Multiple Sclerosis
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Publication
Journal: Biometrics
May/11/1977
Abstract
This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.
Publication
Journal: Neurology
December/16/1983
Abstract
One method of evaluating the degree of neurologic impairment in MS has been the combination of grades (0 = normal to 5 or 6 = maximal impairment) within 8 Functional Systems (FS) and an overall Disability Status Scale (DSS) that had steps from 0 (normal) to 10 (death due to MS). A new Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is presented, with each of the former steps (1,2,3 . . . 9) now divided into two (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 . . . 9.5). The lower portion is obligatorily defined by Functional System grades. The FS are Pyramidal, Cerebellar, Brain Stem, Sensory, Bowel & Bladder, Visual, Cerebral, and Other; the Sensory and Bowel & Bladder Systems have been revised. Patterns of FS and relations of FS by type and grade to the DSS are demonstrated.
Publication
Journal: NeuroImage
August/8/2006
Abstract
There has been much recent interest in using magnetic resonance diffusion imaging to provide information about anatomical connectivity in the brain, by measuring the anisotropic diffusion of water in white matter tracts. One of the measures most commonly derived from diffusion data is fractional anisotropy (FA), which quantifies how strongly directional the local tract structure is. Many imaging studies are starting to use FA images in voxelwise statistical analyses, in order to localise brain changes related to development, degeneration and disease. However, optimal analysis is compromised by the use of standard registration algorithms; there has not to date been a satisfactory solution to the question of how to align FA images from multiple subjects in a way that allows for valid conclusions to be drawn from the subsequent voxelwise analysis. Furthermore, the arbitrariness of the choice of spatial smoothing extent has not yet been resolved. In this paper, we present a new method that aims to solve these issues via (a) carefully tuned non-linear registration, followed by (b) projection onto an alignment-invariant tract representation (the "mean FA skeleton"). We refer to this new approach as Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). TBSS aims to improve the sensitivity, objectivity and interpretability of analysis of multi-subject diffusion imaging studies. We describe TBSS in detail and present example TBSS results from several diffusion imaging studies.
Publication
Journal: Annals of neurology
May/10/2011
Abstract
New evidence and consensus has led to further revision of the McDonald Criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The use of imaging for demonstration of dissemination of central nervous system lesions in space and time has been simplified, and in some circumstances dissemination in space and time can be established by a single scan. These revisions simplify the Criteria, preserve their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, address their applicability across populations, and may allow earlier diagnosis and more uniform and widespread use.
Publication
Journal: Annals of neurology
December/13/2001
Abstract
The International Panel on MS Diagnosis presents revised diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). The focus remains on the objective demonstration of dissemination of lesions in both time and space. Magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with dinical and other paraclinical diagnostic methods. The revised criteria facilitate the diagnosis of MS in patients with a variety of presentations, including "monosymptomatic" disease suggestive of MS, disease with a typical relapsing-remitting course, and disease with insidious progression, without clear attacks and remissions. Previously used terms such as "clinically definite" and "probable MS" are no longer recommended. The outcome of a diagnostic evaluation is either MS, "possible MS" (for those at risk for MS, but for whom diagnostic evaluation is equivocal), or "not MS."
Publication
Journal: Annals of neurology
January/30/2006
Abstract
New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis integrating magnetic resonance image assessment with clinical and other paraclinical methods were introduced in 2001. The "McDonald Criteria" have been extensively assessed and used since 2001. New evidence and consensus now strengthen the role of these criteria in the multiple sclerosis diagnostic workup to demonstrate dissemination of lesions in time, to clarify the use of spinal cord lesions, and to simplify diagnosis of primary progressive disease. The 2005 Revisions to the McDonald Diagnostic Criteria for MS should simplify and speed diagnosis, whereas maintaining adequate sensitivity and specificity.
