Gastritis
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Publication
Journal: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
August/29/2006
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori.
Publication
Journal: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
December/4/1997
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and plays important roles in peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori has been found in the stomachs of humans in all parts of the world. In developing countries, 70 to 90% of the population carries H. pylori. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is lower. There appears to be no substantial reservoir of H. pylori aside from the human stomach. Transmission can occur by iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes. H. pylori is able to colonize and persist in a unique biological niche within the gastric lumen. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which appears essential to the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A variety of tests to diagnose H. pylori infection are now available. Histological examination of gastric tissue, culture, rapid urease testing, DNA probes, and PCR analysis, when used to test gastric tissue, all require endoscopy. In contrast, breath tests, serology, gastric juice PCR, and urinary excretion of [15N]ammonia are noninvasive tests that do not require endoscopy. In this review, we highlight advances in the detection of the presence of the organism and methods of differentiating among types of H. pylori, and we provide a background for appropriate chemotherapy of the infection.
Publication
Journal: Science
August/19/2002
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori adherence in the human gastric mucosa involves specific bacterial adhesins and cognate host receptors. Here, we identify sialyl-dimeric-Lewis x glycosphingolipid as a receptor for H. pylori and show that H. pylori infection induced formation of sialyl-Lewis x antigens in gastric epithelium in humans and in a Rhesus monkey. The corresponding sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA) was isolated with the "retagging" method, and the underlying sabA gene (JHP662/HP0725) was identified. The ability of many H. pylori strains to adhere to sialylated glycoconjugates expressed during chronic inflammation might thus contribute to virulence and the extraordinary chronicity of H. pylori infection.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation
October/9/1996
Abstract
Genetic and environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis of clinical and experimental chronic intestinal inflammation. We investigated the influence of normal luminal bacteria and several groups of selected bacterial strains on spontaneous gastrointestinal and systemic inflammation in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Rats maintained germfree for 3-9 mo were compared with littermates conventionalized with specific pathogen-free bacteria. Subsequently, germfree transgenic rats were colonized with groups of five to eight bacteria that were either facultative or strictly anaerobic. Transgenic germfree rats had no gastroduodenitis, colitis, or arthritis, but developed epididymitis and dermatitis to the same degree as conventionalized rats. Colonic proinflammatory cytokine expression was increased in transgenic conventionalized rats but was undetectable in germfree and nontransgenic rats. Colitis progressively increased over the first 4 wk of bacterial exposure, then plateaued. Only transgenic rats colonized with defined bacterial cocktails which contained Bacteroides spp. had colitis and gastritis. Normal luminal bacteria predictably and uniformly induce chronic colonic, gastric and systemic inflammation in B27 transgenic F344 rats, but all bacterial species do not have equal activities.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Pathology
June/15/1986
Abstract
Campylobacter pyloridis is a spiral bacterium which was seen by histopathologists several years before it was cultured in 1982 in Perth, Western Australia. It has unique cellular fatty acids, predominantly tetradecanoic acid and cis-11, 12 methylene octadecanoic acid. It also has a unique ultrastructure which is different from that of other campylobacters. C pyloridis possesses a powerful urease enzyme and produces large amounts of extracellular catalase. Both these features may be important virulence factors, allowing it to occupy a protected niche in the stomach below the mucus layer but above the gastric mucosa. Specific lesions are found in the gastric mucosa, and ultrastructural studies show the presence of adherence pedestals identical with those found with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli of the intestine. Histological examination of gastric biopsy tissue has shown that C pyloridis is strongly associated with active chronic gastritis, when polymorphonuclear leucocytes are present, and is not found on normal mucosa except when a biopsy specimen from elsewhere in the stomach shows active chronic gastritis. When patients with symptoms caused by gastritis are identified dual antibacterial treatment, combining the action of bismuth in the stomach with a systemic antibiotic, can eradicate C pyloridis, with remission of symptoms and restoration of normal epithelial morphology. Most peptic ulcers relapse after modern acid reducing treatment, and antibacterial treatment may be beneficial in preventing relapse.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Research
February/13/2008
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, and strains that possess the cag secretion system, which translocates the bacterial effector CagA into host cells, augment cancer risk. H. pylori strains that express the vacuolating cytotoxin or the outer membrane protein OipA are similarly associated with severe pathologic outcomes. We previously reported that an in vivo adapted H. pylori strain, 7.13, induces gastric adenocarcinoma in rodent models of gastritis. In the current study, we used carcinogenic strain 7.13 as a prototype to define the role of virulence constituents in H. pylori-mediated carcinogenesis. Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild-type strain 7.13 or cagA(-), vacA(-), or oipA(-) mutants for 12 to 52 weeks. All infected gerbils developed gastritis; however, inflammation was significantly attenuated in animals infected with the cagA(-) but not the vacA(-) or oipA(-) strains. Gastric dysplasia and cancer developed in >50% of gerbils infected with either the wild-type or vacA(-) strain but in none of the animals infected with the cagA(-) strain. Inactivation of oipA decreased beta-catenin nuclear localization in vitro and reduced the incidence of cancer in gerbils. OipA expression was detected significantly more frequently among H. pylori strains isolated from human subjects with gastric cancer precursor lesions versus persons with gastritis alone. These results indicate that loss of CagA prevents the development of cancer in this model. Inactivation of oipA attenuates beta-catenin nuclear translocation and also decreases the incidence of carcinoma. In addition to defining factors that mediate H. pylori-induced cancer, these results provide insight into mechanisms that may regulate the development of other malignancies arising within the context of inflammatory states.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation
August/18/1994
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation
April/11/2001
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori enhances the risk for ulcer disease and gastric cancer, yet only a minority of H. pylori-colonized individuals develop disease. We examined the ability of two H. pylori isolates to induce differential host responses in vivo or in vitro, and then used an H. pylori whole genome microarray to identify bacterial determinants related to pathogenesis. Gastric ulcer strain B128 induced more severe gastritis, proliferation, and apoptosis in gerbil mucosa than did duodenal ulcer strain G1.1, and gastric ulceration and atrophy occurred only in B128+ gerbils. In vitro, gerbil-passaged B128 derivatives significantly increased IL-8 secretion and apoptosis compared with G1.1 strains. DNA hybridization to the microarray identified several strain-specific differences in gene composition including a large deletion of the cag pathogenicity island in strain G1.1. Partial and complete disruption of the cag island in strain B128 attenuated induction of IL-8 in vitro and significantly decreased gastric inflammation in vivo. These results indicate that the ability of H. pylori to regulate epithelial cell responses related to inflammation depends on the presence of an intact cag pathogenicity island. Use of an H pylori whole genome microarray is an effective method to identify differences in gene content between H. pylori strains that induce distinct pathological outcomes in a rodent model of H. pylori infection.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Pathology
October/21/1984
Abstract
Biopsy samples were taken from the gastric mucosa of 50 patients attending a gastroscopy clinic; blood was also taken for serological studies. A campylobacter like organism was grown from 31 patients (62%) and the organism was seen in sections from 27 biopsies. Antibody was found in 31 patients by complement fixation and in 27 by bacterial agglutination. There were strong positive correlations between the presence of the organism, detectable antibody, and histological gastritis. Antibody to the campylobacter like organism was comparatively uncommon in patients without gastritis and in samples from blood donors and antenatal patients.
Publication
Journal: Gut
August/25/2004
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Recent studies linked cytokine gene polymorphisms to H pylori related gastric cancer development. The current study evaluated the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms for mucosal cytokine expression, the gastric inflammatory response, and bacterial colonisation during H pylori infection.
METHODS
In 207 H pylori infected patients with chronic gastritis, polymorphisms at different loci of the interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1B, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-A, and interferon (IFN)-G genes were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and allelic discriminating TaqMan PCR. Mucosal cytokine mRNA copy numbers were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Presence of bacterial virulence factors was investigated by cagA, vacAs1/2, and babA2 PCR. Biopsies were assessed with regard to the degrees of granulocytic/lymphocytic infiltration and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and atrophic gastritis (AG).
RESULTS
Proinflammatory IL-1 polymorphisms (IL-1RN*2(+)/IL-1B-511T/-31C(+)) were associated with increased IL-1beta expression, more severe degrees of inflammation, and an increased prevalence of IM and AG. Carriers of the IL-10-1082G/-819C/-592C alleles (GCC haplotype) had higher mucosal IL-10 mRNA levels than ATA haplotype carriers and were associated with colonisation by more virulent cagA(+), vacAs1(+), and babA2(+) H pylori strains. The TNF-A-307(G/A) and IFN-G+874(A/T) polymorphisms did not influence mucosal cytokine expression or the inflammatory response to H pylori.
CONCLUSIONS
Cytokine gene polymorphisms influence mucosal cytokine expression, gastric inflammation, and the long term development of precancerous lesions in H pylori infection. Host polymorphisms are associated with certain bacterial strain types, suggesting host specific colonisation or adaptation. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complex interplay between host and bacterial factors involved in the development of gastric pathology.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Experimental Medicine
February/26/1992
Abstract
The mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori, a noninvasive bacterium, initiates chronic antral gastritis in humans is unknown. We now show that H. pylori releases products with chemotactic activity for monocytes and neutrophils. This chemotactic activity was inhibited by antisera to either H. pylori whole bacteria or H. pylori-derived urease. Moreover, surface proteins extracted from H. pylori and purified H. pylori urease (a major component of the surface proteins) exhibited dose-dependent, antibody-inhibitable chemotactic activity. In addition, a synthetic 20-amino acid peptide from the NH2-terminal portion of the 61-kD subunit, but not the 30-kD subunit, of urease exhibited chemotactic activity for monocytes and neutrophils, localizing the chemotactic activity, at least in part, to the NH2 terminus of the 61-kD subunit of urease. The ability of leukocytes to chemotax to H. pylori surface proteins despite formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) receptor saturation, selective inhibition of FMLP-mediated chemotaxis, or preincubation of the surface proteins with antiserum to FMLP indicated that the chemotaxis was not FMLP mediated. Finally, we identified H. pylori surface proteins and urease in the lamina propria of gastric antra from patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis but not from uninfected subjects. These findings suggest that H. pylori gastritis is initiated by mucosal absorption of urease, which expresses chemotactic activity for leukocytes by a mechanism not involving N-formylated oligopeptides.
