Lung Neoplasms
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Publication
Journal: The Journal of laryngology and otology
October/31/2019
Abstract
To analyse the incidence of second primary lung cancer following treatment for laryngeal cancer and to identify risk factors for its development.Retrospective case series.The five-year actuarial incidence of second primary lung cancer was 8 per cent (1.6 per cent per year). This was associated with a very poor median survival of seven months following diagnosis. Supraglottic tumours were associated with an increased risk of second primary lung cancer compared to glottic tumours in both univariate (hazard ratio = 4.32, p = 0.005) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio = 4.14, p = 0.03).Second primary lung cancer occurs at a rate of 1.6 per cent per year following a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer, and this is associated in a statistically significant manner with supraglottic primary tumour. The recent National Lung Cancer Screening Trial suggests a survival advantage of 20 per cent at five years with annual screening using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest in a comparable cohort to ours. These findings have the potential to inform post-treatment surveillance protocols in the future.
Publication
Journal: Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals
October/1/2019
Publication
Journal: Studies in health technology and informatics
August/23/2019
Abstract
We completed a pilot study to guide the development of the VA Research Precision Oncology Data Commons infrastructure as a collaboration platform with the greater research community. Our results using a small subset of patients from the VA's Precision Oncology Program demonstrate the feasibility of our data sharing platform to build predictive models for lung cancer survival using machine learning, as well as highlight the potential of target genome sequencing data.
Publication
Journal: Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
August/22/2019
Abstract
Objective: To investigate whether elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil (NE) in the blood is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer incidence. Methods: From 2006 to 2007, all employees and retirees from Kailuan (Group) Limited liability Corporation were included in this Kailuan Cohort study. The last follow-up date was December 2015. Data on new cases of lung cancer were collected, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to the relationship between baseline CRP and NE at baseline and risk of lung cancer. Results: A total of 92 735 participants were enrolled in this study. During the follow-up, 850 new cases of lung cancer were identified. All subjects were divided into four groups according to the combination level of CRP and NE at baseline: CRP≤3 mg/L and NE≤4×10(9)/L(Group A), CRP≤3 mg/L and NE>4×10(9)/L(Group B), CRP>3 mg/L and NE≤4×10(9)/L(Group C), CRP>3 mg/L and NE>4×10(9)/L(Group D). The cumulative incidence of lung cancer were 950/100 000, 1 030/100 000, 1 081/100 000 and 1 596/100 000 in these four groups, respectively (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional risk model showed that participants from Group D had an significantly increased 72% risks of lung cancer when compared to Group A (95% CI: 1.40~2.12, P<0.001). Stratified analyses gender showed that males in Group D had higher risk of lung cancer when compared with participants in Group A (HR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.40~2.15, P<0.001). Conclusion: Elevated levels of CRP and NE might increase the risk of lung cancer.
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Publication
Journal: Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
August/19/2019
Abstract
Objective: To investigate the expression and significance of MNAT1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the biological impact of MNAT1 expression in lung cancer cells at the cellular level and related signaling pathway. Methods: Forty-eight cases of NSCLC tissues and paired normal tissues was collected at Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from 2015 to 2017. The expression level of MNAT1 was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between MNAT1 and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The expression of MNAT1 was detected in lung cancer cells, MNAT1 level was analyzed after knocking down in A549 and H322 cells by siRNA; Plasmid vector of overexpressing MNAT1 was constructed, followed by transfecting H1299 cells and observing proliferation and migration at the cellular level. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the effect of the expression of MNAT1 on cell cycle, and Western blot was used to explore the possible molecular mechanism of MNAT1 on cell proliferation and cell cycle. Results: Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression score of MNAT1 was (4.07±3.55) in normal lung tissue and (7.33±4.09) in NSCLC tissue (P<0.01), and correlated with lymph node metastasis. At the cellular level, MNAT1 promoted cell proliferation(P<0.05), migration(P<0.05) and cell cycle progression(P<0.01). Conclusions: MNAT1 may be involved in the development of non-small cell lung cancer.MNAT1 affects cell cycle and proliferation through the Akt/p21 pathway.
