Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
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Publication
Journal: Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
October/29/2019
Abstract
Scientific and epidemiological advances over recent decades suggest that subtle disturbances in glucose tolerance at 1-h post-load oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may identify people with higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and retinopathy compared with the traditional 2-h post-load glucose level [1]. Even though there is no universal agreement on the threshold of 1-h post-load plasma glucose level, a cut-off point of ≥ 8.6 mmol/l in those with normal glucose tolerance during an OGTT has been supported by previous studies [2]. However, large-scale population studies to demonstrate the utility of elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose level have been undertaken mainly in White European and East Asian populations.
Publication
Journal: Circulation
October/28/2019
Publication
Journal: Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP
October/20/2019
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the M-DRAW tool and to examine its applicability and utility at a primary clinic setting in patients with diabetes.A prospective, pre-post interview design study was conducted at the VA Loma Linda Health System (VALLHS) from 03/2017-03/2018. Eligibility criteria consisted of English-speaking patrons who were 18 years and older, diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, residing in non-institutional setting, and having 1 + prescriptions for diabetes. A priming question about self-reported adherence was used to assign participants to control (Group A) or intervention (Group N). Pharmacist-led interventions were thus directed to those who recognized their medication nonadherence issue. The M-DRAW tool consisted of 13 statements about barriers to adherence on a 4-point frequency scale. A "3 = sometimes" or "4 = often" on each item indicated a barrier to adherence that was then addressed using the GUIDE strategy using motivational interviewing with the participant.Of the 200 eligible individuals, 88 participants completed both baseline and follow-up assessments (Group A, n = 63; Group N, n = 25). Participants were male (98.8%), taking 7-8 medications on average, and using insulin (79.5%). The tool yielded good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.873). Using confirmatory factor analysis, four factors were extracted with items loading as hypothesized. At baseline, group N identified three times greater number of barriers from the M-DRAW tool compared to Group A (5.1 items vs. 1.7, p < 0.05). At 3-month follow-up, a decrease in the number of barriers was observed among Group N. Both PDC and HbA1c did not result in statistically significant reduction in pre-post change.The M-DRAW tool is shown to be reliable and valid. A tailored intervention reduced the number of barriers contributing to medication nonadherence and resulted in a trend of improved clinical outcomes.
Publication
Journal: Problemy endokrinologii
October/19/2019
Abstract
A number of today's analytical methods for postprandial glycemia in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) still remain to be substantiated. The standard OGTT using 75 g of glucose was performed in 42 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) patients who received diet therapy. The concentration of Hb A1c has been found to correlate with absolute levels of glycemia during 1- and 2-hour OGTT. However, exclusion of fasting glycemia from the level of glycemia at 1 and 2 hours of OGTT leads to cession of the correlation of HbA1c with these values of the test. Only 7 out of the 8 today's parameters for calculating the areas under the glycemic curve in OGTT correlate with the level of HbA1c. Moreover, 5 out of these 7 parameters are equivalent (r - 1; p < 0.05). The recently proposed two new parameters for calculating the areas under the glycemic curve in OGTT, one of which is constant 6.1, have proved to be equivalent (r= 1; p < 0 05) and to be actually reduced to one. The correlation with Hb Ah holds if any other constants from 5 to 11 mmоl/l are inserted instead of the constant 6.1 for calculating the area, the highest coefficient correlation with Hb A1c is achieved at the constant equal to 6.1. The correlation usually detectable at DM-2 between the concentration of Hb A,c and the absolute level of postprandial glycemia (glycemic spike in particular) Is mainly determined by its implicit inclusion of fasting glycemia. A set of 4 nonequivalent OGTT parameters should be used when the relationship of diabetes mellitus complications to the OGTT parameters that correlate with HbA,cis studied. The constants 5.6 and 6.1 reflect different aspects of the development of complications in diabetes mellitus when they are included in the calculation of an area in OGTT.
Publication
Journal: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
October/19/2019
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a major public health issue in Singapore. To shape healthcare policies for the primary prevention of diabetes, it is crucial to understand Singaporeans' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to diabetes and its prevention. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and lifestyles of individuals without diabetes.A cross-sectional household survey was performed between 31 January to 3 February 2019 to examine knowledge, attitudes and practices related to diabetes. Inclusion criteria of the participants included: 1) Singaporeans/permanent residents, 2) between 30 to 64 years old, and 3) who did not have a diagnosis of diabetes. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyse the association of knowledge and attitudes with physical activity and diet habits, respectively.