Publication
Journal: Annals of neurology
June/9/1983
Publication
Journal: Lancet (London, England)
November/9/2008
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is primarily an inflammatory disorder of the brain and spinal cord in which focal lymphocytic infiltration leads to damage of myelin and axons. Initially, inflammation is transient and remyelination occurs but is not durable. Hence, the early course of disease is characterised by episodes of neurological dysfunction that usually recover. However, over time the pathological changes become dominated by widespread microglial activation associated with extensive and chronic neurodegeneration, the clinical correlate of which is progressive accumulation of disability. Paraclinical investigations show abnormalities that indicate the distribution of inflammatory lesions and axonal loss (MRI); interference of conduction in previously myelinated pathways (evoked electrophysiological potentials); and intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal antibody (examination by lumbar puncture of the cerebrospinal fluid). Multiple sclerosis is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic-risk profiles. Licensed disease modifying agents reduce the frequency of new episodes but do not reverse fixed deficits and have questionable effects on the long-term accumulation of disability and disease progression. We anticipate that future studies in multiple sclerosis will provide a new taxonomy on the basis of mechanisms rather than clinical empiricism, and so inform strategies for improved treatment at all stages of the disease.
Publication
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
September/16/2012
Abstract
Genome-wide association studies have identified many noncoding variants associated with common diseases and traits. We show that these variants are concentrated in regulatory DNA marked by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Eighty-eight percent of such DHSs are active during fetal development and are enriched in variants associated with gestational exposure-related phenotypes. We identified distant gene targets for hundreds of variant-containing DHSs that may explain phenotype associations. Disease-associated variants systematically perturb transcription factor recognition sequences, frequently alter allelic chromatin states, and form regulatory networks. We also demonstrated tissue-selective enrichment of more weakly disease-associated variants within DHSs and the de novo identification of pathogenic cell types for Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, and an electrocardiogram trait, without prior knowledge of physiological mechanisms. Our results suggest pervasive involvement of regulatory DNA variation in common human disease and provide pathogenic insights into diverse disorders.
Publication
Journal: Archives of neurology
November/8/1989
Abstract
Fatigue is a prominent disabling symptom in a variety of medical and neurologic disorders. To facilitate research in this area, we developed a fatigue severity scale, subjected it to tests of internal consistency and validity, and used it to compare fatigue in two chronic conditions: systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Administration of the fatigue severity scale to 25 patients with multiple sclerosis, 29 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 20 healthy adults revealed that the fatigue severity scale was internally consistent, correlated well with visual analogue measures, clearly differentiated controls from patients, and could detect clinically predicted changes in fatigue over time. Fatigue had a greater deleterious impact on daily living in patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus compared with controls. The results further showed that fatigue was largely independent of self-reported depressive symptoms and that several characteristics could differentiate fatigue that accompanies multiple sclerosis from fatigue that accompanies systemic lupus erythematosus. This study demonstrates (1) the clinical and research applications of a scale that measures fatigue severity and (2) helps to identify features that distinguish fatigue between two chronic medical disorders.
Publication
Journal: Nature
September/15/2011
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
January/28/1998
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is the most common cause of neurologic disability in young adults. Despite antiinflammatory or immunosuppressive therapy, most patients have progressive neurologic deterioration that may reflect axonal loss. We conducted pathological studies of brain tissues to define the changes in axons in patients with multiple sclerosis.
METHODS
Brain tissue was obtained at autopsy from 11 patients with multiple sclerosis and 4 subjects without brain disease. Fourteen active multiple-sclerosis lesions, 33 chronic active lesions, and samples of normal-appearing white matter were examined for demyelination, inflammation, and axonal pathologic changes by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Axonal transection, identified by the presence of terminal axonal ovoids, was detected in all 47 lesions and quantified in 18 lesions.
RESULTS
Transected axons were a consistent feature of the lesions of multiple sclerosis, and their frequency was related to the degree of inflammation within the lesion. The number of transected axons per cubic millimeter of tissue averaged 11,236 in active lesions, 3138 at the hypocellular edges of chronic active lesions, 875 in the hypocellular centers of chronic active lesions, and less than 1 in normal-appearing white matter from the control brains.
