports did not indicate any differences in nurses' caring behavior directed to more and less distressed patients. Nurses reported providing comfort more frequently to patients with high levels of emotional distress, but this was not substantiated in patients' ratings.
CONCLUSIONS
Nurses showed an intention to provide individualized care. However, with one exception, nurses did not report providing more care to patients with cancer with high levels of emotional distress than to less distressed patients.
CONCLUSIONS
To ensure individualized care, nurses in cancer care should closely validate the accuracy of their interpretation of patients' needs and their planning of care in collaboration with the patients.
Publication
Journal: Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
December/22/2008
Abstract
This prospective cohort study of consecutive elderly cancer patients was undertaken to evaluate the role of the multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA) as an aid in treatment decision-making. A total of 571 cancer patients (aged > or =70) were enrolled during 6-year (1999-2005). All underwent MGA as part of the first evaluation. In multivariate analysis, the probability of receiving active, instead of palliative, treatment was negatively associated with increasing age (odds ratio=0.69 every 5 years, p=0.005), living alone (OR=0.54, p=0.031), dependence in activities of daily living (ADL score >0, OR=0.41, p=0.003) and a low body-mass index (BMI) (OR=0.51, p=0.061); while a positive association emerged for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score (OR=1.12 per point, p=0.019). Our data suggest that MGA, in addition to age, is a useful tool in clinical practice for deciding cancer treatment in elderly patients, with a major independent role played by living alone, ADL, IADL and BMI.
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