Lung Neoplasms
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Pubmed
Journal: Il Policlinico. Sezione pratica
October/15/2008
Authors
Pubmed
Journal: The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
January/24/2005
Abstract
A 24-year-old female presented with complaints of cough with scanty expectoration, breathlessness on exertion and chest pain for the last three years. These symptoms had appeared during the 12th week of her third pregnancy. She was given anti-tuberculosis treatment at another hospital for nine months without any improvement in symptoms. Four years ago she had been diagnosed to have leprosy of borderline variety for which she had received treatment. On examination, she was tachypnoeic with a respiratory rate of 33 breaths per minute. She had clubbing and small, discrete and firm lymph nodes in the anterior cervical region. Chest examination revealed wheezing with bibasilar end-inspiratory crepitations.
Pubmed
Journal: Chest
March/21/1974
Pubmed
Journal: American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
August/10/1983
Abstract
Glomerulonephritis has often been reported as a paraneoplastic syndrome. In patients with carcinoma, the most common glomerular disease is membranous glomerulonephritis mediated presumably by immune complexes. Minimal change glomerular disease has been hitherto reported, to our knowledge, in only one patient with carcinoma. We report two patients with bronchogenic carcinoma in whom the simultaneous development of the nephrotic syndrome was due to minimal change glomerular disease.
Pubmed
Journal: Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)
May/28/2014
Abstract
T cell adequate function is critical for defense against pathogens. Transient disruption of T cell homeostasis occurs when primarily naive cells undergo antigen-driven expansion and acquire effector functions. Effector T cells then either undergo programmed cell death (PCD, it occurs usually as massive apoptosis during the contraction phase of the immune response) or survive to become memory cells. Two main pathways of effector T cell PCD are discussed in the review: activation induced cell death (AICD), which is a form of extrinsic apoptosis, and neglect-induced death (NID), which is an intrinsic one. Initial studies using in vitro models supported a role of AICD, mostly initiated by TCR receptor triggering in immune contraction. However, it was not finally supported by either recent in vivo experiments or current review authors' clinical studies concerning primed T cell apoptosis in chronic inflammatory lower airway diseases. Actually, Bcl-2 family members seem to be critical for the culling of T cell responses. The antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2 and its proapoptotic antagonist Bcl-2, both under upstream control of autocrine interleukin-2, are the most probable candidates for regulators of T cell contraction. Other possible mechanisms regulating the process of contraction such as death receptor ligation, the impact of cytokines, as well as the importance of transcription factor NF-κB, are discussed. Additionally, attention is turned to the potential role of T cell survival/apoptosis regulation in future therapies of some diseases, including tumors and lung fibrosis.
Pubmed
Journal: Voprosy onkologii
May/28/2014
Abstract
This review summarizes data of publications and meta-analyses devoted ton the use of transthoracic biopsy. It is showed that the method continues to be one of the main ways to diagnose pathological processes in the thoracic cavity's organs, especially tumors of the lungs, pleura, mediastinum and chest wall. Modern methods of navigation trepan-needles can receive sufficient volume of pathological tissue samples for subsequent full morphological study to individualize and optimize treatment algorithms.
Pubmed
Journal: Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
October/4/2016
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the role of miR-21 on multidrug resistance (MDR) in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC)and to provide experimental and theoretical basis for MDR reversal.
METHODS
Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA level of miR-21 both in the chemo-sensitivity cell strain A549 and the chemo-resistance cell strain A549/DDP (primary A549/DDP cells). The miR-21 interference sequence was synthesized and transfected into A549/DDP cells by liposome as the carrier. The miR-21 expression level was knocked down and the change of chemo-sensitivity of cells was detected. Effects of miR-21 on the cell apoptosis and cell cycle in miR-21-depleted A549/DDP cells were analyzed by flow cytometry to elucidate the involvement of miR-21 in MDR reversal in NSCLC. The expression of multidrug-resistant proteins Survivin, Cyclin D1, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Multidrug resistance-associated protein1 (MRP1) and Lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) were detected by Western blot.