CONCLUSIONS
Transected axons are common in the lesions of multiple sclerosis, and axonal transection may be the pathologic correlate of the irreversible neurologic impairment in this disease.
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
September/27/2000
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
February/13/2006
Publication
Journal: Annals of neurology
June/22/2000
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease with profound heterogeneity in clinical course, neuroradiological appearance of the lesions, involvement of susceptibility gene loci, and response to therapy. These features are supported by experimental evidence, which demonstrates that fundamentally different processes, such as autoimmunity or virus infection, may induce MS-like inflammatory demyelinating plaques and suggest that MS may be a disease with heterogeneous pathogenetic mechanisms. From a large pathology sample of MS, collected in three international centers, we selected 51 biopsies and 32 autopsies that contained actively demyelinating lesions defined by stringent criteria. The pathology of the lesions was analyzed using a broad spectrum of immunological and neurobiological markers. Four fundamentally different patterns of demyelination were found, defined on the basis of myelin protein loss, the geography and extension of plaques, the patterns of oligodendrocyte destruction, and the immunopathological evidence of complement activation. Two patterns (I and II) showed close similarities to T-cell-mediated or T-cell plus antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalomyelitis, respectively. The other patterns (III and IV) were highly suggestive of a primary oligodendrocyte dystrophy, reminiscent of virus- or toxin-induced demyelination rather than autoimmunity. At a given time point of the disease--as reflected in autopsy cases--the patterns of demyelination were heterogeneous between patients, but were homogenous within multiple active lesions from the same patient. This pathogenetic heterogeneity of plaques from different MS patients may have fundamental implications for the diagnosis and therapy of this disease.
Publication
Journal: Neurology
June/27/2006
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The authors previously proposed diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) that facilitate its distinction from prototypic multiple sclerosis (MS). However, some patients with otherwise typical NMO have additional symptoms not attributable to optic nerve or spinal cord inflammation or have MS-like brain MRI lesions. Furthermore, some patients are misclassified as NMO by the authors' earlier proposed criteria despite having a subsequent course indistinguishable from prototypic MS. A serum autoantibody marker, NMO-IgG, is highly specific for NMO. The authors propose revised NMO diagnostic criteria that incorporate NMO-IgG status.
METHODS
Using final clinical diagnosis (NMO or MS) as the reference standard, the authors calculated sensitivity and specificity for each criterion and various combinations using a sample of 96 patients with NMO and 33 with MS. The authors used likelihood ratios and logistic regression analysis to develop the most practical and informative diagnostic model.
RESULTS
Fourteen patients with NMO (14.6%) had extra-optic-spinal CNS symptoms. NMO-IgG seropositivity was 76% sensitive and 94% specific for NMO. The best diagnostic combination was 99% sensitive and 90% specific for NMO and consisted of at least two of three elements: longitudinally extensive cord lesion, onset brain MRI nondiagnostic for MS, or NMO-IgG seropositivity.
CONCLUSIONS
The authors propose revised diagnostic criteria for definite neuromyelitis optica (NMO) that require optic neuritis, myelitis, and at least two of three supportive criteria: MRI evidence of a contiguous spinal cord lesion 3 or more segments in length, onset brain MRI nondiagnostic for multiple sclerosis, or NMO-IgG seropositivity. CNS involvement beyond the optic nerves and spinal cord is compatible with NMO.
