There is limited data regarding the predictors of hematological abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with dimethyl fumarate (DMF) or fingolimod (FNG), and the impact of treatment switch on lymphocyte and leukocyte count METHODS: We identified 405 patients on DMF and 300 patients on FNG (treatment duration: at least 12 month) within a large prospective study of MS patients conducted at the Partners MS Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB study) between Jan 2011 to Feb 2016. Patients had complete blood counts with differentials at baseline and every 6 months while on treatment. Most participants had a clinical visit with complete neurologic examinations every 6 months and brain MRI scan every 12 months. T cell subset profile was available for subgroup of patients (n = 116).
In the FNG group, the risk of developing lymphopenia grade 4 (< 200) was higher in female patients (p = 0.0117) and those who were previously treated with natalizumab (p = 0.0116), while the risk of lymphopenia grade 3b+4 (< 350) was higher in female patients (p = 0.0009). DMF treated patients with lower baseline lymphocyte count had a higher chance of developing lymphopenia grade 2 (< 800) (p < 0.0001) or 2+3 (< 500) (p < 0.0001). We examined the effect of treatment switch between DMF and FNG. No significant recovery in lymphocyte and leukocyte count was observed after treatment switches. Reduced dosing of FNG in patients with lymphopenia led to increase in lymphocyte count but also increased disease activity in 25% of patients.
Female sex and prior exposure to natalizumab increased the probability of lymphopenia on FNG, while low absolute lymphocyte count was associated with increased risk of lymphopenia on DMF. Parallel switch did not lead to recovery from hematological abnormalities. Long-term studies with larger number of patients are required to confirm our findings and to establish guidelines for prediction and management of hematological abnormalities.
Motor impairment is the most common symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, a variety of new rehabilitative strategies, including robotic gait training, have been implemented, showing their effectiveness. The aim of our study was to investigate whether an intensive robotic gait training, preceding a traditional rehabilitative treatment, could be useful in improving and potentiating motor performance in MS patients. Forty-five patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were enrolled in this study and randomized into either the control group (CG) or the experimental group (EG). A complete clinical evaluation, including the Expanded Disability Severity Scale, the Functional Independence Measure, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the time up and go test (TUG), and the Tinetti balance scale, was performed at baseline (T0), after 6 week (T1), at the end of rehabilitative training (T2), and 1 month later (T3). A significant improvement was observed in the EG for all the outcome measures, whereas the CG showed an improvement only in TUG. In contrast, from T1 to T2, only CG significantly improved in all outcomes, whereas the EG had an improvement only regarding TUG. From T2 to T3, no significant differences in Functional Independence Measure scores emerged for both the groups, but a significant worsening in Tinetti balance scale and TUG was observed for the CG and in TUG for the EG. Our study provides evidence that robotic rehabilitationn coupled with two-dimensional virtual reality may be a valuable tool in promoting functional recovery in patients with MS.
The aim of this work is to measure the mean diameter of the confluence jugulo- subclavian, the impact of different types of jugular confluences and the correlation between the types of confluences and the Valsalva maneuver (jugular reflux) in subjects with Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and Multiple Sclerosis.
We investigated by Echo-Color-Doppler (ECD) 103 subjects (67 F 36M) of mean age 45 ± 12 years (a minimum of 22 to a maximum of 79 years, with a median of 44 and a modal value 42 years), mean EDSS of 4.7 and average disease duration of 12 years.
The 103 right jugular veins investigated had an average diameter of 8.4 ± 2.4 mm (minimum 4.0, maximum 14.9 mm; median 7.9; modal value 7.6 mm). Three form types were found: 56 cylindrical, 29 conical and 18 funnel. Valsalva maneuver was positive in 30 patients. The 103 left jugular investigated had an average diameter of 8.9 ± 2.4 mm (minimum 2.8, maximum 14.4 mm; median of 8.8; modal value 8.7 mm). The form types were found: 42 cylindrical, 45 conical and 16 funnel. Valsalva maneuver was positive in 30 patients.
The mean diameter of the jugular veins was 8.7 mm. Internal jugular veins with cylindrical morphology have a diameter smaller than other forms; this difference is statistically significant. The different morphology of the jugular vein confluence does not increase the possibility of a reflux because the positive Valsalva maneuvers are not statistically significant when compared to the various types.
CCSVI, EchoColorDoppler Map, Jugulo-Subclavian Confluence Diameter.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by relapses and a progressive course that may lead to accumulation of physical and cognitive disability. Cognitive training interventions seem to improve the cognitive performance of MS patients. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to quantitatively investigate the effect of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation on the neuropsychological performance of patients with MS.
