Lung Neoplasms
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Pubmed
Journal: Pathology, research and practice
September/27/2018
Abstract

BACKGROUND

It is generally acknowledged that miRNAs play pivotal roles in the initiation and development of cancer. The aim of the current study is to investigate the clinicopathological role of miR-136-5p in lung adenocarcinoma and its underlying molecular mechanism.

METHODS

Data of a cohort of 1242 samples were provided by the Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas to evaluate miR-136-5p expression in lung adenocarcinoma. A comprehensive meta-analysis integrating the expression data from all sources was performed, followed by a summary receiver operating curve plotted to appraise the upregulated expression of miR-136-5p in lung adenocarcinoma. Candidate targets of miR-136-5p were launched by the intersection of differentially expressed genes in The Cancer Genome Atlas and genes predicted by 12 web-based platforms. Then, hub genes were illustrated by a protein-protein interaction network. Furthermore, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Ontology and Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships analyses of potential target genes were carried out via bioinformatics tools.

RESULTS

MiR-136-5p expression was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma versus normal tissues (standard mean difference = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.58). The summary receiver operating characteristic curve further verified the upregulation of miR-136-5p in lung adenocarcinoma (area under curve = 0.7459). A total of 311 candidate target genes of miR-136-5p were gathered to create a protein-protein interaction network. Molecular mechanism analysis unveiled the potential miR-136-5p target genes participated in cell adhesion molecules, focal adhesion, complement and coagulation cascades and blood coagulation.

CONCLUSIONS

MiR-136-5p is overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma and is involved in the molecular mechanism of lung adenocarcinoma via suppressing the expressions of downstream targets, especially claudin-18, sialophorin and syndecan 2 that participate in cell adhesion.

Pubmed
Journal: Carcinogenesis
October/23/2018
Abstract

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an aggressive malignancy affecting pleural surfaces, occurs in three main histological subtypes. The epithelioid and sarcomatoid subtypes are characterized by cuboid and fibroblastoid cells, respectively. The biphasic subtype contains a mixture of both. The sarcomatoid subtype expresses markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and confers the worst prognosis, but the signals and pathways controlling EMT in MPM are not well understood. We demonstrate that treatment with FGF2 or EGF induced a fibroblastoid morphology in several cell lines from biphasic MPM, accompanied by scattering, decreased cell adhesion and increased invasiveness. This depended on the MAP-kinase pathway but was independent of TGFβ or PI3-kinase signaling. In addition to changes in known EMT markers, microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of MMP1, ESM1, ETV4, PDL1 and BDKR2B in response to both growth factors and in epithelioid versus sarcomatoid MPM. Inhibition of MMP1 prevented FGF2-induced scattering and invasiveness. Moreover, in MPM cells with sarcomatoid morphology, inhibition of FGF/MAP-kinase signaling induced a more epithelioid morphology and gene expression pattern. Our findings suggest a critical role of the MAP-kinase axis in the morphological and behavioral plasticity of mesothelioma.

Pubmed
Journal: Japanese journal of clinical oncology
June/3/2018
Abstract

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a newly developed technique currently in clinical use. SBRT originated from stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for intracranial tumors. Since the 1990s, SBRT has been widely used in clinical settings for the treatment of lung cancer. We review the history and current standard techniques. Previous clinical studies of lung cancer showed high local control rates with acceptable toxicities. Past and on-going clinical trials are also reviewed.

Pubmed
Journal: Respiratory investigation
April/23/2018
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Respiratory comorbidities are frequently associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, little is known about their prognostic impact in hospitalized patients with IPF. We examined the impact of respiratory comorbidities on the mortality rates of hospitalized patients with IPF using a Japanese nationwide database.

METHODS

We identified 5665 hospitalized patients diagnosed with IPF between April 2010 and March 2013. The primary outcome was defined as the in-hospital mortality at 30 days after admission. The impact of respiratory comorbidities was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model that incorporated clinically relevant factors.

RESULTS

In hospitalized patients with IPF, the prevalence of bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer were 9.5%, 4.6%, and 3.7%, respectively. Among patients with bacterial pneumonia, the four most common pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (31.6%), methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus (18.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.2%). Lung cancer was more commonly found in the lower lobes (60.1%) than in other lobes. The survival at 30 days from admission was 78.4% in all patients and significantly lower in IPF patients with bacterial pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.63; p < 0.023) and patients with lung cancer (adjusted HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.47-2.69; p < 0.001) than in others. Pulmonary hypertension was not associated with mortality. IPF patients with one or more of these three respiratory comorbidities had a poorer survival than others (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Respiratory comorbidities, especially bacterial pneumonia and lung cancer, influence mortality in hospitalized patients with IPF.