RESULTS
Among 806 participants, 72.2% did not meet the Health Promotion Board's physical activity recommendation. Physical activity was associated with better diabetes knowledge (odds ratio [OR] 5.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65-17.53, P = 0.049), stronger beliefs in diabetes prevention (OR 3.36, 95% CI = 1.02-11.12, P = 0.047) and lower levels of worry about diabetes (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-1.00, P = 0.049). Neither knowledge nor beliefs or worries about diabetes was associated with diet.

There is a need to reinforce the importance of physical activity and healthy diet in preventing diabetes. Although improving the knowledge level of diabetes may increase physical activity of the population, it is unlikely to improve dietary choices without effective behavior change interventions.
Publication
Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
October/18/2019
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide concern in recent years. In this study, the effect of Holothuria leucospilota polysaccharide (HLP) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was investigated in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. The results showed that HLP significantly improved glucose intolerance and regulated blood lipid and hormone levels (p < 0.05). Pathological analysis showed that HLP repaired the impairments of the pancreas and colon in diabetic rats. In addition, a high dose of HLP (200 mg/kg) significantly upregulated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB/AKT), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), and downregulated the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic (Bax) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) in diabetic rats (p < 0.05). Furthermore, HLP treatment increased the short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and decreased the opportunistic bacterial pathogen in the feces of diabetic rats. These results demonstrated that HLP has the potential to ameliorate T2DM in GK rats.
Publication
Journal: BMJ open
October/17/2019
Abstract
A pay-for-performance (P4P) programme is a management strategy that encourages healthcare providers to deliver high quality of care. In Taiwan, the P4P programme has been implemented for diabetes, and certified diabetes physicians voluntarily enrol patients with diabetes into the P4P programme. The objectives of this study were to compare the risk of stroke and its related factors in patients with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in a P4P programme compared with those who were not.This study is a natural experiment in Taiwan. A retrospective cohort investigation was conducted from 2002 to 2013, which included 459 726 patients with type 2 diabetes, who were grouped according to P4P enrolment status following a propensity score matching process.We reviewed patients ≥45 years of age newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the relative risk of stroke between patients with type 2 DM enrolled in the P4P programme and those who were not enrolled.Compared with the patients not enrolled, there was a significantly lower stroke risk in P4P participants (HR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Although a significantly lower risk of haemorrhagic stroke was observed (HR=0.87, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93) in P4P participants, no statistically significant difference for the risk of ischaemic stroke between P4P and non-P4P patients (HR=0.99, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.02) was found. Following stratification analysis, a significantly reduced stroke risk was observed in male patients with type 2 diabetes, but not in women.Participants in Taiwan's Diabetes P4P programme displayed a significantly reduced stroke risk, especially haemorrhagic stroke. We recommend the continual promotion of this programme to the general public and to physicians.
Publication
Journal: Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
October/16/2019
Publication
Journal: The Journal of international medical research
October/16/2019
Publication
Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association
October/14/2019
Publication
Journal: Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation
October/14/2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between diet quality and interleukin (IL)-6 genotypes and its association with metabolic and renal function parameters in Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Using an analytical cross-sectional design, 219 patients with T2DM (92 men; age 62 ± 10 years) were evaluated for selected metabolic and renal function parameters. Diet quality according to the Healthy Eating Index was evaluated and classified as good diet or poor diet in all patients. IL-6 serum concentrations and genotypes and haplotypes for IL6-597G > A (rs180097), -572G > C (rs180096), and -174G > C (rs180095) polymorphisms were determined.Eighty-two percent of patients reported having a poor diet. Carriers of alleles -572C and -174C showed higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (44 ± 12 vs. 40 ± 9 mg/dL; P = .01) and lower total cholesterol levels (184 ± 33 vs. 197 ± 42 mg/dL; P = .03) than did those homozygous for G/G. Neither IL6 genotypes nor haplotypes were significantly associated with serum concentrations of IL-6. Some significant interactions between IL6 genotypes/haplotypes and diet quality were associated with body mass index, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.Interactions between diet quality and IL6 genotypes/haplotypes were associated with the main metabolic and renal function parameters in Mexican patients with T2DM. It will be important to consider genetic profiles in designing dietary portfolios and nutritional interventions for the management of such patients.