Publication
Journal: Salud publica de Mexico
July/5/2019
Abstract
La detección temprana de cáncer pulmonar (CP) en población de alto riesgo tiene el potencial de diagnosticar la enfermedad en estadios tempranos y facilitar el tratamiento oportuno con el fin de disminuir la tasa de mortalidad. En México, como en otros países en vías de desarrollo, además del tabaquismo, la exposición al humo de leña se posiciona como uno de los principales factores de riesgo para desarrollar CP, lo cual no se ha considerado en estudios de tamizaje previamente publicados. Distintas interrogantes surgen en relación con quiénes son las personas que presentan un alto riesgo de desarrollar CP en América Latina, cuál es el costo-beneficio de poner en marcha un programa de detección oportuna de CP en México y cuáles son los obstáculos que los países de la región enfrentan para su implementación.
Publication
Journal: Cancer
February/27/2019
Abstract
Full-scale implementation of lung cancer screening in the United States will increase detection of early stages. This study was aimed at assessing the capacity required for treating those cancers.A well-established microsimulation model was extended with treatment data from the National Cancer Database. We assessed how treatment demand would change when implementing lung cancer screening in 2018. Three policies were assessed: 1) annual screening of current smokers and former smokers who quit fewer than 15 years ago, aged 55 to 80 years, with a smoking history of at least 30 pack-years (US Preventive Services Task Force [USPSTF] recommendations); 2) annual screening of current smokers and former smokers who quit fewer than 15 years ago, aged 55 to 77 years, with a smoking history of at least 30 pack-years (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS] recommendations); and 3) annual screening of current smokers and former smokers who quit fewer than 10 years ago, aged 55 to 75 years, with a smoking history of at least 40 pack-years (the most cost-effective policy in Ontario [Ontario]). The base-case screening adherence was a constant 50%. Sensitivity analyses assessed other adherence levels, including a linear buildup to 50% between 2018 and 2027.The USPSTF policy would require 37.0% more lung cancer surgeries in 2015-2040 than no screening, 2.2% less radiotherapy, and 5.4% less chemotherapy; 5.7% more patients would require any therapy. The increase in surgical demand would be 96.1% in 2018, 46.0% in 2023, 38.3% in 2028, and 24.9% in 2040. Adherence strongly influenced results. By 2018, surgical demand would range from 52,619 (20% adherence) to 96,121 (80%). With a gradual buildup of adherence, the increase in surgical demand would be 9.6% in 2018, 38.3% in 2023, 42.0% in 2028, and 24.4% in 2040. Results for the CMS and Ontario policies were similar, although the changes in comparison with no screening were smaller.Full-scale implementation of lung cancer screening causes a major increase in surgical demand, with a peak within the first 5 years. A gradual buildup of adherence can spread this peak over time. Careful surgical capacity planning is essential for successfully implementing screening.
Publication
Journal: Multimedia manual of cardiothoracic surgery : MMCTS
November/25/2018
Abstract
Minimally invasive pulmonary segmentectomy makes adequate oncologic treatment possible in selected cases while preserving lung parenchyma and minimizing perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. Most lung segments may be resected as segmentectomies or as part of bisegmentectomies (as is the case for the lingula). Although several variations of minimally invasive pulmonary segmentectomy have been described, I favor a fully thoracoscopic multiport approach that offers direct access to the segmental structures and is straightforward and versatile enough to allow adaptation in case of unexpected intraoperative findings (such as conversion to lobectomy in the case of positive margins). Key aspects of the procedure include proper patient positioning, appropriate positioning of operating trocars, standardized technique to expose and dissect the segmental vein, bronchus, and artery, and accurate division of the fissure and intersegmental plane.
Publication
Journal: Lab on a chip
November/25/2018
Abstract
Recapitulation of the tumor microenvironment is critical for probing mechanisms involved in cancer, and for evaluating the tumor-killing potential of chemotherapeutic agents, targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Microfluidic devices have emerged as valuable tools for both mechanistic studies and for preclinical evaluation of therapeutic agents, due to their ability to precisely control drug concentrations and gradients of oxygen and other species in a scalable and potentially high throughput manner. Most existing in vitro microfluidic cancer models are comprised of cultured cancer cells embedded in a physiologically relevant matrix, collocated with vascular-like structures. However, the recent emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) as a powerful therapeutic modality against many cancers has created a need for preclinical in vitro models that accommodate interactions between tumors and immune cells, particularly for assessment of unprocessed tumor fragments harvested directly from patient biopsies. Here we report on a microfluidic model, termed EVIDENT (ex vivo immuno-oncology dynamic environment for tumor biopsies), that accommodates up to 12 separate tumor biopsy fragments interacting with flowing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a dynamic microenvironment. Flow control is achieved with a single pump in a simple and scalable configuration, and the entire system is constructed using low-sorption materials, addressing two principal concerns with existing microfluidic cancer models. The system sustains tumor fragments for multiple days, and permits real-time, high-resolution imaging of the interaction between autologous TILs and tumor fragments, enabling mapping of TIL-mediated tumor killing and testing of various ICI treatments versus tumor response. Custom image analytic algorithms based on machine learning reported here provide automated and quantitative assessment of experimental results. Initial studies indicate that the system is capable of quantifying temporal levels of TIL infiltration and tumor death, and that the EVIDENT model mimics the known in vivo tumor response to anti-PD-1 ICI treatment of flowing TILs relative to isotype control treatments for syngeneic mouse MC38 tumors.
