Myocardial Infarction
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Myocardial Infarction
Description
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Read more
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Pubmed
History of AIDS in HIV-Infected Patients Is Associated With Higher In-Hospital Mortality Following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stroke.
Journal: The Journal of infectious diseases
September/4/2017
Description

Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are at increased risk for major cardiovascular events, short-term prognosis after these events is unclear.

To determine the association between HIV infection and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke outcomes, we analyzed hospital discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) between 2002 and 2012. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between HIV infection and in-hospital death after AMI or stroke.

Overall, 18 369 785 AMI/stroke hospitalizations were included in the analysis. Patients with a history of AIDS were significantly more likely than uninfected patients to die during hospitalization after admission for AMI or stroke (odds ratio, 3.03 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.71-5.38] for AMI and 2.59 [95% CI, 1.97-3.41] for stroke). Additionally, patients with AIDS were more likely than HIV-uninfected patients to be discharged to nonhospital inpatient facilities after admission for AMI (OR, 3.14 [95% CI, 1.72-5.74]) or stroke (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.12-1.87). There was a minimal difference in either outcome between HIV-infected patients without a history of AIDS and uninfected patients.

Patients with a history of AIDS were significantly more likely than uninfected patients to die during hospitalization after admission for AMI or stroke. This disparity was not observed when infected patients without a history of AIDS were compared to uninfected patients, implying that preserving immune function may improve cardiovascular outcomes in HIV-infected persons.

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Pubmed
The efficacy and safety of a chest pain protocol for short stay unit patients: A one year follow-up.
Journal: European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology
June/27/2016
Description

BACKGROUND

The Alfred Emergency Short Stay Unit initiated a chest pain protocol for patients presenting with chest pain to risk stratify for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A 30-day follow-up of patients discharged with low-or-intermediate risk of ACS demonstrated no deaths or ACS.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of the chest pain protocol, a one year follow-up was undertaken.

METHODS

A questionnaire was designed for the one-year follow-up and it was administered via a telephone interview by emergency nurses to document adverse cardiac events and health care utilisation.

RESULTS

From 297 patients, 224 (75%) were contacted 12 months following discharge. There was one death from stroke (0.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-2.5%) and another from an unknown cause. Five patients had been diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.7-5.1%), two patients had an acute myocardial infarction (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.03-2.1%) and four were diagnosed with angina (1.8%; 95% CI: 0.9-3.2%). Nearly half (n=103, 46%; 95% CI: 39.5-52.5%) had returned to the emergency department (ED) for various conditions including 42 patients with further chest pain. Ninety-six patients (43%; 95% CI: 39.3-52.7%) had specialist referrals and 124 investigations were performed. Thirty-four patients had cardiology referrals (15%; 95% CI: 10.7-20.5%) and 25 patients had gastroenterology referrals (11%; 95% CI: 7.3-16.0%). Diagnostic cardiac tests were performed on 38 patients: coronary angiography (n=10), 24-hour Holter monitoring (n=17), 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring (n=4), thallium scans (n=5), exercise stress test (n=1) and CT scan (n=1).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients had a low risk of adverse events 12 months after discharge but substantial continuing health care utilization was observed. Complete assessment by health care professionals prior to discharge may help mitigate representations.

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Pubmed
Lack of Benefit of Ischemic Postconditioning After Routine Thrombus Aspiration During Reperfusion: Immediate and Midterm Results.
Journal: Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics
July/12/2016
Description

OBJECTIVE

The underutilization of manual thrombus aspiration (MTA) may have reduced the benefits of ischemic postconditioning (PostCon), as it reduces thrombus embolization. We aimed to assess the benefits of PostCon in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after the systematic utilization of MTA.

METHODS

A total of 87 patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial (43 PostCon and 44 controls). After MTA, PostCon was performed on the treatment group by applying 4 cycles of alternate reperfusion and reocclusion (60 seconds each) using the angioplasty balloon. The primary end point was infarct size assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) of troponin T (TnT) activity. The secondary end points were left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and major cardiac events (new myocardial infarction or cardiac death) both at discharge and at follow-up.

