Myocardial Infarction
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Myocardial Infarction
Description
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Read more
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Pubmed
The efficacy and safety of a chest pain protocol for short stay unit patients: A one year follow-up.
Journal: European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology
June/27/2016
Description

BACKGROUND

The Alfred Emergency Short Stay Unit initiated a chest pain protocol for patients presenting with chest pain to risk stratify for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A 30-day follow-up of patients discharged with low-or-intermediate risk of ACS demonstrated no deaths or ACS.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of the chest pain protocol, a one year follow-up was undertaken.

METHODS

A questionnaire was designed for the one-year follow-up and it was administered via a telephone interview by emergency nurses to document adverse cardiac events and health care utilisation.

RESULTS

From 297 patients, 224 (75%) were contacted 12 months following discharge. There was one death from stroke (0.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-2.5%) and another from an unknown cause. Five patients had been diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.7-5.1%), two patients had an acute myocardial infarction (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.03-2.1%) and four were diagnosed with angina (1.8%; 95% CI: 0.9-3.2%). Nearly half (n=103, 46%; 95% CI: 39.5-52.5%) had returned to the emergency department (ED) for various conditions including 42 patients with further chest pain. Ninety-six patients (43%; 95% CI: 39.3-52.7%) had specialist referrals and 124 investigations were performed. Thirty-four patients had cardiology referrals (15%; 95% CI: 10.7-20.5%) and 25 patients had gastroenterology referrals (11%; 95% CI: 7.3-16.0%). Diagnostic cardiac tests were performed on 38 patients: coronary angiography (n=10), 24-hour Holter monitoring (n=17), 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring (n=4), thallium scans (n=5), exercise stress test (n=1) and CT scan (n=1).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients had a low risk of adverse events 12 months after discharge but substantial continuing health care utilization was observed. Complete assessment by health care professionals prior to discharge may help mitigate representations.

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Pubmed
Lack of Benefit of Ischemic Postconditioning After Routine Thrombus Aspiration During Reperfusion: Immediate and Midterm Results.
Journal: Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics
July/12/2016
Description

OBJECTIVE

The underutilization of manual thrombus aspiration (MTA) may have reduced the benefits of ischemic postconditioning (PostCon), as it reduces thrombus embolization. We aimed to assess the benefits of PostCon in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after the systematic utilization of MTA.

METHODS

A total of 87 patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial (43 PostCon and 44 controls). After MTA, PostCon was performed on the treatment group by applying 4 cycles of alternate reperfusion and reocclusion (60 seconds each) using the angioplasty balloon. The primary end point was infarct size assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) of troponin T (TnT) activity. The secondary end points were left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and major cardiac events (new myocardial infarction or cardiac death) both at discharge and at follow-up.

RESULTS

The AUC for TnT was no different with respect to study arms (median [interquartile range]): PostCon = 8.9 (10.6) versus control = 8.2 (10.6), P = .68. Left ventricle ejection fraction improved from in-hospital to follow-up (9 ± 3 months) for the entire cohort (46.3% ± 7.3% vs 52.2% ± 10.7%, P < .001), with no differences between PostCon and controls (51.6% ± 9.5% vs 52.7% ± 11.9%, P = .89); major cardiac events at 14 ± 4 months of follow-up were also no different (PostCon = 1.0 (2.3%) vs control = 0, P = .49).

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with STEMI treated with MTA, PostCon offered no benefits to infarct size, LVEF, or major cardiac events.

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Pubmed
New myocardial infarction definition affects incidence, mortality, hospitalization rates and prognosis.
Journal: European journal of preventive cardiology
June/28/2016
Description

OBJECTIVE

To analyse differences in myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and hospitalization rates, 28-day case-fatality and two-year prognosis using two myocardial infarction case definitions: the classical World Health Organization definition (1994) and the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition (2000), which added cardiac troponin as a diagnostic biomarker.

METHODS

Population-based cohort of 4170 consecutive myocardial infarction patients aged 35-74 years from Girona (Spain) recruited between 2002 and 2009.

METHODS

Incidence, mortality rates standardized to the European population and 28-day case-fatality were calculated. To estimate the association between case definition and prognosis, Cox models were fitted.

RESULTS

Use of the 2000 European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition significantly increased myocardial infarction incidence per 100,000 population (238.3 vs. 274.5 in men and 54.1 vs. 69.7 in women). Applying this definition decreased the 28-day case-fatality rate from 26.9% to 23.4% in men, and from 31.0% to 24.1% in women. In the acute phase, patients diagnosed only by increased troponins were significantly less treated with thrombolysis (34.4% vs. 2.0%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (71.7% vs. 65.0%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (41.1% vs. 31.7%). Case-fatality at 28 days was significantly better in cases diagnosed only by troponin increase (0.2 % vs. 9.7%), but two-year cardiovascular mortality was higher (7.5% vs. 3.7%).