Publication
Journal: Annual review of immunology
June/29/2005
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) develops in young adults with a complex predisposing genetic trait and probably requires an inciting environmental insult such as a viral infection to trigger the disease. The activation of CD4+ autoreactive T cells and their differentiation into a Th1 phenotype are a crucial events in the initial steps, and these cells are probably also important players in the long-term evolution of the disease. Damage of the target tissue, the central nervous system, is, however, most likely mediated by other components of the immune system, such as antibodies, complement, CD8+ T cells, and factors produced by innate immune cells. Perturbations in immunomodulatory networks that include Th2 cells, regulatory CD4+ T cells, NK cells, and others may in part be responsible for the relapsing-remitting or chronic progressive nature of the disease. However, an important paradigmatic shift in the study of MS has occurred in the past decade. It is now clear that MS is not just a disease of the immune system, but that factors contributed by the central nervous system are equally important and must be considered in the future.
Publication
Journal: Lancet (London, England)
January/20/2005
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Neuromyelitis optica is an inflammatory demyelinating disease with generally poor prognosis that selectively targets optic nerves and spinal cord. It is commonly misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis. Neither disease has a distinguishing biomarker, but optimum treatments differ. The relation of neuromyelitis optica to optic-spinal multiple sclerosis in Asia is uncertain. We assessed the capacity of a putative marker for neuromyelitis optica (NMO-IgG) to distinguish neuromyelitis optica and related disorders from multiple sclerosis.
METHODS
Indirect immunofluorescence with a composite substrate of mouse tissues identified a distinctive NMO-IgG staining pattern, which we characterised further by dual immunostaining. We tested masked serum samples from 102 North American patients with neuromyelitis optica or with syndromes that suggest high risk of the disorder, and 12 Japanese patients with optic-spinal multiple sclerosis. Control patients had multiple sclerosis, other myelopathies, optic neuropathies, and miscellaneous disorders. We also established clinical diagnoses for 14 patients incidentally shown to have NMO-IgG among 85000 tested for suspected paraneoplastic autoimmunity.
RESULTS
NMO-IgG outlines CNS microvessels, pia, subpia, and Virchow-Robin space. It partly colocalises with laminin. Sensitivity and specificity were 73% (95% CI 60-86) and 91% (79-100) for neuromyelitis optica and 58% (30-86) and 100% (66-100) for optic-spinal multiple sclerosis. NMO-IgG was detected in half of patients with high-risk syndromes. Of 14 seropositive cases identified incidentally, 12 had neuromyelitis optica or a high-risk syndrome for the disease.
CONCLUSIONS
NMO-IgG is a specific marker autoantibody of neuromyelitis optica and binds at or near the blood-brain barrier. It distinguishes neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis. Asian optic-spinal multiple sclerosis seems to be the same as neuromyelitis optica.
Publication
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
September/5/2007
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Multiple sclerosis has a clinically significant heritable component. We conducted a genomewide association study to identify alleles associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis.
METHODS
We used DNA microarray technology to identify common DNA sequence variants in 931 family trios (consisting of an affected child and both parents) and tested them for association. For replication, we genotyped another 609 family trios, 2322 case subjects, and 789 control subjects and used genotyping data from two external control data sets. A joint analysis of data from 12,360 subjects was performed to estimate the overall significance and effect size of associations between alleles and the risk of multiple sclerosis.
RESULTS
A transmission disequilibrium test of 334,923 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 931 family trios revealed 49 SNPs having an association with multiple sclerosis (P<1x10(-4)); of these SNPs, 38 were selected for the second-stage analysis. A comparison between the 931 case subjects from the family trios and 2431 control subjects identified an additional nonoverlapping 32 SNPs (P<0.001). An additional 40 SNPs with less stringent P values (<0.01) were also selected, for a total of 110 SNPs for the second-stage analysis. Of these SNPs, two within the interleukin-2 receptor alpha gene (IL2RA) were strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (P=2.96x10(-8)), as were a nonsynonymous SNP in the interleukin-7 receptor alpha gene (IL7RA) (P=2.94x10(-7)) and multiple SNPs in the HLA-DRA locus (P=8.94x10(-81)).
CONCLUSIONS
Alleles of IL2RA and IL7RA and those in the HLA locus are identified as heritable risk factors for multiple sclerosis.