Publication
Journal: Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
November/25/2018
Abstract
To compare overall survival (OS) after radiofrequency (RF) ablation and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) at high-volume centers in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Cases in the National Cancer Database of stage 1a and 1b NSCLC treated with primary RF ablation or SBRT from 2004 to 2014 were included. Patients treated at low-volume centers, defined as facilities below the 95th percentile in volume of cases performed, were excluded. Outcomes measured include OS and rate of 30-day readmission. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate OS. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. Propensity score matched cohort analysis was performed. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.
The final cohort comprised 4,454 cases of SBRT and 335 cases of RF ablation. Estimated median survival and follow-up were 38.8 months and 42.0 months, respectively. Patients treated with RF ablation had significantly more comorbidities (P < .001) and higher risk for an unplanned readmission within 30 days (hazard ratio = 11.536; P < .001). No difference in OS for the unmatched groups was found on multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = .285). No difference was found in the matched groups with 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS of 85.5%, 54.3%, and 31.9% in the SBRT group vs 89.3%, 52.7%, and 27.1% in the RF ablation group (P = .835).
No significant difference in OS was seen between patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with RF ablation and SBRT.
Publication
Journal: Diagnostic cytopathology
November/25/2018
Abstract
BACKGROUND
In 2016, the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) issued a new classification scheme for respiratory cytology. We aim to evaluate our samples according to this classification and to assess risk of malignancy and diagnostic yield of different cytological modalities.
METHODS
Respiratory specimens (sputum, bronchial wash/brush, BAL and FNA) obtained between 2007 and 2016 were reclassified according to PSC guidelines. Risk of malignancy for each diagnostic category was determined. Diagnostic yield was evaluated based on three-categorical approach.
RESULTS
One thousand, two hundred and ninety respiratory specimens were retrieved, of which 280 had histologic follow-up. Samples were reclassified as nondiagnostic 16%, negative for malignancy 53%, atypical 5.4%, neoplastic (benign neoplasm/low-grade carcinoma) 0.4%, suspicious for malignancy 2.1% and malignant 23.1%. Risk of malignancy for each category was 64.01% for ND, 48.27% for NM, 59.09% for A, 100% for N-B-LG; 90% for SM and 89.74% for M. When only malignant cases were considered positive tests, cytology sensitivity was 55% and specificity 88%.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results were in line with PSC guidelines, but the use of multiple cytological techniques may cause some discrepancies in overall diagnostic yield and in estimated risks of malignancy, which is important due to the widespread utilization of different cytological procedures.
Publication
Journal: Tuberkuloz ve toraks
November/25/2018
Abstract
UNASSIGNED
In the elderly population, diagnosis and initial treatment should be considered as soon as possible because of co-morbidities and complications. We aimed to evaluate the Þndings of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to determine the diagnostic utility of EBUS-TBNA in patients 65 years of age and older.
UNASSIGNED
We retrospectively evaluated records of patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA from February 2014 to August 2017 for diagnosis and/or staging. The demographic data, clinical and EBUS Þndings, diagnostic procedures during EBUS-TBNA and the incidence of accurate diagnosis with EBUS-TBNA in patients 65 years of age and older and in younger patients were determined.
UNASSIGNED
A total of 496 patients [younger patients (< 65 years, n= 293, M/F: 198/95) and older patients (≥ 65 years, n= 203, M/F: 155/48)] who underwent EBUS-TBNA at our clinic were included. The mean age of the older patients was 69.7 ± 5.1 years, while the mean age of the younger patients was 51.4 ± 10.4 years. Overall, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA was 96.5% in the older patients and 98% in the younger patients. The diagnostic utility of EBUS-TBNA in the two study groups was similar (p= 0.191). While 196 (96.6%) of the older patients had no complications during EBUS-TBNA, 285 (97.3%) of the younger patients had no complications. Complication rates were not statistically different between the two groups (p= 0.389).
