Salvage esophagectomy is a viable treatment option in the management of recurrent or persistent esophageal cancer and can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality in a select group of patients. Patient selection should include a complete restaging evaluation, cardiopulmonary testing, and an assessment of functional status. A majority of patients with persistent or recurrent esophageal cancer are not candidates for salvage resection. Carefully selected patients undergoing a salvage resection can have outcomes similar to those undergoing a planned esophagectomy after definitive chemoradiotherapy.Read more
Patients with recurrent triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) currently have no established treatment option other than chemotherapy. However, long-term chemotherapy is often difficult due to adverse effects. A previous study documented a 10%-30% response rate of progestins in oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of medroxyprogesterone/megestrol acetate (MPA/MA) in patients with recurrent TNBC.
This retrospective observational analysis included 51 patients with recurrent TNBC; 17 were treated with MPA/MA and 34 underwent chemotherapy. The two groups were matched at a 1:2 ratio according to age, metastatic sites, and salvage treatment lines. Efficacy was compared using the χ2 and rank-sum tests. Progression-free survival (PFS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the two groups were compared using the log-rank test.
The two groups were well balanced in terms of age, disease-free survival, number of metastases, and salvage therapy lines. Clinical benefit rates in the MPA/MA and chemotherapy groups were 52.94% and 73.53%, respectively (χ2 test, p = 0.208), and median PFS was comparable between groups (log-rank test, p = 0.135). Median PFS of 1st-6th-line salvage treatments was shorter in the MPA/MA group than in the chemotherapy group (log-rank test, p = 0.036), but median PFS of ≥7th-line salvage treatments was comparable (log-rank test, p = 0.139). Eight patients discontinued chemotherapy due to adverse effects, and one patient withdrew from MPA treatment because of weight gain.
Progestins (MPA/MA) are an alternative treatment option for multi-treated recurrent TNBC.Read more
Twelve patients with primary or locally recurrent squamous carcinoma of the cervix were treated with constant internal iliac artery infusion of cisplatin (CDDP) via a totally implantable chemotherapy pump. Seven previously untreated patients received standard external and interstitial radiotherapy (RT) in conjunction with CDDP infusion. Five patients with isolated pelvic recurrences received CDDP therapy only. The chemotherapy pump was refilled weekly on an outpatient basis. All nine evaluable patients developed unilateral or bilateral lower extremity pain which responded to dosage reduction. No renal or marrow toxicity was seen. Both of the evaluable patients treated for recurrent tumor died 32 and 60 weeks after initiation of treatment. The seven patients treated primarily with RT + CDDP infusion include one who expired with persistent tumor and one with no evidence of disease (NED) after exenteration for a pelvic recurrence at 48 and 85 weeks respectively. The five remaining patients are NED at 12 to 60 weeks. Constant internal iliac artery infusion of CDDP via an implantable chemotherapy pump can be performed with acceptable toxicity. The preliminary results suggest that further study in previously untreated undergoing concurrent radiotherapy is warranted.Read more
Single meningiomas are histologically classified as benign tumors, but clearly malignant types have been encountered. The standard mode of management is total macroscopic removal with excision of the dural attachment and abnormal bone, if there is any. Despite this aggressive surgery, recurrence rates of approximately 9% have been reported with the removal of benign tumors, and the rate is much higher with the removal of malignant meningiomas. Recurrence most frequently occurs at the original tumor site and is most often explained by incomplete removal, which, in turn, is a function of the anatomic location of the tumor. Less common are regional recurrences, which may be explained on the basis of the multicentric origin of meningiomas. This theory may also explain the rare entity, "multiple meningioma." This article documents an unexpected regional recurrence of meningioma. The pertinent literature is reviewed.Read more
Radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma has produced excellent results and low complication rates. Therefore, hemilaryngectomy and other forms of vertical partial laryngectomy have been used mainly for rescue therapy following radiation failure. Over a 9-year period selective application of this approach was used in eight patients out of 122 laryngeal cancer surgeries performed. Five patients were T1N0 and three were T2N0 at the time of initial diagnosis and at the time of recurrence. Three patients had healing problems postoperatively. Tracheal decannulation time was increased compared to patients who had hemilaryngectomy without previous radiotherapy. To date there has been no recurrence of carcinoma at any site with a mean follow-up of 58 months in surviving patients. This experience confirms reports which indicate that with careful selection, radiation failures for early glottic carcinoma can be rescued by hemilaryngectomy achieving excellent tumor control and moderately good preservation of laryngeal function.Read more
Standardization-a method used to adjust for confounding-estimates counterfactual risks in a target population. To adjust for confounding variables that contain too many combinations to be fully stratified, two model-based standardization methods exist: regression standardization and use of an inverse probability of exposure weighted-reweighted estimators. Whereas the former requires an outcome regression model conditional on exposure and confounders, the latter requires a propensity score model. In reconciling among their modeling assumptions, doubly robust estimators, which only require correct specification of either the outcome regression or the propensity score model but do not necessitate both, have been well studied for total populations. Here, we provide doubly robust estimators of standardized risk difference and ratio in the exposed population. Theoretical details, simple model extension for independently censored outcomes, and a SAS program are provided in the eAppendix (http://links.lww.com/EDE/A955).Read more
Microscopic vascular invasion (MVI) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported to be a strong predictor of poor outcomes but it has not been a descriptor of the TNM classification. The purposes of this study were to determine whether the presence of MVI is related to a predictor of poor outcomes and to explore the degree of MVI according to tumor size.