We performed a systematic review of the PubMed database to identify available studies that performed computer-based cognitive training in MS patients. Studies should have reported pre- and post-cognitive training neuropsychological tests scores and included both intervention and placebo/no-intervention MS groups. We analyzed the effect of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation on individual neuropsychological tests, on specific functional domains, and on overall cognition performance. The effect-size of cognitive training pre- and post-treatment compared to placebo/ no-intervention was estimated using the standardized mean difference (SMD). The 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a Z test by comparing the final values. Baseline between-group differences in selected outcomes were estimated with ANOVA.
In total, 9 studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion and were inserted in the quantitative analysis. Computer-based cognitive training was found to improve the performance in the memory domain of MS patients compared to control interventions (SMD, 0.22; 95% CI 0.01-0.43; p = 0.04). Moreover, in the subgroup analysis, cognitive training demonstrated significant effects in Selective Reminding Test (SRT) delay memory (SMD, 0.58; 95% CI 0.29-0.87; p < 0.001).
The present meta-analysis revealed a significant effect for computer-based cognitive training on the performance of the memory domain of patients with MS. This finding may have significant implications in the current treatment practice when cognitive decline is detected in MS patients.
A key question yet to be resolved concerns the structure and function relationship of the TCR complex. How does antigen recognition by the TCR-alphabeta chains result in the activation of distinct signal transduction pathways by the CD3-gammadeltaepsilon/zeta complex? To investigate which part of the TCR-beta chain is involved in TCR signaling, we exchanged different domains of the constant regions of the TCR-beta chain with the corresponding TCR-gamma chain domains. We show here that hybridoma cells expressing a chimeric TCR-beta chain (betaIII) containing intracellular and transmembrane TCR-gamma amino acids, together with a wild-type TCR-alpha (alphawt) chain, were 10 times more sensitive to antigenic stimulation compared to cells expressing TCR-alphawt/betawt chains. This super-signaling phenotype of the betaIII chain was observed in two different TCRs. One specific for an alloantigen (I-A(bm12)) and one for an autoantigen (I-A(b)/MOG(35-55)). We found that this chimeric alphawt/betaIII TCR had normal association with CD3-gammadeltaepsilon and zeta chains. To investigate the effect of the chimeric betaIII chain in transgenic T cells, we made MOG(35-55)-specific TCR transgenic mice expressing either the alphawt/betawt or chimeric alphawt/betaIII TCR. Similar to what was observed in hybridoma cells, transgenic alphawt/betaIII T cells showed a super-signaling phenotype upon antigenic stimulation. Further studies may help us understand the effect of increased TCR signaling on autoimmunity and may lead to the identification of signaling molecules that can be targeted to stop the progression of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis.
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic necroinflammatory liver disorder associated with hypergammaglobulinemia and circulating autoantibodies. Two patients previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis who developed AIH are reported. One patient showed acute presentation with fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Serum autoantibodies were negative in both patients but a characteristic clinical course in the first patient as well as the hepatic histological features with typical pathological changes of AIH in both patients and a score compatible with AIH established the diagnosis.
F-PBR06 and C-PBR28 are second-generation PET radioligands targeting the 18-kd translocator protein to assess microglial activation. We directly compared F-PBR06 and C-PBR28 for detecting brain translocator protein binding in multiple sclerosis (MS).
Six patients with MS (4 women; mean age ± SD, 32.1 ± 4.9 [range, 23.5-37.4 years]; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.3 ± 1.2 [range, 1.0-4.0]) underwent brain PET with both ligands, along with 3-T MRI. MRI was coregistered to the summed 60- to 90-minute PET images. SUV ratios (SUVRs), derived by normalization to global brain radioactivity, were obtained for whole-brain white matter (WM), supratentorial WM, normal-appearing WM (NAWM), and T2 (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyperintense and T1 hypointense MS WM lesions. The highest mean SUVR for the fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery lesional slices was defined as SUVRmax.
F-PBR06 and C-PBR28 were moderately intercorrelated for whole-brain WM SUVR (r = 0.83, P = 0.04) and supratentorial WM SUVR (r = 0.81, P = 0.05) but not for SUVRs of NAWM, T1 lesions, T2 lesions, or SUVRmax. Both tracers demonstrated that SUVR was higher in NAWM than in T1 and T2 lesions (all P < 0.05). F-PBR06 (but not C-PBR28) demonstrated a higher SUVR in T1 versus T2 lesions (0.85 ± 0.07 vs 0.78 ± 0.03, P = 0.03). F-PBR06-derived (but not C-PBR28) SUVRmax correlated with both Expanded Disability Status Scale score (r = 0.82, P = 0.04) and timed 25-ft walking speed (r = 0.89, P = 0.01).