RESULTS
MiR-21 level in multidrug-resistant NSCLC cell line A549/DDP was (5.223±0.316) folds higher than that in A549 cell line (t=48.318, P<0.01). Knockdown of miR-21 in A549/DDP cells significantly reversed their sensitivity to cis-DDP, meanwhile, the value of half maximal inhibitory concentration was significantly decreased compared with control group transfected with empty vector ((22.2±1.2) and (48.6±3.2) μmol/L, t=5.608, P<0.01). Cell apoptosis rate in A549/DDP cell with knockdown of miR-21 was significantly increased compared with primary A549/DDP cell line ((27.7±1.1) % and (16.8±1.1) %, t=10.183, P<0.01). Cell cycle G0/G1 phase in A549/DDP cell with knockdown of miR-21 was significantly decreased compared with primary A549/DDP cell line ((37.5±1.2) % and (43.4±2.3) %, t=8.202, P<0.01). Compared with primary A549/DDP cell line, the expression of Survivin, Cyclin D1, EGFR, MRP1 and LRP in A549/DDP cell with knockdown of miR-21 were significantly decreased ((71.7±4.3)%, t=8.325, P<0.01; (69.4±4.5)%, t=5.162, P<0.01; (52.3±3.2)%, t=8.042, P<0.01; (60.6±4.2)%, t=6.641, P<0.01; (72.9±3.8)%, t=4.566, P<0.01, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
miR-21 silencing reverses the multidrug resistance in lung cancer cell via accelerating cell apoptosis and modulating multidrug resistance-related gene expression. miR-21 may be a potential therapeutic candidate in multidrug resistance patients with lung cancer.
Pubmed
Journal: Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Societe d'oto-laryngologie des hopitaux de Paris
November/30/1996
Pubmed
Journal: Magyar sebeszet
April/26/2012
Abstract
BACKGROUND
persistent air leak is one of the major complications following pulmonary resections and, in combination with immobilization, it increases the cost of treatment significantly.
METHODS
Authors analyzed retrospectively data of 40 consecutive patients of a thoracic surgical unit between 01. March 2011 and 30. October 2011. The mean age of 22 men and 18 women was 61.6 years. They applied electronic chest drainage system for all patients after open or VATS wedge resections or lobectomies. Drains were removed according to the electronical drainage data.
RESULTS
After open wedge resections the drainage time was 57 hours, and 6.2 days of hospital stay. Open lobectomies resulted in 59.8 hours drainage time and 6.8 days of hospital stay. VATS wedge resections were followed by 75.2 hours drainage and 5 days of hospital stay, while VATS lobectomies needed 48 hours duration of chest tubing and 4.5 days of in-patient stay.
CONCLUSIONS
Electronic chest drainage systems are easy-to-use, portable and safe, offering objective data of the amount of postoperative air leak, and visualize the trends in graphical format, too. Importantly, early mobilization contributes to cost reduction. In combination with VATS technique surgical stress is significantly reduced as well as postoperative recovery is shortened.
Pubmed
Journal: Japanese journal of clinical oncology
August/23/2015
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
This study is to analyze the data of Chinese subpopulation in the Tarceva Lung Cancer Survival Treatment Study (TRUST-China) which was a global Phase IV study designed to provide erlotinib to previously treated patients with Stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer.
METHODS
Patients with pathologically confirmed, unresectable Stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer who were previously failed on or unsuitable for chemotherapy or radiotherapy were given erlotinib (150 mg/day, oral) until disease progression, intolerable toxicity or death. Efficacy and toxicity of the agent were evaluated.
RESULTS
In total, 519 patients Chinese patients were analyzed. The TRUST-China had similar baseline characteristics to TRUST-Global except the greater percentage of adenocarcinoma and non-smoker cases. The response rate and disease control rate were 24.7 and 75.3%, respectively. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 6.4 and 15.4 months in the general Chinese population in the TRUST, and 10.2 and 18.9 months in non-smokers with adenocarcinoma (n = 254). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly longer in non-smokers with adenocarcinoma than those in other groups (P ≤ 0.0001 and P ≤ 0.0001, respectively). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (≥ 2 vs. ≤ 1, hazard ratio = 1.746, P < 0.0001) and histology (squamous cell carcinoma vs. adenocarcinoma, hazard ratio = 1.595, P = 0.0008) were independent risk factors that affected survival according to Cox regression multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS
We confirmed the efficacy and safety of erlotinib in Chinese patients. Non-smoking patients with adenocarcinoma histology had the best clinical benefits. (NCT00949910).
Pubmed
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
August/20/2015
Abstract
Heterogeneity within the same tumor type has been described to be complex and occur at multiple levels. Less is known about the heterogeneity at the level of metabolism, within a tumor set, yet metabolic pathways are highly relevant to survival signaling in tumors. In this study, we profiled the glucose metabolism of several non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines and could show that, NSCLC display distinct glycolytic metabolism. Genetic and pharmacological perturbation of glycolysis was selectively toxic to NSCLCs with high rates of glycolysis. Furthermore, high expression of hexokinase-2, localized at the mitochondria, was a feature of the NSCLCs dependent on glucose catabolism. Our study provides evidence for quantitative metabolic diversity in NSCLCs and indicates that glucose metabolism provide differential prosurvival benefits to NSCLCs.