Pubmed
Journal: Scientific reports
December/18/2016
Abstract

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cancer-promoting component in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The dynamic role of human CAFs in cancer progression has been ill-defined because human CAFs lack a unique marker needed for a cell-specific, promoter-driven knockout model. Here, we developed an engineered human CAF cell line with an inducible suicide gene to enable selective in vivo elimination of human CAFs at different stages of xenograft tumor development, effectively circumventing the challenge of targeting a cell-specific marker. Suicide-engineered CAFs were highly sensitive to apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo by the addition of a simple small molecule inducer. Selection of timepoints for targeted CAF apoptosis in vivo during the progression of a human breast cancer xenograft model was guided by a bi-phasic host cytokine response that peaked at early timepoints after tumor implantation. Remarkably, we observed that the selective apoptosis of CAFs at these early timepoints did not affect primary tumor growth, but instead increased the presence of tumor-associated macrophages and the metastatic spread of breast cancer cells to the lung and bone. The study revealed a dynamic relationship between CAFs and cancer metastasis that has counter-intuitive ramifications for CAF-targeted therapy.

Pubmed
Journal: Thorax
December/12/2002
Abstract

Cancer of the lung causes more deaths from cancer worldwide than at any other site. The environmental, genetic, and dietary risk factors are discussed and progress in chemoprevention is reviewed. A better understanding of the molecular events that occur during carcinogenesis has opened up new areas of research in cancer prevention and a number of biochemical markers of high risk individuals have been identified. It is predicted that greater success in chemoprevention will be achieved in the next decade than in the last.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology
October/1/2018
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Camptosorus sibiricus Rupr (CSR) is a widely used herbal medicine with antivasculitis, antitrauma, and antitumor effects. However, the effect of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-initiated tumorigenesis and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Moreover, the compounds in CSR aqueous extract need to be identified and structurally characterized.

OBJECTIVE

We aim to investigate the chemopreventive effect of CSR and the underlying molecular mechanism.

METHODS

A B[a]P-stimulated normal cell model (BEAS.2B) and lung adenocarcinoma animal model were established on A/J mice. In B[a]P-treated BEAS.2B cells, the protective effects of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-induced DNA damage and ROS production were evaluated through flow cytometry, Western blot, real-time quantitative PCR, single-cell gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescence. Moreover, a model of B[a]P-initiated lung adenocarcinoma was established on A/J mice to determine the chemopreventive effect of CSR in vivo. The underlying mechanism was analyzed via immunohistochemistry and microscopy. Furthermore, the new compounds in CSR aqueous extract were isolated and structurally characterized using IR, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

RESULTS

CSR effectively suppressed ROS production by re-activating Nrf2-mediated reductases HO-1 and NQO-1. Simultaneously, CSR attenuated the DNA damage of BEAS.2B cells in the presence of B[a]P. Moreover, CSR at 1.5 and 3 g/kg significantly suppressed tumorigenesis with tumor inhibition ratios of 36.65% and 65.80%, respectively. The tumor volume, tumor size, and multiplicity of B[a]P-induced lung adenocarcinoma were effectively decreased by CSR in vivo. After extracting and identifying the compounds in CSR aqueous extract, three new triterpene saponins were isolated and characterized structurally.

CONCLUSIONS

CSR aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis by exerting dual effects against ROS and DNA damage, suggesting that CSR is a novel and effective agent for B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis. Moreover, by isolating and structurally characterizing three new triterpene saponins, our study further standardized the quality of CSR aqueous extract, which could widen CSR clinical applications.

Pubmed
Journal: Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
October/17/2018
Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality of malignant diseases in China. Approximately 57% lung cancer patients harbored distant metastases at initial diagnosis which is relevant to poor outcomes. The research strategy of anti-lung cancer metastasis now has became the new treatment directions and thoughts for lung cancer treatment. Previous studies have shown that changes in the corresponding driving genes on different signaling pathways may be related to the transfer of different organs, and the biological alteration of tumor to some extent can affect the metastatic behavior and metastatic pattern of tumor. However, current clinical and basic studies have not elucidated the molecular mechanism of the specific distant organ metastasis in the pathway of lung cancer related signal transduction, clinical research on the correlation between gene mutation and organ transfer specificity is also relatively rare. This review aims to summarize the characteristics of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) in non-small cell lung cancer, and the correlation between the distribution of metastatic organs. .