A total of 1,884 patients with stage pT1-4N0-2 NSCLC who underwent complete resection comprised the study sample. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free proportion were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess independent predictors of poor outcomes.
Of 1,884 patients, 1,097 (58.2%) had MVI. Multivariate analysis showed MVI was a significant independent predictor of unfavorable OS (hazard ratio, 1.666; P < .001) and recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.268; P < .001). The frequency of MVI varied according to tumor size, and in each cohort of tumor sizes ≤ 2 cm, > 2 to 3 cm, and > 3 to 5 cm, there were significant differences in survival outcome by MVI status. The proportions of patients with a 5-year recurrence-free period with tumor sizes ≤ 2 cm, > 2 to 3 cm, and > 3 to 5 cm between MVI (+) and MVI (-) were 93.0% and 72.5% (P < .001), 90.8% and 63.3% (P < .001), and 86.4% and 59.9% (P < .001), respectively.
This study demonstrated that MVI was a strong predictor of poor outcomes and that the effect is more prominent in patients with tumor sizes ≤ 5 cm. Further analysis of survival and MVI should be collected for future revision of the TNM system.Read more
This prospective multicenter phase III clinical trial was designed to assess efficacy and safety of G-CSF as an adjunct to de novo AML remission induction therapy (www.clinicaltrials.gov. NCT00820976). Patients' characteristics were similar in both arms. G-CSF improved severity and duration of leukopenia. Three-year OS were similar (25.6 ± 5.1% vs. 31.8 ± 5.6%) in both arms except for patients with myeloblastic features. Significant factors for better survival were the use of G-CSF (p=0.049), female sex (p=0.05) and single induction cycle (p<0.001) in multivariate analysis. Female patients performed better than male patients. Better survival obtained among female AML patients needs to be validated within the context of cytogenetic analysis.Read more
This study is a retrospective analysis evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy with S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) as first-line treatment in elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer. One hundred and twenty-nine patients with recurrent or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with SOX; S-1 (40-60 mg depending on patient's body surface area) was given orally, twice daily on days 1 to 14 followed by a 7-day rest period, 130 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin was given as an intravenous infusion over 2-hours on day one. The cycle was repeated every three weeks. All of the patients were older than 65 years. Among 129 patients enrolled, nine patients could not be evaluated for responses because of the absence of any measurable lesions or early discontinuation of therapy. Assessment of the response of 120 patients was made. The overall objective response rate was 54.2 % (95 %CI, 45.3-63.1 %), with three complete responses and 62 partial responses. The disease control rate was 80.8 % (95 %CI, 73.8-87.8 %). The median follow-up period was 23 months (range, 5-42 months). The median time to progression was 6.9 months (95 %CI, 5.5-8.3 months) and the median overall survival was 12.8 months (95 %CI, 11.4-14.2 months). The one-year survival rate was 57.5 % (95 %CI, 48.7-66.3 %). In 129 patients assessed safety, grade 3 and 4 toxicities included leucopenia (20.9 %), neutropenia (24.0 %), anemia (10.9 %), thrombocytopenia (10.1 %), anorexia (3.1 %), peripheral neurotoxicity (15.5 %), and fatigue (12.4 %). No treatment-related deaths occurred. Combination chemotherapy with SOX offers an effective, safe and well-tolerated regimen for elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer.Read more
Radiotherapy is an important treatment option for non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. Despite the appropriate use of radiotherapy, radioresistance is a biological behavior of cancer cells that limits the efficacy of this treatment. Deregulation of microRNAs contributes to the molecular mechanism underlying resistance to radiotherapy in cancer cells. Although the functional roles of microRNAs have been well described in lung cancer, their functional roles in radioresistance are largely unclear. In this study, we established a non-small cell lung carcinoma Calu-1 radioresistant cell line by continuous exposure to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation as a model to investigate radioresistance-associated microRNAs. Our data show that 50 microRNAs were differentially expressed in Calu-1 radioresistant cells (16 upregulated and 34 downregulated); furthermore, well-known and novel microRNAs associated with resistance to radiotherapy were identified. Gene ontology and enrichment analysis indicated that modulated microRNAs might regulate signal transduction, cell survival, and apoptosis. Accordingly, Calu-1 radioresistant cells were refractory to radiation by increasing cell survival and reducing the apoptotic response. Among deregulated microRNAs, miR-29c was significantly suppressed. Reestablishment of miR-29c expression in Calu-1 radioresistant cells overcomes the radioresistance through the activation of apoptosis and downregulation of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 target genes. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that miR-29c is also suppressed in tumor samples of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. Notably, we found that low miR-29c levels correlated with shorter relapse-free survival of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. Together, these results indicate a new role of miR-29c in radioresistance, highlighting their potential as a novel biomarker for outcomes of radiotherapy in lung cancer.Read more