RESULTS

The AUC for TnT was no different with respect to study arms (median [interquartile range]): PostCon = 8.9 (10.6) versus control = 8.2 (10.6), P = .68. Left ventricle ejection fraction improved from in-hospital to follow-up (9 ± 3 months) for the entire cohort (46.3% ± 7.3% vs 52.2% ± 10.7%, P < .001), with no differences between PostCon and controls (51.6% ± 9.5% vs 52.7% ± 11.9%, P = .89); major cardiac events at 14 ± 4 months of follow-up were also no different (PostCon = 1.0 (2.3%) vs control = 0, P = .49).

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with STEMI treated with MTA, PostCon offered no benefits to infarct size, LVEF, or major cardiac events.

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Pubmed
New myocardial infarction definition affects incidence, mortality, hospitalization rates and prognosis.
Journal: European journal of preventive cardiology
June/28/2016
Description

OBJECTIVE

To analyse differences in myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and hospitalization rates, 28-day case-fatality and two-year prognosis using two myocardial infarction case definitions: the classical World Health Organization definition (1994) and the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition (2000), which added cardiac troponin as a diagnostic biomarker.

METHODS

Population-based cohort of 4170 consecutive myocardial infarction patients aged 35-74 years from Girona (Spain) recruited between 2002 and 2009.

METHODS

Incidence, mortality rates standardized to the European population and 28-day case-fatality were calculated. To estimate the association between case definition and prognosis, Cox models were fitted.

RESULTS

Use of the 2000 European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition significantly increased myocardial infarction incidence per 100,000 population (238.3 vs. 274.5 in men and 54.1 vs. 69.7 in women). Applying this definition decreased the 28-day case-fatality rate from 26.9% to 23.4% in men, and from 31.0% to 24.1% in women. In the acute phase, patients diagnosed only by increased troponins were significantly less treated with thrombolysis (34.4% vs. 2.0%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (71.7% vs. 65.0%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (41.1% vs. 31.7%). Case-fatality at 28 days was significantly better in cases diagnosed only by troponin increase (0.2 % vs. 9.7%), but two-year cardiovascular mortality was higher (7.5% vs. 3.7%).

CONCLUSIONS

Inclusion of cardiac troponins in myocardial infarction diagnosis increased annual incidence and decreased case-fatality. Diagnosis based only on increased troponins was associated with worse outcome. This group of patients at high risk of death should receive aggressive secondary prevention therapy.

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Pubmed
Association between Body Mass Index, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Norwegian Patients with Suspected Stable Angina Pectoris.
Journal: PloS one
August/1/2016
Description

BACKGROUND

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and mortality through inhibition of nitrogen oxide (NO) synthesis. As positive correlations between serum concentrations of NO and body mass index (BMI) have been observed, we aimed to explore whether the potential associations between plasma ADMA levels and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and mortality were modified by BMI.

METHODS

Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for AMI, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality according to baseline plasma ADMA levels in 4122 patients with suspected stable angina pectoris. Analyses were subsequently repeated in patients with BMI below (low BMI) or above (high BMI) median.

RESULTS

A total of 2982 patients (72%) were men. Median (range) age, plasma ADMA level and BMI were 62 (21-88) years, 0.54 (0.10-1.25) μmol/L and 26.3 (18.5-54.3) kg/m2, respectively. During a mean (standard deviation) follow-up time of 4.7 (1.4) years, 337 (8%) patients suffered from an AMI, 300 (7%) died, whereof 165 (55%) due to cardiovascular disease. Each 0.1 μmol/L increment in plasma ADMA level was associated with an increased risk of AMI (HR (95% CI) 1.21 (1.08, 1.35) and cardiovascular death 1.30 (1.13, 1.49) in participants with low BMI only. Interactions were significant for AMI (p = 0.04) and CV death (p = 0.03). BMI did not modify the association between plasma ADMA levels and all-cause mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

Plasma ADMA levels were associated with risk of AMI and cardiovascular death among patients with low BMI only.

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Pubmed
Resistant hypertension, patient characteristics, and risk of stroke.
Journal: PloS one
November/15/2015
Description

BACKGROUND

Little is known about the prognosis of resistant hypertension (RH) in Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of RH in Taiwanese patients with hypertension, and to ascertain whether patient characteristics influence the association of RH with adverse outcomes.