Publication
Journal: Gut
April/23/1990
Abstract
Ultrastructural examination of biopsies showing Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis reveals close attachment between gastric surface epithelial cells and the organism. The finding of 'adhesion pedestals', which represents a cellular response to the presence of the organism, is analogous to the response of intestinal cells to enteropathogenic E coli. Thus the development of bacterial attachment sites in H pylori associated gastritis might be an indication of pathogenicity. We have therefore explored the relationship between the proportion of organisms forming attachment sites and histological indices of disease 'activity'. Antral biopsies from 40 patients with H pylori positive gastritis were examined histologically and ultrastructurally, and the percentage of attached organisms compared with subjective assessments of epithelial degeneration, mucin depletion, polymorphonuclear and chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. We found a significant increase in the proportion of attached bacteria in cases showing histological epithelial degeneration, and a significant decrease in cases showing intraepithelial polymorph infiltration. The direct relationship between bacterial attachment and cellular degeneration lends further support to a pathogenic effect. Reduced attachment in the face of polymorph infiltration might indirectly reflect aspects of the immune response--namely, blocking of adhesion by IgA, with complement activation and generation of leucotactic factors.
Publication
Journal: Infection and Immunity
November/24/1987
Abstract
Campylobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium, has been implicated in the genesis of human gastritis, dyspepsia, and gastroduodenal ulceration. Previous attempts to reproduce the diseases in conventional laboratory animal species have been unsuccessful. To determine if neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were susceptible to C. pylori, we orally challenged two litters (n = 17) with 10(9) CFU after pretreating them with cimetidine. Controls housed in separate units received nothing or peptone water alone. Piglets were examined 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after challenge. Colonization by the bacterium and inflammation of the gastric mucosa persisted throughout the study period. Organisms were revealed by Warthin-Starry silver stain to reside between the mucus layer and the gastric epithelium. Culturing of samples from sites along the gastrointestinal tract revealed that the bacterium colonized essentially only the gastric and proximal duodenal mucosae. Gross pathological changes were restricted to the stomachs of infected piglets and consisted of submucosal edema, increased gastric mucus production, and progressive development of mucosal lymphoid follicles. Microscopic lesions consisted of transient neutrophilic infiltrates followed by diffuse and follicular infiltrations of mononuclear leukocytes into the mucosa and submucosa. Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff stains suggested that the infection resulted in the depletion of mucopolysaccharide production by deep gastric glands. These data indicate that gnotobiotic piglets reproduce many of the features of diseases associated with C. pylori in humans.
Publication
Journal: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
June/24/2004
Abstract
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by mucosal epithelium play an essential role in the defense against microbes by recognizing conserved bacterial molecules. For the first time TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 have been microanatomically localized in patients with noninflamed gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori gastritis by immunohistochemistry. Because polarized expression of TLRs in apical and basolateral epithelial compartments is thought to modulate mucosal immunity, subcellular TLR distribution by gastric epithelium was investigated using confocal microscopy. TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 were expressed by gastric epithelium in antrum and corpus of all patients with H. pylori gastritis (n = 14) and with noninflamed gastric mucosa (n = 5). TLR4 was expressed at the apical and the basolateral pole of the gastric epithelium as well in noninflamed gastric mucosa as in H. pylori gastritis. TLR5 and TLR9 expression in the noninflamed gastric mucosa was identical to that of TLR4 with localization at the apical and the basolateral epithelial pole. However, in H. pylori gastritis TLR5 and TLR9 expression on the gastric epithelium changed to an exclusive basolateral localization without detectable expression at the apical pole. In the human stomach, the gastric epithelium expressed TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9, which gives it the possibility to interact with H. pylori. Furthermore, gastric epithelial TLR4 expression is highly polarized in an apical and a basolateral compartment, whereas TLR5 and TLR9 polarization seems to be a process dynamically influenced by H. pylori infection. This polarized and dynamically regulated gastric epithelial expression of TLRs supports a sentinel role for these receptors in the mucosal immunity to H. pylori.