Pubmed
Journal: Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
October/17/2018
Abstract

Recently, targeted therapy has achieved great success in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Mesenchymal to epithelial transition factor (MET) is considered to be another important molecular target for NSCLC since epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Accumulating clinical trials and case reports have confirmed that MET inhibitors exhibited a potential prospect in treating patients with MET 14 exon skipping alterations, suggesting that MET 14 exon skipping mutation might be an effective biomarker for MET inhibitors, which remains to be confirmed by more clinical data. This review summarizes current research about the molecular mechanism, clinicopathological characterization, treatment strategies and drug resistance mechanisms of MET 14 exon skipping alterations in NSCLC. .

Pubmed
Journal: Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
August/5/2018
Abstract

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder caused by monoclonal Langerhans cells proliferation in bone, skin, lung, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, nervous or hematopoietic system. Pulmonary LCH is a diagnostic trap that is displayed on computed tomography (CT) as an interstitial disorder with honeycomb aspect. In this paper, we present an unusual case of a 26-year-old female that was hospitalized with progressive worsening dyspnea and history of recurrent pneumonia. Lung biopsy showed fibrosis of the interalveolar septa, architectural distortion and large cells with foamy cytoplasm and convoluted nuclei that were marked by CD68, S-100 and the specific antibody CD1a that allowed establishing the diagnosis of pulmonary LCH. The only extrapulmonary manifestations were femoral bone cysts that were radiologically seen 10 years before and were not modified along the years. The therapy consisted on smoking cessation and oral corticosteroids without significant improvement of the clinical symptoms and enlargement of the cystic spaces during six months of follow-up. This case highlights for a rare disorder of the lung that should be taken into account in young patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis.

Pubmed
Journal: The Lancet. Oncology
November/25/2018
Abstract

Leptomeningeal metastasis is a complication of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Diagnosis and monitoring of leptomeningeal metastasis are challenging, and are based on neurological, radiographic, and cerebrospinal fluid findings. Substantial progress has been made in several key aspects of management of leptomeningeal metastasis, including improved characterisation of the genetic profiles, generation of clinically relevant animal models, advances in cerebrospinal fluid liquid biopsy with improved cytology and genotyping analysis, and the development of therapeutic agents with greater CNS penetration. This Review discusses cumulative data on multiple treatment modalities with a particular focus on recent advances in molecularly targeted therapies in subtypes of patients with leptomeningeal metastasis from NSCLC. Future research is needed to further understand the biology of leptomeningeal metastasis and the mechanisms of resistance to treatment.

Pubmed
Journal: Anticancer research
February/20/2018
Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of hypofractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Patients with untreated, histologically proven, unresectable stage III NSCLC and not candidates for chemotherapy were included in this study. C-ion RT was planned and administered with 4 Gy (relative biological effectiveness (RBE)) in daily fractions for a total dose of 64 Gy (RBE) without combined chemotherapy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as suspension of C-ion RT treatment for 2 weeks due to ≥ grade 2 pneumonitis, or any other ≥ grade 3 adverse event, or as any ≥ grade 4 adverse event within 3 months from the start of treatment.

Six patients were treated between June 2013 and December 2014. The planned full dose of C-ion RT (64 Gy (RBE)) was completed in all patients. No patient developed DLT, and no patient experienced toxicities of ≥grade 3 severity. The overall response rate was 100%, and local tumor control was achieved in all patients during the survival period.

Hypofractionated C-ion RT of patients with stage III NSCLC was feasible and well tolerated. Although the number of patients in this study was small, the results support further investigations to confirm the long-term therapeutic efficacy of this treatment.

Pubmed
Journal: Anticancer research
February/6/2018
Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most patients present with advanced inoperable disease. Traditionally, responses to treatments are evaluated using different imaging modalities, which can sometimes be confusing. This is particularly more relevant in stage 3 disease where, after radiation therapy, persistent tumors on scans can represent active disease or scar tissue. We have been evaluating role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in that setting. Here we present the case of a 68-year-old male with stage 3 disease whose primary tumor responded to chemoradiotherapy on imaging, but whose CTC count was higher than the pre-treatment value. The patient later developed liver metastases. In this case, the CTC count more accurately predicted the patient's prognosis and highlights the need for exploration of the CTC count as a tool supplemental to imaging modalities.