Publication
Journal: Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
October/14/2019
Abstract

OBJECTIVE
To investigate the association between serum C-peptide level and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 939 individuals with type 2 DM. We measured fasting C-peptide, 2-hour postprandial C-peptide, and ΔC-peptide (postprandial C-peptide minus fasting C-peptide) levels. The individuals were classified into 2 groups based on eGFR: individuals without impaired renal function (eGFR ≥60 ml∙min-1 1.73m-2) and those with impaired renal function (eGFR <60 ml∙min-1 1.73m-2).

Individuals with CAN had lower fasting C-peptide, postprandial C-peptide, and ΔC-peptide levels in patients both with and without impaired renal function. Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, and other confounders, including eGFR, showed that serum C-peptide level was significantly associated with CAN (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation increase in the log-transformed value, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.87 for fasting C-peptide, P < 0.01; OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.83 for postprandial C-peptide, P < 0.01; OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.93 for ΔC-peptide, P < 0.05).Serum C-peptide level was negatively associated with CAN in individuals with type 2 DM independent of eGFR.
Publication
Journal: PloS one
October/9/2019
Abstract
Many countries lack resources to identify patients at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes). We aimed to develop and validate a diabetes risk score based on easily accessible clinical data.Prospective study including 5277 participants (55.0% women, 51.8±10.5 years) free of diabetes at baseline. Comparison with two other published diabetes risk scores (Balkau and Kahn clinical, respectively 5 and 8 variables) and validation on three cohorts (Europe, Iran and Mexico) was performed.After a mean follow-up of 10.9 years, 405 participants (7.7%) developed diabetes. Our score was based on age, gender, waist circumference, diabetes family history, hypertension and physical activity. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.772 for our score, vs. 0.748 (p<0.001) and 0.774 (p = 0.668) for the other two. Using a 13-point threshold, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (95% CI) of our score were 60.5 (55.5-65.3), 77.1 (75.8-78.2), 18.0 (16.0-20.1) and 95.9 (95.2-96.5) percent, respectively. Our score performed equally well or better than the other two in the Iranian [AUC 0.542 vs. 0.564 (p = 0.476) and 0.513 (p = 0.300)] and Mexican [AUC 0.791 vs. 0.672 (p<0.001) and 0.778 (p = 0.575)] cohorts. In the European cohort, it performed similarly to the Balkau score but worse than the Kahn clinical [AUC 0.788 vs. 0.793 (p = 0.091) and 0.816 (p<0.001)]. Diagnostic capacity of our score was better than the Balkau score and comparable to the Kahn clinical one.Our clinically-based score shows encouraging results compared to other scores and can be used in populations with differing diabetes prevalence.
Publication
Journal: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
October/9/2019
Abstract
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has been associated with metabolic syndrome [1-3]. Three large population-based studies showed a significant association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with HS [3-5]. Two meta-analyses found an increased 1.69 to 3 odds of diabetes [6-7]. In the present study, we aimed to compare whether the phenotype and comorbidities of HS patients with T2DM would differ from those without T2DM. We reviewed retrospectively all the patients with HS diagnosis that attended a tertiary care hospital (Department of dermatology, Helsinki University Hospital, Finland) between January and December 2018.
Publication
Journal: Journal of clinical medicine
October/4/2019
Abstract
(1) Background: The aims of this study were to examine the incidence of lower extremity amputations (LEAs) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to compare the mortality risk of diabetic individuals who underwent LEA with age and sex-matched diabetic individuals without LEA. (2) Methods: We performed a descriptive observational study to assess the trend in the incidence of LEA and a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether undergoing LEA is a risk factor for long-term mortality among T2DM patients. Data were obtained from the Hospital Discharge Database for the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain (2006-2015). (3) Results: The incidence rates of major below-knee and above-knee amputations decreased significantly from 24.9 to 17.1 and from 63.9 to 48.2 per 100000 T2DM individuals from 2006 to 2015, respectively. However, the incidence of minor LEAs increased over time. Mortality was significantly higher among T2DM patients who underwent LEA compared with those who did not undergo this procedure (HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.65-1.87). Male sex, older age, and comorbidity were independently associated with higher mortality after LEA. (4) Conclusions: Undergoing a LEA is a significant risk factor for long term mortality among T2DM patients, and those who underwent a major above-knee LEAs have the highest risk.
