Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
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Pubmed
Journal: Heart and vessels
October/17/2007
Abstract

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have beneficial effects on markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of low-dose pioglitazone (15 mg per day) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and type 2 DM or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) treated with coronary angioplasty using bare metal stent (BMS). In 56 patients, pioglitazone was orally administered for 6 months after stenting (pioglitazone group). The incidence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) at acute phase and 6 months after stenting in these patients were retrospectively compared with those in the other 37 patients (control group) treated without pioglitazone. No adverse events including death, emergency bypass surgery, and reinfarction, occurred in any patients in the hospital. There was no congestive heart failure (CHF) during a follow-up period in the pioglitazone group. At 6 months after stenting, the overall angiographic ISR rate was significantly lower in the pioglitazone group than in the control group (28.6% vs 48.6%, P = 0.049). In patients with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <7.0% at follow-up, the ISR rate was also significantly lower in the pioglitazone group than in controls (21.3% vs 44.8%, P = 0.03). Delta-LVEDVI (defined as follow-up LVEDVI minus acute LVEDVI) was similar between the pioglitazone group and control group (0.13 vs 5.16 ml/m(2), P = 0.482). Low-dose pioglitazone seems to have a potential to reduce ISR and does not adversely affect LV remodeling after AMI treated with coronary angioplasty using BMS in patients with type 2 DM or IGT.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of complementary & integrative medicine
January/31/2016
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the functional foods which contains biological compounds including gingerol, shogaol, paradol and zingerone. Ginger has been proposed to have anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hypolipidemic and analgesic properties. Here, we report the effect of ginger supplementation on glycemic indices in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes.

METHODS

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20-60 -year-old patients with type 2 diabetes who did not receive insulin. Participants in the intervention and control groups were received 3 g of powdered ginger or placebo (lactose) (in capsules) daily for 3 months. Glycemic indices, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum paraoxonase, dietary intake and physical activity were measured at the beginning and end of the study, and after 12 h fasting.

RESULTS

Comparison of the indices after 3 months showed that the differences between the ginger and placebo groups were statistically significant as follows: serum glucose (-19.41 ± 18.83 vs. 1.63 ± 4.28 mg/dL, p < 0.001), HbA1c percentage (-0.77 ± 0.88 vs. 0.02 ± 0.16%, p < 0.001), insulin (-1.46 ± 1.7 vs. 0.09 ± 0.34 μIU/mL, p < 0.001), insulin resistance (-16.38 ± 19.2 vs. 0.68 ± 2.7, p < 0.001), high-sensitive CRP (-2.78 ± 4.07 vs. 0.2 ± 0.77 mg/L, p < 0.001), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) (22.04 ± 24.53 vs. 1.71 ± 2.72 U/L, p < 0.006), TAC (0.78 ± 0.71 vs. -0.04 ± 0.29 µIU/mL, p < 0.01) and MDA (-0.85 ± 1.08 vs. 0.06 ± 0.08 µmol/L, p < 0.001) were significantly different.

CONCLUSIONS

This report shows that the 3 months supplementation of ginger improved glycemic indices, TAC and PON-1 activity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS
September/29/2016
Abstract

UNASSIGNED

Polymorphisms of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes have been proposed to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with conflicting results. This work was planned in order to check for the association of these polymorphisms with the susceptibility for and complications of T2DM among Egyptian cases.

METHODS

This is a case controlled study involving 203 patients with T2DM and 311 healthy controls. Polymorphic variants of ACE I>D and MTHFR (677 C>T and 1298 A>C) were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction analysis technique.

RESULTS

The susceptibility to T2DM was higher among subjects having the MTHFR 677TT (odds ratio (OR)=2.2, p=0.01), MTHFR 1298 AA (OR=1.84, p=0.001) and ACE (ID+II) (OR=2.0, p=0.0007) genotypes. Logistic regression analysis showed that MTHFR 677T allele was a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy (DR) (OR=3.47, p<0.001), diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) (OR=5.2, p<0.0001) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (OR=2.9, p<0.05), while MTHFR 1298 C allele was a risk factor for DR (OR=4.2, p<0.001) and the ACE DD genotype was a risk factor for DPN (OR=3.1, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The MTHFR 677 TT genotype was associated with T2DM susceptibility and complications (DR, DPN and IHD). The MTHFR 1298 CC, AC and ACE DD genotypes were associated with DR and DPN.