CONCLUSIONS

Inclusion of cardiac troponins in myocardial infarction diagnosis increased annual incidence and decreased case-fatality. Diagnosis based only on increased troponins was associated with worse outcome. This group of patients at high risk of death should receive aggressive secondary prevention therapy.

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Pubmed
Levosimendan exerts anti-inflammatory effects on cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells in vitro.
Journal: Thrombosis and haemostasis
December/13/2015
Description

Levosimendan is a positive inotropic drug for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (HF). Clinical trials showed that levosimendan was particularly effective in HF due to myocardial infarction. Myocardial necrosis induces a strong inflammatory response, involving chemoattractants guiding polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) into the infarcted myocardial tissue. Our aim was to examine whether levosimendan exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on human adult cardiac myocytes (HACM) and human heart microvascular endothelial cells (HHMEC). Cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL)-1β (200 U/ml) and treated with levosimendan (0.1-10 µM) for 2-48 hours. IL-1β strongly induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HACM and E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HHMEC and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Treatment with levosimendan strongly attenuated IL-1β-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HACM as well as E-selectin and ICAM-1 in ECs. Levosimendan treatment further reduced adhesion of PMN to activated endothelial cells under both static and flow conditions by approximately 50 %. Incubation with 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, a selective blocker of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels, partly abolished the above seen anti-inflammatory effects. Additionally, levosimendan strongly diminished IL-1β-induced reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity through inhibition of S536 phosphorylation. In conclusion, levosimendan exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells in vitro. These findings could explain, at least in part, the beneficial effects of levosimendan after myocardial infarction.

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Pubmed
'Chest pain typicality' in suspected acute coronary syndromes and the impact of clinical experience.
Journal: The American journal of medicine
December/13/2015
Description

BACKGROUND

Physicians rely upon chest pain history to make management decisions in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, particularly where the diagnosis is not immediately apparent through electrocardiography and troponin testing. The objective of this study was to establish the discriminatory value of "typicality of chest pain" and the effect of clinician experience, for the prediction of acute myocardial infarction and presence of significant coronary artery disease.

METHODS

This prospective single-center observational study was undertaken in a UK General Hospital emergency department. We recruited consecutive adults with chest pain and a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram, for whom the treating physician determined that delayed troponin testing was necessary. Using their own clinical judgment, physicians recorded whether the chest pain described was typical or atypical for acute coronary syndrome. Physicians were defined as "experienced" or "novice" according to postgraduate experience. Acute myocardial infarction was adjudicated using a high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) assay, whereas coronary artery disease was adjudicated angiographically.

RESULTS

Overall, 912 patients had typicality of chest pain assessed, of whom 114/912 (12.5%) had an acute myocardial infarction and 157/912 (17.2%) underwent angiography. In patients undergoing angiography, 90/157 (57.3%) had hs-cTn elevation, of whom 60 (66.7%) had significant coronary artery disease. Sixty-seven of 157 (42.7%) patients had angiography without hs-cTn elevation; of these, 31 (46.2%) had significant coronary artery disease. For the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, chest pain typicality had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.60). For the prediction of significant coronary artery disease with hs-cTn elevation AUC: 0.54 (95% CI, 0.40-0.67), and without hs-cTn elevation AUC: 0.45 (95% CI, 0.31-0.59). When assessed by experienced physicians, specificity for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was higher at 65.8% (95% CI, 63.1%-68.7%) vs 55.4% (95% CI, 53.9%-56.8%) for novices.

CONCLUSIONS

Subjective interpretation of "typicality of chest pain" is of limited discriminatory value in the assessment of suspected acute coronary syndromes, in the context of a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram. Greater clinical experience improves accuracy as a rule-in tool but does not improve overall discriminatory ability.

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Pubmed
Effect of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on arterial stiffness and inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers: a randomized controlled trial of myocardial infarction patients.
Journal: Atherosclerosis
March/30/2016
Description

BACKGROUND

Arterial stiffness have shown an independent predictive value for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

OBJECTIVE

This study sought to evaluate the effects of an 8-week exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program (ECR) on arterial stiffness, and on inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers. Additionally, it was assessed two potential confounding variables, daily physical activity and dietary intake.

METHODS

In this parallel-group trial, 96 patients (56 ± 10 years) were randomized to either the exercise group (EG) or control group (CG) 4 weeks after suffering acute myocardial infarction (MI). ECR consisted of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise at 70-85% of maximal heart rate during 3 sessions weekly, plus usual care. CG participants received only usual care. Baseline and final assessments included arterial stiffness through carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers, daily physical activity, and dietary intake. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01432639).

RESULTS

After 8 weeks, no significant changes were found between groups in cf-PWV, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers, daily physical activity, or dietary intake. Excluding those patients (n = 7) who did not attend, at least 80% of the exercise sessions provided similar results, excepting a significant reduction in cf-PWV in the EG compared to the CG.