Publication
Journal: Orvosi hetilap
September/30/2019
Abstract
Introduction: Liver cirrhosis (20-25%), hepatocellular carcinoma (1.5-3%), insulin resistance (30-40%) and type 2 diabetes (25-30%) are common complications in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; however, data are missing from Hungary. Aim: To determine the prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance in Hungarian HCV patients; to evaluate treatment-induced metabolic changes in relation to diabetes/insulin resistance and virological response and to perform a sustained follow-up for hepatocellular carcinoma detection. Method: We enrolled 150 Hungarian HCV genotype 1 patients (mean age: 48.55 ± 8.55 years, male/female ratio: 45/55%) from 2007-2012. We analysed their baseline, week 12, and end of therapeutic follow-up (24 weeks after interferon-based therapy completion) laboratory data. We performed a 5-year follow-up (2012-2017). Results: The prevalence of insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance and diabetes was 37.4%, 35.3% and 27.3%, respectively. Insulin resistant and diabetic patients showed a decrease in fasting glucose from baseline to end of follow-up (5.47 ± 0.66 vs. 5.08 ± 0.60, p<0.001; 7.90 ± 2.67 vs. 7.04 ± 2.75, p = 0.006), as did both the sustained responder and non-responder groups. Treatment efficacy rate was poor in diabetic vs. insulin sensitive and insulin resistant groups (17% vs. 46% and 40%); insulin sensitivity was not a predictor of virological response. Three participants with diabetes were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma during follow-up by regular ultrasound examinations. Conclusion: Hungarian HCV patients showed high prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance, though antiviral therapy caused favourable changes in their carbohydrate metabolism. Antiviral therapy was less effective in diabetic patients. Follow-up ultrasound examinations are required for hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV patients, especially those with diabetes. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(40): 1591-1602.
Publication
Journal: Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea)
September/30/2019
Abstract
This study investigated the overall status of diabetes control and screening for diabetic microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending primary care clinics in Korea.In this cross-sectional observational study, 191 primary care clinics were randomly selected across Korea from 2015 to 2016. In total, 3,227 subjects were enrolled in the study.The patients followed at the primary care clinics were relatively young, with a mean age of 61.4±11.7 years, and had a relatively short duration of diabetes (mean duration, 7.6±6.5 years). Approximately 14% of subjects had diabetic microvascular complications. However, the patients treated at the primary care clinics had suboptimal control of hemoglobin A1c levels, blood pressure, and serum lipid levels, along with a metabolic target achievement rate of 5.9% according to the Korean Diabetes Association guidelines. The screening rates for diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy within the past 12 months were 28.4%, 23.3%, and 13.3%, respectively.The overall status of diabetes management, including the frequency of screening for microvascular complications, was suboptimal in the primary care clinics. More efforts should be made and more resources need to be allocated for primary care physicians to promote adequate healthcare delivery, which would result in stricter diabetes control and improved management of diabetic complications.
Publication
Journal: Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy
September/26/2019
Abstract
Coping with discomfort and the uncertainties of daily adjustments are prominent challenges confronting individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who require multiple daily injections (MDI) of insulin. For this growing population, wearable, disposable devices capable of delivering consistent and sustained doses of basal-bolus therapy may help to alleviate concerns and improve outcomes. However, studies on the comparative effectiveness of new, innovative delivery systems versus MDI on insulin requirements, glycemic control, and health care costs are sparse.To examine glycemic control, insulin use, and diabetes medication costs for users of the V-Go Wearable Insulin Delivery device compared with MDI insulin therapy among individuals with T2DM in a commercially insured population in the United States.This retrospective cohort study queried administrative claims data from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database from July 1, 2011, through July 31, 2017. Cohorts included individuals with T2DM aged 21-80 years either newly initiating V-Go or using MDI for basal/bolus insulin. The date of earliest claim for V-Go prescription fill or for bolus insulin was defined as the index date, depending on the cohort. Previous insulin therapy was required in both cohorts. Baseline hemoglobin A1c (A1c) values were identified during the 6 months before and 15 days after the index date; results closest to 12 months after the index date were selected as follow-up. Insulin use and diabetes medication cost data were examined during the 6 months baseline and the second half of the 1-year follow-up. V-Go and MDI users were 1:1 matched on baseline insulin exposure, A1c level, and other characteristics of interest. Univariate and multivariate tests were used to compare follow-up outcomes.