Publication
Journal: Neurology
December/22/1996
Abstract
Standardization of terminology used to describe the pattern and course of MS is essential for mutual understanding between clinicians and investigators. It is particularly important in design of, and recruitment for, clinical trials statistically powered for expected outcomes for given patient populations with narrowly defined entry criteria. For agents that prove safe and effective for MS, knowledge of the patient populations in definitive clinical trials assists clinicians in determining who may ultimately benefit from use of the medication. An international survey of clinicians involved with MS revealed areas of consensus about some terms classically used to describe types of the disease and other areas for which there was lack of consensus. In this report, we provide a summary of the survey results and propose standardized definitions for the most common clinical courses of patients with MS.
Publication
Journal: Nature genetics
January/14/2008
Abstract
We have genotyped 14,436 nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) and 897 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tag SNPs from 1,000 independent cases of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and breast cancer (BC). Comparing these data against a common control dataset derived from 1,500 randomly selected healthy British individuals, we report initial association and independent replication in a North American sample of two new loci related to ankylosing spondylitis, ARTS1 and IL23R, and confirmation of the previously reported association of AITD with TSHR and FCRL3. These findings, enabled in part by increased statistical power resulting from the expansion of the control reference group to include individuals from the other disease groups, highlight notable new possibilities for autoimmune regulation and suggest that IL23R may be a common susceptibility factor for the major 'seronegative' diseases.
Publication
Journal: Nature medicine
May/27/2002
Abstract
Microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions obtained at autopsy revealed increased transcripts of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 and -17, interferon-gamma and associated downstream pathways. Comparison of two poles of MS pathology--acute lesions with inflammation versus 'silent' lesions without inflammation--revealed differentially transcribed genes. Some products of these genes were chosen as targets for therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is upregulated in acute, but not in chronic, MS lesions, and the effect on ameliorating EAE is more pronounced in the acute phase, in contrast to knocking out the immunoglobulin Fc receptor common gamma chain where the effect is greatest on chronic disease. These results in EAE corroborate the microarray studies on MS lesions. Large-scale analysis of transcripts in MS lesions elucidates new aspects of pathology and opens possibilities for therapy.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of experimental medicine
September/1/2004
Abstract
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells contribute to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by active suppression because their deletion causes spontaneous autoimmune diseases in mice. Human CD4+ regulatory T cells expressing high levels of CD25 are suppressive in vitro and mimic the activity of murine CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease thought to be mediated by T cells recognizing myelin protein peptides. We hypothesized that altered functions of CD4+CD25hi regulatory T cells play a role in the breakdown of immunologic self-tolerance in patients with MS. Here, we report a significant decrease in the effector function of CD4+CD25hi regulatory T cells from peripheral blood of patients with MS as compared with healthy donors. Differences were also apparent in single cell cloning experiments in which the cloning frequency of CD4+CD25hi T cells was significantly reduced in patients as compared with normal controls. These data are the first to demonstrate alterations of CD4+CD25hi regulatory T cell function in patients with MS.
Publication
Journal: Lancet (London, England)
April/24/2002
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is the prototype inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system and, with a lifetime risk of one in 400, potentially the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults. As with all complex traits, the disorder results from an interplay between as yet unidentified environmental factors and susceptibility genes. Together, these factors trigger a cascade of events, involving engagement of the immune system, acute inflammatory injury of axons and glia, recovery of function and structural repair, post-inflammatory gliosis, and neurodegeneration. The sequential involvement of these processes underlies the clinical course characterised by episodes with recovery, episodes leaving persistent deficits, and secondary progression. The aim of treatment is to reduce the frequency, and limit the lasting effects, of relapses, relieve symptoms, prevent disability arising from disease progression, and promote tissue repair. Despite limited success in each of these categories, everyone touched by multiple sclerosis looks for a better dividend from applying an improved understanding of the pathogenesis to clinical management.
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