UNASSIGNED
In general, EBUS-TBNA is a safe method. The results of this study demonstrated the high diagnostic value of EBUS-TBNA and its low complication rates in patients 65 years of age and older.
Publication
Journal: Clinical imaging
November/19/2018
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To compare imaging features of pancreatic metastases (PM) with those of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC).
METHODS
CT and MR scans of 24 patients with 54 PM and 30 patients with PDAC were reviewed to evaluate the imaging features, which were compared by using a Chi square test.
RESULTS
We found a statistically significant difference between PM and PDAC based on location (P < 0.001), margins (P < 0.001), arterial enhancement (P = 0.004), rim enhancement (P < 0.001), pancreatic duct dilatation (P = 0.01), common bile duct dilatation (P = 0.003), vascular involvement (P = 0.02), parenchymal atrophy (P < 0.001), peripancreatic fluid (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS
Imaging features might be helpful to differentiate PM from PDAC.
Publication
Journal: Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
November/19/2018
Abstract
Standard of care radiotherapy in LA-NSCLC is 60-66 Gy in 30-33 fractions. However outcomes for these patients are poor with 5-year survival in the range of 10-20%. Randomised controlled trials have shown that dose escalation in a linear fashion does not improve outcomes for all patients, thus there is a need to tailor the prescription to the individual patient. This review assesses the strategies published to personalise the radiation therapy dose prescription in LA-NSCLC. A systematic and scoping search of the literature was performed to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. 19 relevant studies were identified ranging from prospective clinical trials to mathematically modelled concept studies. Heterogeneity existed between all clinical studies. Nine heterogeneous publications proposed methodology to adapt the dose prescription to the individual patient. A number of encouraging strategies have been identified but fall short of the evidence level required to influence clinical practice.
Publication
Journal: Medical physics
November/18/2018
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Regional ventilation and its response to radiation dose can be estimated using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and image registration. This study investigated the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on ventilation and the dependence of radiation-induced ventilation change on pre-RT ventilation derived from 4DCT.
METHODS
Three 4DCT scans were acquired from each of 12 subjects: two scans before RT and one scan 3 months after RT. The 4DCT datasets were used to generate the pre-RT and post-RT ventilation maps by registering the inhale phase image to the exhale phase image and computing the Jacobian determinant of the resulting transformation. The ventilation change between pre-RT and post-RT was calculated by taking a ratio of the post-RT Jacobian map to the pre-RT Jacobian map. The voxel-wise ventilation change between pre- and post-RT was investigated as a function of dose and pre-RT ventilation.
RESULTS
Lung regions receiving over 20 Gy exhibited a significant decrease in function (3.3%, P < 0.01) compared to those receiving less than 20 Gy. When the voxels were stratified into high and low pre-RT function by thresholding the Jacobian map at 10% volume expansion (Jacobian = 1.1), high-function voxels exhibited 4.8% reduction in function for voxels receiving over 20 Gy, a significantly greater decline (P = 0.037) than the 2.4% reduction in function for low-function voxels. Ventilation decreased linearly with dose in both high-function and low-function regions. High-function regions showed a significantly larger decline in ventilation (P ≪ 0.001) as dose increased (1.4% ventilation reduction/10 Gy) compared to low-function regions (0.3% ventilation reduction/10 Gy). With further stratification of pre-RT ventilation, voxels exhibited increasing dose-dependent ventilation reduction with increasing pre-RT ventilation, with the largest pre-RT Jacobian bin (pre-RT Jacobian between 1.5 and 1.6) exhibiting a ventilation reduction of 4.8% per 10 Gy.
CONCLUSIONS
Significant ventilation reductions were measured after radiation therapy treatments, and were dependent on the dose delivered to the tissue and the pre-RT ventilation of the tissue. For a fixed radiation dose, lung tissue with high pre-RT ventilation experienced larger decreases in post-RT ventilation than lung tissue with low pre-RT ventilation.
Publication
Journal: Optics letters
November/18/2018
Abstract
A new type of functional optical microscope system called three-dimensional (3D) stimulation and imaging-based functional optical microscopy (SIFOM) is proposed, to the best of our knowledge. SIFOM can precisely stimulate user-defined targeted biological cells and can simultaneously record the volumetric fluorescence distribution in a single acquisition. Precise and simultaneous stimulation of fluorescent-labeled biological cells is achieved by multiple 3D spots generated by digital holograms displayed on a phase-mode spatial light modulator. Single-shot 3D acquisition of the fluorescence distribution is accomplished by common-path off-axis incoherent digital holographic microscopy in which a diffraction grating with a focusing lens is displayed on another phase-mode spatial light modulator. The effectiveness of the proposed functional microscope system was verified in experiments using fluorescent microbeads and human lung cancer cells located at various defocused positions. The system can be used for manipulating the states of cells in optogenetics.