Pubmed
Journal: Anticancer research
February/6/2018
Abstract

Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is a predictive marker for immunotherapy effects in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its association with patient characteristics or specimens is controversial. We aimed to retrospectively analyze the association of PD-L1 expression with clinicopathological features of NSCLC patients.

The PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features of NSCLC patients were assessed from January 2017 to June 2017 in the Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Centre, Komagome Hospital were reviewed (n=108).

For PD-L1 expressions of 0% and >1%, multivariate analysis showed that lymph node sample results were associated with positive PD-L1 expression. Archival samples and high serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were associated with negative PD-L1 expression. Sample preservation time and CEA levels correlated with PD-L1 expression.

Nodal metastasis, sample preservation time and CEA levels were associated with PD-L1 expression in NSCLC.

Pubmed
Journal: Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
April/16/2018
Abstract

Objective: To analyze the data of malignant tumor mortality and change in disease burden in Hebei province from 1973 to 2013. Methods: Cancer mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate and the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were calculated by using the data from three rounds of all death causes survey and database of cancer registry in Hebei during 1973-2013. Results: From 1973 to 2013, a linear upward of malignant tumor mortality was observed, with a 51.57% increase. The mortality rate during 1973-1975 was 98.52/100 000 and it was 149.33/100 000 during 2011-2013. During 1973-1975, the YLLs was 17.0/1 000 in males and 12.8/1 000 in females. While during 2011-2013, the YLLs was 23.2/1 000 in males and 15.9/1 000 in females. During 1973-1975, esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were top three leading causes of deaths. During 2011-2013, lung cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were main leading causes of deaths. During the past 40 years, the deaths of esophagus cancer and cervix cancer decreased dramatically, but the deaths of lung cancer and breast cancer increased sharply. Conclusions: The disease burden caused by malignant tumor is becoming more serious in Hebei. It is necessary to strengthen the primary prevention and screening of malignant tumor.

Pubmed
Journal: Oncology reports
November/19/2018
Abstract

The activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and upregulation of excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) are the two most important factors that confer resistance to cisplatin (DDP) therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and ERCC1 expression is a potential approach for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. In the present study, whether combined treatment with DDP and BEZ235, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, could provide a synergistic antitumor effect in A549/DDP cells was investigated, and the possible mechanisms involved were explored. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated in A549/DDP cells. Synergistic interaction of BEZ235 and DDP was evaluated by combination index (CI) analysis. The levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), apoptosis-related proteins and ERCC1 were detected by western blot analysis. Apoptotic cells were quantified by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. The migration and invasion abilities of A549/DDP cells were evaluated by wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. It was observed that the dose reduction index (DRI) of BEZ235 was 13.82 and for DDP it was 13.58, and the CI of combination was <1 over a wide range of doses. In addition, the levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR and ERCC1 were significantly elevated by DDP treatment, and were reduced by co-administration of BEZ235 and DDP. Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly induced apoptotic cell death, decreased migration and invasion abilities compared with those treated with either BEZ235 or DDP alone. In conclusion, the combination of BEZ235 with DDP had synergistic antitumor effects in A549/DDP cells as reflected by reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and suppression of the migration and invasion abilities of A549/DDP cells, and the mechanism mediating these effects may be associated with the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and down-regulation of ERCC1 expression.

Pubmed
Journal: Tumori
August/12/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of the cyclin D1 gene G870A polymorphism in the likelihood of the development of lung cancer and the overall survival of lung cancer patients in the North Indian population.

METHODS

The study consisted of 353 lung cancer cases and 351 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLPP) was done for the CCND1 gene. The association analysis was done using the multiple linear regression, and the survival analysis was done using the Kaplan-Meier and the Cox regression models.

RESULTS

The GA genotype was associated with an increased risk for overall lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.63; p = 0.01). Combined variant genotype showed a significant association for overall lung cancer (OR 1.50; p = 0.03). In addition, smokers with the carrier genotype of CCND1 were found to have a significantly higher risk for lung cancer (OR 1.57; p = 0.04). No significant correlation was observed between the overall survival of lung cancer patients and CCND1 polymorphism. However, on stratifying the subjects on the basis of histology, it was evident that small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients carrying the mutant (AA) genotype showed nearly a fivefold increased mortality rate compared to the wild (GG) genotype (p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

Our results suggest that polymorphic CCND1 may increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers from North India, and it may be associated with the overall survival of SCLC patients.