RESULTS
Matched cohorts included 118 well-balanced pairs (mean age: 56 years; mean baseline A1c: 9.2%). During follow-up, both cohorts experienced improvements in glycemic control relative to baseline (% with A1c ≤ 9%, baseline/follow-up: V-Go 49/69, P < 0.001; MDI 50/60, P = 0.046). With similar baseline insulin prescription fills and diabetes medication costs, V-Go users required fewer insulin prescription fills (mean change: -0.8 vs. +1.8 fills, P < 0.001; -17% vs. +38%); had a smaller increase in diabetes medication costs (mean change in 2016 USD: $341 vs. $1,628, P = 0.012; +10% vs. +47%); and a decrease in insulin total daily dose (mean change in insulin units per day: -29.2 vs. +5.8, P < 0.001; -21% vs. +4%), compared with MDI users, during the last 6 months of follow-up.

This study was the first to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes associated with the use of V-Go for up to a 1-year follow-up period. Relative to MDI users, V-Go users had similar glycemic control but lower insulin use and lower diabetes medication costs during follow-up. V-Go therapy may provide an opportunity to improve quality measures more cost-effectively in people with T2DM who require basal-bolus therapy.This study was funded by Valeritas. Nguyen is an employee of Valeritas. Zhou, Grabner, Barron, and Quimbo are employees of HealthCore, which received funding for this study from Valeritas. Raval was an employee of HealthCore at the time the study was conducted. Partial findings from this study were presented at the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 23rd Annual International Meeting; May 19-23, 2018; Baltimore, MD; and the 54th European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting; October 1-5, 2018; Berlin, Germany.
Publication
Journal: American journal of preventive medicine
September/22/2019
Abstract
Primary care provider encounters are associated with health and well-being; however, limited evidence guides optimal primary care provider rate of visit, referred to as encounter cadence. This study measures associations between primary care provider encounter cadence and diabetes outcomes among individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.In this retrospective cohort study, 7,106 people enrolled in Medicare Advantage and newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013 were identified and followed for 36 months. Two methods measured primary care provider encounter cadence: total primary care provider encounters (frequency) and quarters with primary care provider encounter (regularity). Logistic regression measured relationships between primary care provider encounter cadence and non-insulin diabetes medication adherence, HbA1c control, emergency department visits, and inpatient admissions. Non-insulin diabetes medication adherence was defined according to the National Committee for Quality Assurance, Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set specifications and measured using healthcare claims data. Post-hoc models examined adherence and diabetes control among those nonadherent (n=5,212) and with noncontrolled HbA1c (n=326) during the encounter/cadence period. Data were extracted and analyzed in 2017.Adjusted models indicated that both frequency (AOR=1.08, 95% CI=1.06, 1.10) and regularity (AOR=1.18, 95% CI=1.13, 1.22) of primary care provider encounters were associated with increased odds of adherence. Post-hoc analyses indicated that more frequent (AOR=1.12, 95% CI=1.10, 1.15) and regular (AOR=1.27, 95% CI=1.22, 1.33) primary care provider encounters were associated significantly with adherence and were associated directionally with HbA1c control.More frequent and regular primary care provider encounters are associated with an increased likelihood of non-insulin diabetes medication adherence. These findings contribute to data needed to establish evidence-based guidelines for primary care provider encounter cadence for those newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Publication
Journal: Circulation
September/16/2019
Related with
Publication
Journal: Molecular metabolism
September/10/2019
Abstract
Current therapeutic strategies for type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rely on increasing or substituting endogenous insulin secretion in combination with lifestyle changes. β-cell regeneration, a process whereby new β-cells arise from progenitors, self-renewal or transdifferentiation, has the potential to become a viable route to insulin self-sufficiency. Current regeneration strategies capture many of the transcriptomic and protein features of native β-cells, generating cells capable of glucose-dependent insulin secretion in vitro and alleviation of hyperglycemia in vivo. However, whether novel β-cells display appreciable heterogeneity remains poorly understood, with potential consequences for long-term functional robustness.The review brings together crucial discoveries in the β-cell regeneration field with state-of-the-art knowledge regarding β-cell heterogeneity. Aspects that might aid production of longer-lasting and more plastic regenerated β-cells are highlighted and discussed.Different β-cell regeneration approaches result in a similar outcome: glucose-sensitive, insulin-positive cells that mimic the native β-cell phenotype but which lack normal plasticity. The β-cell subpopulations identified to date expand our understanding of β-cell survival, proliferation and function, signposting the direction for future regeneration strategies. Therefore, regenerated β-cells should exhibit stimulus-dependent differences in gene and protein expression, as well as establish a functional network with different β-cells, all while coexisting with other cell types on a three-dimensional platform.