Publication
Journal: Clinical and experimental dermatology
November/15/2018
Abstract
Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short-stature, sparse hair and impaired cellular immunity. We describe a young girl who was diagnosed with CHH based on the findings of recurrent infections, short stature with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, and a confirmed bi-allelic RMRP gene mutation. At 13 years, the patient developed an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven lymphoproliferative disorder involving the lung, which responded partially to chemotherapy. Simultaneously, she developed multiple indurated plaques involving her face, which had histological findings of granulomatous inflammation and EBV-associated low-grade lymphomatoid granulomatosis. The patient received a matched unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplant at 15 years of age, and her immunological parameters and skin lesions improved. Lymphomatoid forms of granulomatosis and cutaneous EBV-associated malignancies have not been described previously in CHH. This case highlights the possibility of EBV-associated cutaneous malignancy in CHH.
Publication
Journal: Molecular diagnosis & therapy
November/15/2018
Abstract
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) belong to a heterogeneous family of rare tumors with very broad and complex clinical behavior. Due to their heterogeneity, the lack of specific symptoms and the absence of sensitive methods for early detection, patients are usually diagnosed when the disease is in an advanced state for which curative treatments are scarce. In most cases, these few treatments try to prolong the survival of patients, maintaining the quality of life. The identification of biomarkers could help to improve early diagnosis and to choose the most suitable therapeutic strategy. This paper provides a review of the current histopathological diagnostic approaches for lung NET subtypes, including the predictive and prognostic factors, to help in the early diagnosis of this disease.
Publication
Journal: Journal of medical systems
November/15/2018
Abstract
If Electronic Health Records contain a large amount of information about the patient's condition and response to treatment, which can potentially revolutionize the clinical practice, such information is seldom considered due to the complexity of its extraction and analysis. We here report on a first integration of an NLP framework for the analysis of clinical records of lung cancer patients making use of a telephone assistance service of a major Spanish hospital. We specifically show how some relevant data, about patient demographics and health condition, can be extracted; and how some relevant analyses can be performed, aimed at improving the usefulness of the service. We thus demonstrate that the use of EHR texts, and their integration inside a data analysis framework, is technically feasible and worth of further study.
Publication
Journal: BMJ case reports
November/6/2018
Abstract
A 72-year-old man was brought to the emergency department with acute onset confusion and haemoptysis. Chest X-ray showed a possible lung mass, while CT head showed a fluid-filled, space-occupying lesion (SOL) in the right frontal lobe of the brain. MRI head indicated that this SOL had spilt its contents into the subarachnoid and intraventricular spaces. Due to a fluctuating Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the patient underwent emergency debulking. Macroscopically, a frail-walled cystic tumour filled with straw-coloured fluid was noted; histology confirmed metastasis from a primary lung adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was given, with a view to commence systemic therapy. The patient, however, deteriorated and unfortunately passed away a few weeks after completing radiotherapy. This patient presented with leptomeningeal metastasis as the first presentation of a lung adenocarcinoma, and had a highly unusual mechanism by which leptomeningeal spread had occurred, with metastatic brain tumour spilling its contents into the meningeal spaces.
Publication
Journal: BMC bioinformatics
November/5/2018
Abstract
'Next-generation' (NGS) sequencing has wide application in medical genetics, including the detection of somatic variation in cancer. The Ion Torrent-based (IONT) platform is among NGS technologies employed in clinical, research and diagnostic settings. However, identifying mutations from IONT deep sequencing with high confidence has remained a challenge. We compared various computational variant-calling methods to derive a variant identification pipeline that may improve the molecular diagnostic and research utility of IONT.
Using IONT, we surveyed variants from the 409-gene Comprehensive Cancer Panel in whole-section tumors, intra-tumoral biopsies and matched normal samples obtained from frozen tissues and blood from four early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We used MuTect, Varscan2, IONT's proprietary Ion Reporter, and a simple subtraction we called "Poor Man's Caller." Together these produced calls at 637 loci across all samples. Visual validation of 434 called variants was performed, and performance of the methods assessed individually and in combination. Of the subset of inspected putative variant calls (n=223) in genomic regions that were not intronic or intergenic, 68 variants (30%) were deemed valid after visual inspection. Among the individual methods, the Ion Reporter method offered perhaps the most reasonable tradeoffs. Ion Reporter captured 83% of all discovered variants; 50% of its variants were visually validated. Aggregating results from multiple packages offered varied improvements in performance.