Our preliminary results suggest an association between microglial activation and physical disability in MS. Microglial detection in lesions was not interchangeable between the tracers, with a higher clinical relevance suggested for F-PBR06.
Objectives We aimed to determine whether multiple sclerosis (MS) and methylprednisolone and disease-modifying drugs have an effect on menopausal age. Methods A total of 86 patients and 98 healthy subjects were included in this study. The natural menopausal age of the patients and healthy subjects were compared. The cumulative dosages of methylprednisolone, beta interferons (IFNβs), and glatiramer acetate were calculated. The effects of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), duration of the disease, and cumulative dosage of medications on menopausal age were evaluated. Results The patients' mean menopausal age was 45.3 ± 4.8 years and healthy subjects' menopausal age was 46.8 ± 4.3 years, with no significant difference between the two groups. The cumulative dosage of methylprednisolone showed an effect on menopausal age. There was a significant inverse correlation between menopausal age and dosage of IFNβ-1b, while the disease duration and EDSS score showed no correlation with menopausal age. Conclusions We conclude that menopausal age is not affected by MS. However, long-term methylprednisolone and IFNβ-1b treatments may change menopausal age in a dose-dependent manner.
Although IgG oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are a frequent phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their relationship with grey matter lesions, intrathecal/meningeal inflammation and clinical evolution has not been clarified yet. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between the OCBs, the inflammatory/neurodegenerative CSF profile at diagnosis, the cortical lesion load and the clinical evolution after 10 years.
This is a 10-year observational, cross-sectional study based on a combined MRI, cognitive and CSF profiling of the examined patients. Forty consecutive OCB-negative (OCB-) and 50 OCB-positive (OCB+) MS patients were included in this study. Both groups had mean disease duration of 10 years and were age and gender matched. Each patient underwent neurological and neuropsychological evaluation and 3-T MRI. Analysis of the presence and levels of 28 inflammatory mediators was performed in the CSF obtained from 10 OCB- MS, 11 OCB+ MS and 10 patients with other neurological conditions.
Increased number of CLs was found in OCB+ compared to OCB- patients (p < 0.0001), whereas no difference was found in white matter lesion (WML) load (p = 0.36). The occurrence of OCB was also associated with increased levels of neurofilament light chains and of several inflammatory mediators linked to B lymphocyte activity and lymphoid-neogenesis (CXCL13, CXCL12, CXCL10, TNFSF13, TNFSF13B, IL6, IL10) and other pro-inflammatory molecules, such as IFN-γ, TNF, MMP2, GM-CSF, osteopontin and sCD163. Finally, the occurrence of OCB was found associated with poor prognosis, from both physical and cognitive points of view.
OCB at MS onset are associated with more severe GM pathology and with a more severe physical disability and cognitive impairment after 10 years. Increased levels of cytokines linked to B cell activation, lymphoid-neogenesis, and pro-inflammatory immune response in the CSF of OCB+ patients support the hypothesis of crucial role played by compartmentalized, intrathecal B cell response in the pathogenesis of CLs and OCB production.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a very common disease of vital importance. In the MS treatment, some drugs such as fingolimod which help to protect nerves from damage are used. The main goal of the drug therapy in MS is to take control of the inflammation which leads to the destruction of myelin and axons in nerve cell and thus prevent and stop the progression of the disease. Fingolimod (FTY720) is an orally active immunomodulatory drug that has been used for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator which prevents lymphocytes from contributing to an autoimmune reaction by inhibiting egress of lymphocytes them from lymph nodes. In this study, we have computer designed, synthesized and characterized two novel derivatives of FTY720, F1-12h and F2-9, and have determined their underlying mechanism of their beneficial effect in SH-SY5Y, SK-N-SH, and U-118 MG cell lines. For this purpose, we first determined the regulation of the cAMP response element (CRE) activity and cAMP concentration by F1-12h and F2-9 together with FTY720 using pGL4.29 luciferase reporter assay and cAMP immunoassay, respectively. Then, we have determined their effect on MS- and GPCR-related gene expression profiles using custom arrays along with FTY720 treatment at non-toxic doses (EC10). It was found that both derivatives significantly activate CRE and increase cAMP concentration in all three cell lines, indicating that they activate cAMP pathway through cell surface receptors as FTY720 does. Furthermore, F1-12h and F2-9 modulate the expression of the pathway related genes that are important in inflammatory signaling, cAMP signaling pathway, cell migration as well as diverse receptor and transcription factors. Expression of the genes involved in myelination was also increased by the treatment with F1-12h and F2-9. In summary, our data demonstrate that the two novel FTY720 derivatives act as anti-inflammatory ultimately by influencing the gene expression via the cAMP and downstream transcription factor CRE pathway. In conclusion, F1-12h and F2-9 might contribute future therapies for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.