CONCLUSIONS

A short-term ECR does not seem to reduce arterial stiffness and inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers of post-MI patients under optimized medication. Nevertheless, the decrease of cf-PWV observed in the EG, when considering only those patients who attended at least 80% of exercise sessions, warrants further investigation.

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Pubmed
Dual versus single antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal: Heart, lung & circulation
September/27/2015
Description

BACKGROUND

Although dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin is a widely accepted strategy in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), this approach is not evidence based. We therefore sought to systematically review the current evidence for this practice in terms of 30-day outcome looking at stroke, MI, bleeding, and death.

METHODS

Relevant studies were identified through electronic literature search. Studies involving single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) and DAPT in patients undergoing TAVR were included. Study specific risk ratios were calculated and combined using random-effects model meta-analysis.

RESULTS

Analysis of data from 410 patients, stroke occurred in seven (3.16%) of SAPT and six (3.17%) of DAPT RR=1.03 (95% CI, 0.36-2.96, P=0.96). In analysis of 530 patients, MI occurred in three (1.07%) of SAPT and one (0.40%) of DAPT RR=1.97 (95% CI, 0.29-13.29, P=0.49), significant bleeding (major, life threatening and bleeding requiring transfusion) occurred in 20 (7.11%) of SAPT and 43 (17.27%) of DAPT RR=0.41 (95% CI, 0.25-0.69, P=0.0006). Number needed to harm for major or life threatening bleeding was 10. Death occurred in 15 (6.78%) of SAPT and 15 (7.94%) of DAPT (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.46-1.79, P=0.78).

CONCLUSIONS

Our meta-analysis suggests that at 30 days following TAVR there is no difference between post-procedural SAPT versus DAPT for the risk of stroke or MI and DAPT may have a higher bleeding risk. Adequately powered RCTs are warranted to clarify the optimal antiplatelet treatment strategy following TAVR.

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Pubmed
Safety and long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.
Journal: Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions
September/27/2015
Description

OBJECTIVE

This study aims to report the long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+) patients.

BACKGROUND

Sparse data exists regarding the risk of patients with HIV who undergo PCI.

METHODS

Using a case-control design, we compared baseline characteristics, procedure-related outcomes, in-hospital, and 2-year clinical outcomes of 112 consecutive HIV+ patients versus 112 HIV- controls matched for age, gender, and diabetes mellitus who underwent PCI from April 2003 to September 2011.

RESULTS

Baseline characteristics were generally comparable, save for more African Americans and history of chronic renal insufficiency in the HIV+ vs. HIV- group (62.5% vs. 21.4%, P < 0.001) and (27.7% vs. 9.9%, P < 0.001). There was no correlation between CD4 nadir count and extent and diffuseness of coronary artery disease. The occurrence of major adverse cardiac events at 2 years was similar in both groups. Multivariable analysis for independent correlates of major adverse cardiac events at 2 years detected patients with a history of chronic renal insufficiency (OR: 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-5.83; P = 0.04) and acute myocardial infarction (OR: 2.92, 95% confidence interval: 1.39-6.15; P = 0.005) as correlates for outcome. Post-hoc analysis showed that drug-eluting stent (DES) use in the HIV+ group was beneficial.

CONCLUSIONS

PCI in HIV+ patients is safe, with high procedural success rates, and produces similar outcomes to those seen in HIV- patients at 2 years. HIV+ patients should be treated with DES if possible.

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Pubmed
Acute coronary syndromes without obstructive coronary atherosclerosis: the tiles of a complex puzzle.
Journal: Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions
September/17/2015
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Pubmed
Regional cardiac dysfunction and outcome in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both after myocardial infarction.
Journal: European heart journal
January/2/2017
Description

OBJECTIVE

Global measures of left ventricular (LV) function, in particular LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and global myocardial strain measures, are powerful predictors of outcomes in patients with LV dysfunction, heart failure, or both. However, less is known about the relationship between regional myocardial function, especially that assessed by strain echocardiography and clinical prognosis.

RESULTS

We studied 248 patients with LV dysfunction, heart failure, or both 5 days after first myocardial infarction (MI) from the VALIANT study. We assessed peak longitudinal strain (LS) via B-mode speckle tracking in 12 segments from the apical 4- and 2-chamber views and visually assessed LV wall motion score (WMS). We related these measures of regional myocardial function to each other and to clinical outcomes over 20-month follow-up. Normal reference values for segmental LS were derived from 50 healthy controls. Regional LS (-7.7%, Q1: -11.2%, Q3: -4.9%) was worse in segments with abnormal WMS, although was significantly impaired even in segments scored as normokinetic compared with normal controls (-10.4 ± 5.2% vs. -20.0 ± 7.6%, P < 0.001). In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, each additional abnormal LS segment was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.90, P = 0.02) even after adjustment for clinical covariates, including LVEF, LV end-systolic volume, and number of abnormal segments by WMS.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with LV dysfunction, heart failure, or both after MI, regional LS is significantly depressed even in segments with normal WMS, and this measure was related to adverse outcome.

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