Overall, Ion Reporter offered the most attractive performance among the individual callers. This study suggests combined strategies to maximize sensitivity and positive predictive value in variant calling using IONT deep sequencing.
Publication
Journal: Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
November/4/2018
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Developing new supportive/palliative care services for lung cancer should encompass effective ways to promptly identify and address patients' healthcare needs. We examined whether an in-clinic, nurse-led consultation model, which was driven by use of a patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure, was feasible and acceptable in the identification of unmet needs in patients with lung cancer.
METHODS
A two-part, repeated-measures, mixed-methods study was conducted. Part 1 employed literature reviews and stakeholder focus group interviews to inform selection of a population-appropriate needs assessment PRO measure. In Part 2, lung cancer nurse specialists (CNS) conducted three consecutive monthly consultations with patients. Recruitment/retention data, PRO data, and exit interview data were analysed.
RESULTS
The Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral to Care was the PRO measure selected based on Part 1 data. Twenty patients (response rate: 26%) participated in Part 2; 13 (65%) participated in all three consultations/assessments. The PRO measure helped patients to structure their thinking and prompted them to discuss previously underreported and/or sensitive issues, including such topics as family concerns, or death and dying. Lung CNS highlighted how PRO-measures-driven consultations differed from previous ones, in that their scope was broadened to allow nurses to offer personalised care. Small-to-moderate reductions in all domains of need were noted over time.
CONCLUSIONS
Nurse-led PRO-measures-driven consultations are acceptable and conditionally feasible to holistically identify and effectively manage patient needs in modern lung cancer care. PRO data should be systematically collected and audited to assist in the provision of supportive care to people with lung cancer.
Publication
Journal: Journal of radiation research
November/4/2018
Abstract
This study aimed to examine late radiological changes after proton beam therapy (PBT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to clarify correlations between mass-like radiological changes and patient characteristics. CT scans of patients who underwent passive scattering PBT for T1-2N0M0 NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were considered eligible if follow-up CT was performed for at least 2 years, with no definite evidence of local recurrence. The following five periods were defined: (i) 6-12 months, (ii) 12-24 months, (iii) 24-36 months, (iv) 36-48 months and (v) 48-60 months after PBT. Late (≥6 months) radiological changes were scored by consensus of three radiation oncologists according to classifications set forth by Koenig (Radiation injury of the lung after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002;178:1383-8.). CT scans of 113 patients (median follow-up, 36 months; range, 24-137 months) were evaluated. Late radiological changes during Periods (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) included modified conventional pattern (80%, 79%, 72%, 58% and 56%, respectively), mass-like changes (8%, 9%, 14%, 22% and 18%, respectively), scar-like changes (4%, 9%, 11%, 17% and 24%, respectively) and no increased density (8%, 3%, 3%, 2% and 2%, respectively). Mass-like changes were observed in 23 patients (20%). Among patients who developed mass-like changes, the median interval between the initiation of PBT and the onset of mass-like changes was 19 months (range, 6-62 months). In multivariate analysis, a peripheral location was found to be a significant factor (P = 0.035; odds ratio: 4.44; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-21.28). In conclusion, mass-like changes were observed in 20% of patients who underwent PBT. Patients with peripheral tumors showed a higher incidence of mass-like changes.
Publication
Journal: American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Annual Meeting
November/1/2018
Abstract
Although lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and worldwide, the rate at which Americans are dying from lung cancer is declining. Improving survival can be explained, in large part, by a growing understanding of the heterogeneous biology of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as recent successes of novel therapeutic strategies more effective and tolerable than platinum-based chemotherapy. We now recognize distinct subtypes of NSCLC, defined by molecular profiling and immunohistochemistry, with different treatment algorithms, including targeted small molecular inhibitors and immunotherapy for each. Both biomarker selection and preferred frontline strategies continue to evolve rapidly, making it difficult for many practitioners to keep up. In this review, we will first describe the recommended initial workup for a patient with advanced or metastatic NSCLC in 2018; next, we present an algorithm to aid oncologists in the selection of the most appropriate therapy for treatment-naive patients with NSCLC, and finally, we offer a look into future treatment options through a discussion of ongoing clinical trials.
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