Pubmed
Journal: Gan
August/14/1980
Abstract
Antitumor activities of a combination chemotherapy with a water-soluble nitrosourea, 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), and a single dose of 6-thioguanine were studied using three obstinate murine tumor systems, i.e., Lewis lung carcinoma, B16 melanoma, and an advanced stage of L1210 leukemia systems. Therapeutically synergistic effect was observed either definitely against 1- or 2-day-old Lewis lung carcinoma and 6-day-old L1210 leukemia or moderately against 1-day-old B16 melanoma. Single intravenous treatment on day 7 after subcutaneous implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma, when the tumors had already metastasized to the lungs, produced a significant regression of tumor and a significant increment in survival time of tumor-bearing mice. In comparative studies, the combination of ACNU and 6-thioguanine showed a greater and a wider spectrum of antitumor activities against these tumors than those obtained by the combination with ACNU and a single dose of 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, or 6-mercaptopurine. Increment in lethal toxicity for normal and tumor-bearing mice was not observed by the combination of ACNU and 6-thioguanine in contrast to definite increases in this toxicity by the combination of ACNU and 5-fluorouracil. The present experimental results may suggest the clinical utility of the combination chemotherapy with ACNU and 6-thioguanine in the treatment of several solid tumors as well as acute leukemias.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
August/25/2005
Abstract
To evaluate the value of detection of DNA aneuploidy in exfoliated airway epithelia cells of sputum specimens by the automated image cytometry for the identification of lung cancer, 100 patients were divided into patient group (50 patients with lung cancer) and control group (30 patients with tuberculosis and 20 healthy people). Sputum was obtained for the quantitative analysis of DNA content of exfoliated airway epithelial cells with the automated image cytometry, together with the examinations of brush cytology and conventional sputum cytology. Our results showed that DNA aneuploidy (DI>2.5 or 5c) was found in 20 out of 50 sputum samples of lung cancer, 1 out of 30 sputum samples from tuberculosis patients, and none of 20 sputum samples from healthy people. The positive rates of conventional sputum cytology and brush cytology were 16% and 32%, which was lower than that of DNA aneuploidy detection by the automated image cytometry (P<0.01, P>0.05). Our study showed-that automated image cytometry, which uses DNA aneuploidy as a marker for tumor, can detect the malignant cells in sputum samples of lung cancer and it is a sensitive and specific method serving as a complement for the diagnosis of lung cancer.
Pubmed
Journal: World journal of surgery
April/19/1982
Pubmed
Journal: Journal d'urologie
February/22/1984
Abstract
The authors analyse a series of 186 patients with renal cell carcinoma in which 33 patients of Stage IV, with metastases, underwent Nephrectomy and 3 had also operative removal of metastases appearing in early post nephrectomy follow up. The survival periods have been disappointing (none at 5 years). With a review of literature they discuss about the extent of nephrectomy, whether done with purely palliative aim, or along with attempted curative excision simultaneously of the associated metastases. Even if the spontaneous regressions are exceptional and the improvement of survival duration less frequent, metastases are not always a reason not to remove Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Pubmed
Journal: Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica
October/30/2016
Abstract
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major cancer-related death worldwide with only 14% five-year survival rate. Triticumoside, a phenolic compound present in Triticum aestivum sprout extract, has been recognized to have antiobesity and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of triticumoside on cancer cell proliferation and migration has not been studied. In order to elucidate whether triticumoside exhibits an anticancer effect, cells were incubated with different doses of triticumoside, and apoptosis was assessed by observing cell viability, cellular morphological changes, and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Cell cycle analysis, western blotting, wound healing assay, and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction were also performed. Triticumoside exhibited marked cytotoxicity in the cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Triticumoside caused morphological changes, including cellular rounding, nuclear condensation, and shrinkage. Likewise, triticumoside enhanced the sub-G1 proportion of cells. Additionally, triticumoside regulated expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X, and procaspase-3/9. Triticumoside also inhibited migration of the cells through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP2/9). Collectively, these results suggest that triticumoside induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway and suppresses migration via inhibition of MMP2/9 in NSCLC A549 cells.