Publication
Journal: Acta medica portuguesa
September/7/2019
Abstract
Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of having a regular care provider on the control of chronic diseases. Our study intends to clarify the effects of the transition to a new diabetologist on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes patients followed-upin a tertiary care setting.Retrospective study performed in an endocrinology outpatient clinic. We randomly selected 50 type 2 diabetespatients for a control group and 50 for a study group. In the study group, we registered the last evaluation before the physician change (year 0) and at the end of each year (year 1, 2 and 3) with the new doctor. Evaluated variables - body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1c and lipid profile - were compared yearly between groups.There was a decrease in mean HbA1c levels (0.4% - 0.5%, p < 0.05) in year 1 and 2 when compared to year 0 in the study group, but not in the control group. This reduction was superior (0.5% - 1.4%, p < 0.05) in patients whose baseline HbA1c was greater than 7%. The other studied variables did not vary significantly throughout follow-up in either group.In our study the transition to a different type 2 diabetes physician was associated with a decrease in mean HbA1c and this difference was greater in less well controlled patients.Switching to a new physician may not be harmful and may actually have benefits for the glycemic control of some type 2 diabetes patients.
Publication
Journal: Die Pharmazie
September/5/2019
Abstract
Insulin resistance is a typical precursor and primary feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sphingomyelin (SM) is a kind of sphingolipid located in animal brain, liver, kidney and muscle. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of sphingomyelin, inhibition of which shows protective effects on cardiovascular and glucose metabolism. We used Ly93, a selective sphingomyelin synthase 2 inhibitor, to investigate the effect of SMS2 inhibitor on insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Our previous studies have shown that Ly93 is able to dose-dependently inhibit the SMS activity and attenuate the atherosclerotic lesions in apoE knock out mice. In this present study, we found that high fat diet (HFD) induced insulin-resistant C57BL/6 mice treated with Ly93 were more sensitive to insulin than untreated mice, and presented lower blood insulin levels and improved insulin tolerance. Furthermore, insulin signal pathway related protein levels were detected by western blot, which indicated that SMS2 inhibitor significantly upregulated the phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt and GSK-3β, thus enhanced the insulin signaling. In vitro, Ly93 enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt in HepG2 cells, which was reversed by exogenous sphingomyelin. These results suggest that SMS2 inhibitor could ameliorate insulin resistance via regulating the insulin signaling. Our findings support that SMS2 is a potential target for insulin resistance.
Publication
Journal: Health communication
August/28/2019
Abstract
This article proposes a coding scheme for identifying and assessing linguistic evidence of problematic understanding in health-care provider communication with patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drawing on the existing literature in pragmatics and linguistics, the scheme is grounded on the distinctions between the different types of linguistic evidence of the occurrence of a misunderstanding or a problematic understanding, divided into three levels (stronger, acceptable and weak) based on their probative force. The application of the scheme is illustrated through a pilot study, conducted on an Italian corpus of 46 transcripts of videotaped consultations between six health-care providers and 13 patients affected by diabetes mellitus type 2. The most frequent types of linguistic evidence of problematic understanding were the categories of "acceptable" (amounting to 58% of the total) and the "strong" evidence (35%). Patients' problematic understanding was detected to occur significantly more frequently than health-care providers. Providers were also found to be significantly more aware of possible misunderstandings, tending to verify more frequently the correctness of their own interpretations. This pilot study represents a first step in the process of developing a productive evidence-based tool for detecting problematic understanding, which can be used for implementing linguistic strategies for helping prevent the risk of misunderstandings in health-care communication. Our findings show that misunderstandings are widespread between patients and that some linguistic strategies may be more effective than others in preventing the risk of misunderstandings, suggesting possible directions of research for improving health-care providers' communicative skills.
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