RESULTS

Patients aged ≥45 years with hypertension were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical records of 111,986 patients were reviewed in this study, and 16,402 (14.6%) patients were recognized as having RH (continuously concomitant use of ≥3 anti-hypertensive medications, including a diuretic, for ≥2 years). Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke [included both fatal and nonfatal events]) in patients with RH and non-RH was analyzed. A total of 11,856 patients experienced MACE in the follow-up period (average 7.1±3.0 years). There was a higher proportion of females in the RH group, they were older than the non-RH (63.1 vs. 60.5 years) patients, and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidities. Overall, patients with RH had higher risks of MACE (adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.09-1.26; p<0.001). Significantly elevated risks of stroke (10,211 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.08-1.27; p<0.001), especially ischemic stroke (6,235 events; adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 1.20-1.48; p<0.001), but not all-cause mortality (4,594 events; adjusted HR 1.06; 95%CI 0.95-1.19; p = 0.312) or acute coronary syndrome (2,145 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.99-1.39; p = 0.070) were noted in patients with RH compared to those with non-RH. Subgroup analysis showed that RH increased the risks of stroke in female and elderly patients. However, no significant influence was noted in young or male patients.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with RH were associated with higher risks of MACE and stroke, especially ischemic stroke. The risks were greater in female and elderly patients than in male or young patients.

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Pubmed
Levosimendan exerts anti-inflammatory effects on cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells in vitro.
Journal: Thrombosis and haemostasis
December/13/2015
Description

Levosimendan is a positive inotropic drug for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (HF). Clinical trials showed that levosimendan was particularly effective in HF due to myocardial infarction. Myocardial necrosis induces a strong inflammatory response, involving chemoattractants guiding polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) into the infarcted myocardial tissue. Our aim was to examine whether levosimendan exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on human adult cardiac myocytes (HACM) and human heart microvascular endothelial cells (HHMEC). Cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL)-1β (200 U/ml) and treated with levosimendan (0.1-10 µM) for 2-48 hours. IL-1β strongly induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HACM and E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HHMEC and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Treatment with levosimendan strongly attenuated IL-1β-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HACM as well as E-selectin and ICAM-1 in ECs. Levosimendan treatment further reduced adhesion of PMN to activated endothelial cells under both static and flow conditions by approximately 50 %. Incubation with 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, a selective blocker of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels, partly abolished the above seen anti-inflammatory effects. Additionally, levosimendan strongly diminished IL-1β-induced reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity through inhibition of S536 phosphorylation. In conclusion, levosimendan exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells in vitro. These findings could explain, at least in part, the beneficial effects of levosimendan after myocardial infarction.

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Pubmed
'Chest pain typicality' in suspected acute coronary syndromes and the impact of clinical experience.
Journal: The American journal of medicine
December/13/2015
Description

BACKGROUND

Physicians rely upon chest pain history to make management decisions in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, particularly where the diagnosis is not immediately apparent through electrocardiography and troponin testing. The objective of this study was to establish the discriminatory value of "typicality of chest pain" and the effect of clinician experience, for the prediction of acute myocardial infarction and presence of significant coronary artery disease.

METHODS

This prospective single-center observational study was undertaken in a UK General Hospital emergency department. We recruited consecutive adults with chest pain and a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram, for whom the treating physician determined that delayed troponin testing was necessary. Using their own clinical judgment, physicians recorded whether the chest pain described was typical or atypical for acute coronary syndrome. Physicians were defined as "experienced" or "novice" according to postgraduate experience. Acute myocardial infarction was adjudicated using a high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) assay, whereas coronary artery disease was adjudicated angiographically.

RESULTS

Overall, 912 patients had typicality of chest pain assessed, of whom 114/912 (12.5%) had an acute myocardial infarction and 157/912 (17.2%) underwent angiography. In patients undergoing angiography, 90/157 (57.3%) had hs-cTn elevation, of whom 60 (66.7%) had significant coronary artery disease. Sixty-seven of 157 (42.7%) patients had angiography without hs-cTn elevation; of these, 31 (46.2%) had significant coronary artery disease. For the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, chest pain typicality had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.60). For the prediction of significant coronary artery disease with hs-cTn elevation AUC: 0.54 (95% CI, 0.40-0.67), and without hs-cTn elevation AUC: 0.45 (95% CI, 0.31-0.59). When assessed by experienced physicians, specificity for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was higher at 65.8% (95% CI, 63.1%-68.7%) vs 55.4% (95% CI, 53.9%-56.8%) for novices.