Pubmed
Journal: Pathologie-biologie
June/6/2005
Abstract
Adenocarcinomas are today the most frequent lung cancers. They are mainly treated by surgery or by chemotherapy, but for the most advanced stages a local cryotherapy can be proposed as a palliative option for bronchial desobstruction.
OBJECTIVE
The aim of this work was to establish an experimental model to study in vivo the biological effects of this technique to propose it as a neoadjuvant treatment.
METHODS
A xenograft system was used: cells from the A549 cell line were injected subcutaneously into SCID mice. Tumour nodes could be treated after seven weeks. The histological study showed that these tumours faithfully reproduced the morphological features of adenocarcinoma, and developed an intratumoral neovascularization. Two protocols of cryotherapy (1 vs 3 cycles of freezing) were performed and the induction of apoptosis was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of cleaved caspase-3.
RESULTS
The basal expression of cleaved caspase-3 in untreated tumours (23%) increased after cryotherapy. The increase was maximal eight hours after treatment (up to 47% of positive cells) and was less important with the first protocol, suggesting a lesser efficiency in the induction of apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS
The establishment of this model, which is faithful to physiological features, allowed us to demonstrate in vivo time and dose-dependent effects of cryotherapy.
Pubmed
Journal: Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
April/21/2004
Abstract
Serum haemoglobin has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor for a number of cancers including head and neck, bladder, cervix and anal cancers. This study has investigated the prognostic significance of pre-treatment haemoglobin in 164 consecutive patients receiving radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Forty-six received conventional fractionation to 60 Gy in 30 fractions and the remainder received accelerated fractionation, either CHART, 54 Gy in 36 fractions over 12 days (27 patients) or CHARTWEL, 60 Gy in 40 fractions over 18 days (76 patients). Patients were divided into three equal groups by haemoglobin concentration. The median overall survival in each of the three groups from lowest to highest haemoglobin was 17.5 months (95% CI 7.9 25), 18.4 months (95% CI 15.0 25.9) and 16.3 months (95% CI 13.0-19.6). No significant effect of pre-treatment haemoglobin concentration was seen in predicting overall, local disease free or metastases free survival.
Pubmed
Journal: Seminars in oncology
March/18/2004
Abstract
The novel antifolate pemetrexed targets multiple enzymes involved in folate metabolism, resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis. Pemetrexed has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models against a variety of tumor types, including non-small cell lung cancer. Phase II studies have confirmed its single-agent activity and manageable toxicity profile, and pemetrexed has shown antitumor activity in combination with other chemotherapeutics, including gemcitabine, taxanes, platinums, and vinorelbine, in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A large ongoing phase III trial is comparing the activity of pemetrexed versus docetaxel in the second-line setting. Supplementation with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 was shown to reduce pemetrexed-related toxicity and increase its therapeutic index. These data suggest that pemetrexed has significant activity in advanced non-small cell lung cancer and represents a new treatment option for patients with this disease.
Pubmed
Journal: Anticancer research
May/9/2007
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To improve tumor control in lung metastases using a novel method: unilateral chemoembolization of the lung by instillation of degradable starch microspheres (DSM) and cytotoxic agents via the pulmonal artery.
METHODS
A rodent model of solitary metastasis (CC531 adenocarcinoma) was studied. The animals were randomized into three groups: the control group receiving carboplatin (45 mg/kg) intravenously, an isolated lung perfusion (ILP) group recieving buffered starch solution and carboplatin (15 mg/kg) and a third group receiving chemoembolization with carboplatin (15 mg/kg) and DSM (2 ml/kg). The total platinum concentration in serum, lung and lung tumor at defined times (15, 30, 60, 120 min) was measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS).
RESULTS
The area under concentration (AUC) versus time curves showed a 7.9- to 42.6-fold higher concentration in the tumor tissue comparing the ILP and chemoembolization group to the control group (p < 0.01). In the comparison of the AUCs of ILP versus chemoembolization, the tumor tissue of the lung showed a 5.4-fold higher concentration in the chemoembolization group (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
This is the first study to measure the concentration of carboplatin during chemoembolization of the lung. Compared to intravenous therapy, chemoembolization produced higher tumor tissue concentrations. Comparing chemoembolization to ILP, there was also an increase of carboplatin in the tumor tissue, without histological damage of the surrounding lung parenchyma.
Pubmed
Journal: Concours medical
November/30/1996
Authors
Pubmed
Journal: Grudnaia khirurgiia (Moscow, Russia)
November/30/1996
Pubmed
Journal: Voprosy onkologii
March/8/1967
Pubmed
Journal: Vestnik rentgenologii i radiologii
July/16/1966
Authors
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