Pubmed
Journal: Multimedia manual of cardiothoracic surgery : MMCTS
April/4/2018
Abstract

Surgical staging of lung and pleural cancers is crucial for planning treatment and assessing prognosis. In some cases, we need to explore both the mediastinum and the pleural cavity to confirm or rule out tumor dissemination. The combination of video-assisted mediastinoscopic lymphadenectomy (VAMLA) and thoracoscopy through a single transcervical incision allows the surgeon to widen the range of the exploration and improve the staging for lung and pleural cancers. VAMLA consists of complete removal of the mediastinal fat and lymph nodes of the subcarinal space, the right paratracheal and pretracheal areas, and the left paratracheal space. Once this mediastinal tissue is removed, the right mediastinal pleura can be identified and incised. A 30o thoracoscope is then inserted through the video-mediastinoscope into the pleural cavity to obtain samples of pleural fluid and biopsies of the parietal pleura and lung nodules, if present. In the case of left-sided thoracoscopy the access route to the left pleural cavity is anterior to the aortic arch, as for extended cervical mediastinoscopy. The combination of VAMLA and thoracoscopy is useful for exploring the mediastinum and the pleural space from a single incision and in the same surgical setting as the transcervical approach.

Pubmed
Journal: Pharmacological reports : PR
October/8/2018
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Thiazolidine-2,4-dione ring system is used as a pharmacophore to build various heterocyclic compounds aimed to interact with biological targets. In the present study, benzylidene-2,4-thiazolidinedione derivatives (compounds 2-5) were synthesized and screened against cancer cell lines and the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the most active compound (5) was investigated on normal and lung cancer cell line.

METHODS

For in vitro cytotoxic screening, the MTT assay was used for HL60 and K562 (leukemia), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), HT29 (colon adenocarcinoma), HEp-2 (cervix carcinoma) and NCI-H292 (lung carcinoma) tumor cell lines and Alamar-blue assay was used for non-tumor cells (PBMC, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells) were used. Cell morphology was visualized after Giemsa-May-Grunwald staining. DNA content, phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization were measured by flow cytometry. Genotoxicity was assessed by Comet assay.

RESULTS

5-(2-Bromo-5-methoxybenzylidene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (5) presented the most potent cytotoxicity, especially against NCI-H292 lung cancer cell line, with IC50 value of 1.26μg/mL after 72h incubation. None of the compounds were cytotoxic to PBMC. After 48h incubation, externalization of phosphatidylserine, mitochondrial depolarization, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and morphological alterations consistent with apoptosis were observed in NCI-H292 cells treated with compound (5). In addition, compound (5) also induced genotoxicity in NCI-H292 cells (2.8-fold increase in damage index compared to the negative control), but not in PBMC.

CONCLUSIONS

Compound 5 presented selective cytotoxic and genotoxic activity against pulmonary carcinoma (NCI-H292 cells).

Pubmed
Journal: Computational biology and chemistry
July/8/2018
Abstract

The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are generally utilized as a part of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, EGFR T790M mutation results in resistance to most clinically available EGFR TKIs. Third-generation EGFR TKIs against the T790M mutation has been in active clinical development to triumph the resistance problem; they covalently bind with conserved Cys797 inside the EGFR active site, offering both potency and kinase-selectivity. Third generation drugs target C797, which makes the C797S resistance mutation more subtle. EGFR C797S mutation was accounted to be a main mechanism of resistance to the third-generation inhibitors. The C797S mutation gives off an impression of being an ideal target for conquering the acquired resistance to the third generation inhibitors. We have performed structure based-virtual screening strategies for binding of glucokinase activator to EGFR C797S, which can overcome EGFR resistance impediment with mutant-selective allosteric inhibition towards all kinds of mutant EGFR (T790M, L858R, TMLR) and WT EGFR. The final filter of Lipinski's Rule of Five, Jargan's Rule of Three and in silico ADME predictions gave 23 hits, which conform to Lipinski's rule and Jorgensen's rule and all their pharmacokinetic parameters are inside the appropriate range characterized for human use, in this manner demonstrating their potential as a drug-like molecule.