CONCLUSIONS

Subjective interpretation of "typicality of chest pain" is of limited discriminatory value in the assessment of suspected acute coronary syndromes, in the context of a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram. Greater clinical experience improves accuracy as a rule-in tool but does not improve overall discriminatory ability.

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Pubmed
Exploring the treatment delay in the care of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing acute percutaneous coronary intervention: a cross-sectional study.
Journal: BMC health services research
March/16/2016
Description

BACKGROUND

A short delay between diagnosis and treatment for patients diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is vital to prevent cardiac damage and mortality. The objective of this study was to explore the treatment delay and associated factors in the management of patients diagnosed with STEMI going for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

METHODS

In a cross-sectional multicenter study, the treatment delay (time between first electrocardiogram and start of PCI procedure) of STEMI patients in seven PCI centers in the Netherlands was measured. Data were analyzed by means of multivariable generalized linear models, accounting for a non-normally distributed outcome and clustering of patients within centers.

RESULTS

In total, 1017 patient charts were included. The majority of the patients (78.7%) were treated within the guideline recommended time target of 90 min. Overall, the median treatment delay was 64 min (interquartile range 47-82). A significantly prolonged delay was found among patients of whom their first electrocardiogram was performed at a general practitioner's practice (+23.9 min; 95% confidence interval 9.9-40.8) or in-hospital (+9.5 min; 95% confidence interval 2.5-17.3), patients requiring interhospital transfer (+14.6 min; 95% confidence interval 7.6-22.4) or presenting with acute heart failure on admission (+17.6 min; 95% confidence interval 7.9-28.7).

CONCLUSIONS

Despite a short median delay between first electrocardiogram and PCI, the time targets are occasionally exceeded for patients diagnosed with STEMI. To further improve the process of care, PCI centers should focus on improving regional STEMI care networks, involving general practitioners, emergency departments and referring hospitals.

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Pubmed
Control Beliefs and Risk for Death, Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in Middle-aged and Older Adults: An Observational Study.
Journal: Journal of general internal medicine
March/16/2016
Description

BACKGROUND

Chronic health conditions account for the largest proportion of illness-related mortality and morbidity as well as most of healthcare spending in the USA. Control beliefs may be important for outcomes in individuals with chronic illness.

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether control beliefs are associated with the risk for death, incident stroke and incident myocardial infarction (MI), particularly for individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or hypertension.

METHODS

Retrospective cohort study.

METHODS

A total of 5,662 respondents to the Health and Retirement Study with baseline health, demographic and psychological data in 2006, with no history of previous stroke or MI.

METHODS

Perceived global control, measured as two dimensions--"constraints" and "mastery"--and health-specific control were self-reported. Event-free survival was measured in years, where "event" was the composite of death, incident stroke and MI. Year of stroke or MI was self-reported; year of death was obtained from respondents' family.

RESULTS

Mean baseline age was 66.2 years; 994 (16.7%) had DM and 3,023 (53.4%) hypertension. Overall, 173 (3.1%) suffered incident strokes, 129 (2.3%) had incident MI, and 465 (8.2%) died. There were no significant interactions between control beliefs and baseline DM or hypertension in predicting event-free survival. Elevated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were associated with DM (1.33, 95 % CI 1.07-1.67), hypertension (1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.61) and perceived constraints in the third (1.55, 95% CI 1.12-2.15) and fourth quartiles (1.61, 95% CI 1.14-2.26). Health-specific control scores in the third (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.59-1.03) and fourth quartiles (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92) were protective, but only the latter category had a statistically significant decreased risk. Combined high perceived constraints and low health-specific control had the highest risk (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.41-2.64).

CONCLUSIONS

Control beliefs were not associated with differential risk for those with DM and/or hypertension, but they predicted significant differences in event-free survival for the general cohort.

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