Pubmed
Journal: Handbook of clinical neurology
July/25/2018
Abstract

Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) results from dissemination of cancer cells to both the leptomeninges (pia and arachnoid) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartment. Breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma are the most common solid tumors that cause LM. Recent approval of more active anticancer therapies has resulted in improvement in survival that is partly responsible for an increased incidence of LM. Neurologic deficits, once manifest, are mostly irreversible, and often have a significant impact on patient quality of life. LM-directed therapy is based on symptom palliation, circumscribed use of neurosurgery, limited field radiotherapy, intra-CSF and systemic therapies. Novel methods of detecting LM include detection of CSF circulating tumor cells and tumor cell-free DNA. A recent international guideline for a standardization of response assessment in LM may improve cross-trial comparisons as well as within-trial evaluation of treatment. An increasing number of retrospective studies suggest that molecular-targeted therapy, such as EGFR and ALK inhibitors in lung cancer, trastuzumab in HER2+ breast cancer, and BRAF inhibitors in melanoma, may be effective as part of the multidisciplinary management of LM. Prospective randomized trials with standardized response assessment are needed to further validate these preliminary findings.

Pubmed
Journal: Vojnosanitetski pregled
February/12/2018
Abstract

Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly and most intralobar sequestrations were located in lower lobes.

We reported an unusual 28-yearold female patient with intralobar pulmonary sequestration on the left lower lobe, successfully treated with lobectomy. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest with intravenous contrast revealed multiple clustered cystic lesions in the left lower lobe with aberrant artery from descedenting aorta. Additional aortography showed an aberrant artery (3 mm in diameter) arising from the abdominal aorta and flowing into the lesion.

Standard therapy regimen for pulmonary sequestration includes surgery. CT scan of thorax with intravenous contrast and aortography represent the gold standard for its diagnosis. Tumor-like shadows seen on the chest radiography or CT scans should not be always suspected on malignant lesions.

Pubmed
Journal: Oncology reports
August/29/2018
Abstract

The present study determined the anticancer activity and its mechanism of microRNA‑133b on cell proliferation of cisplatin-induced non-small cell lung cancer cells. The expression of microRNA-133b cisplatin‑induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue was lower than that of para-carcinoma tissue in patients. Overall survival of higher expression in cisplatin-induced NSCLC patients was higher than that of lower expression in cisplatin‑induced NSCLC patients. Over-regulation of microRNA-133b inhibited cell proliferation and LDH activity, induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, suppressed the protein expression of EGFR, PI3K, p-Akt, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, decreased cyclin D1 and increased Bax protein expression in cisplatin‑induced A549 cells. EGFR inhibitor (lapatinib) suppressed EGFR protein expression, inhibited cell proliferation and LDH activity, and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in cisplatin-induced A549 cells by over-regulation of microRNA-133b. When EGFR protein expression was suppressed, PI3K, p-Akt, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, decreased cyclin D1 and increased Bax protein expression in cisplatin-induced A549 cells by over-regulation of microRNA-133b. Altogether, our results indicated that over-regulation of microRNA-133b inhibits cell proliferation of cisplatin-induced NSCLC by PI3K/Akt and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway by targeting EGFR.

Pubmed
Journal: Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
March/11/2018
Abstract

A man in his 60s was admitted to our hospital with anemia. An endoscopic examination revealed advanced gastric cancer. CT revealed peri-gastric and para-aortic lymphadenopathy, and a nodular shadow(20mm)in the lower lobe of the right lung. PET-CT revealed abnormal uptake in the para-aortic lymph node and stomach wall and the nodular shadow in the right lung. A bronchoscopy revealed pulmonary adenocarcinoma. From the above, he was diagnosed with gastric cancer(cT4a, cN2, cM1, cStage IV )and lung cancer(cT2a, cN0, cM0, cStage I B). Because of gastric bleeding, we decided to operate on the gastric cancer before the lung cancer. First, total gastrectomy, splenectomy, and cholecystectomy were performed and then dissection of lymph node No. 16was performed. Histopathological examination indicated that lymph node No. 16was common to lung cancer, so the final diagnosis was gastric cancer(pT4a, pN0, cM0, fStage II A)and lung cancer(cT2a, cN0, pM1, fStage IV ). In this case, lymphadenectomy of No. 16in the first and pathological diagnosis during surgery could help us avoid splenectomy and cholecystectomy, and could reduce invasion.

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