Pubmed
Journal: Antioxidants & redox signaling
September/29/2016
Abstract

CONCLUSIONS

An early hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes is the resistance to the effect of insulin in skeletal muscle and in the heart. Since mitochondrial function was found to be diminished in patients with type 2 diabetes, it was suggested that this defect might be involved in the etiology of insulin resistance. Although several hypotheses were suggested, yet unclear is the mechanistic link between these two phenomena.

BACKGROUND

Herein, we review the evidence for disturbances in mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and the heart in the diabetic state. Also the mechanisms involved in improving mitochondrial function are considered and, whenever possible, human data is cited.

RESULTS

Reported evidence shows that interventions that improve skeletal muscle mitochondrial function also improve insulin sensitivity in humans. In the heart, available data from animal studies suggests that enhancement of mitochondrial function can reverse aging-induced changes in heart function, and can be protective against cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

CONCLUSIONS

Mitochondria and their functions can be targeted with the aim of improving skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and cardiac function. However, human clinical intervention studies are needed to fully substantiate the potential of mitochondria as a target to prevent cardiometabolic disease.

Pubmed
Journal: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism
January/5/2017
Abstract

Gut bacteria are involved in a number of host metabolic processes and have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. The use of antibiotics changes the composition of the gut microbiota and there is accumulating evidence from observational studies for an association between exposure to antibiotics and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the present paper, we review human studies examining the effects of antibiotics on body weight regulation and glucose metabolism and discuss whether the observed findings may relate to alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota.

Pubmed
Journal: Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD
August/12/2009
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and impaired systolic function in hypertensive patients, but less is known about its impact on LVH regression and functional improvement during antihypertensive treatment.

RESULTS

We performed annual echocardiography in 730 non-diabetic and 93 diabetic patients (aged 55-80 years) with hypertension and electrocardiographic LVH during 4.8-year losartan- or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. Baseline mean blood pressure (BP) and LV mass did not differ between groups. Diabetic patients had higher body mass index and pulse pressure, and lower LV ejection fraction, midwall shortening, stress-corrected midwall shortening, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (all p<0.05), and were more likely to have albuminuria. Despite comparable BP reduction in diabetic and non-diabetic groups during treatment (33/18 vs. 28/16mmHg (ns)), diabetes was associated with higher prevalence of persistent LVH (47 vs. 39%, p<0.05). In multivariate analyses, diabetes independently predicted less LV mass reduction and less improvement in stress-corrected LV midwall shortening (both p<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Among hypertensive patients with LVH, diabetes is associated with more residual LVH and less improvement in systolic LV function by echocardiography over 4.8 years of antihypertensive treatment.

Pubmed
Journal: Current diabetes reports
August/11/2009
Abstract

Early interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) demand a better understanding of its underlying mechanisms. Nonobese healthy subjects with a strong family history of T2DM (FH(+) subjects) hold a key to this end by allowing the study of the disease before the development of confounding factors, such as obesity or hyperglycemia. In this article, we share our experience over the past decade in studying FH(+) subjects and how lipotoxicity alters glucose metabolism in such individuals, in particular pancreatic beta-cell function. FH(+) subjects have no obvious clinical abnormalities, but when carefully studied, reveal severe hepatic/muscle/adipose tissue insulin resistance and subtle defects in beta-cell function. In most subjects, metabolic adaption allows freedom from diabetes for decades. However, the obesity epidemic is drastically changing this. Given the unique susceptibility of pancreatic beta cells to free fatty acids in FH(+) subjects, interventions that protect against obesity-induced lipotoxicity may hold the greatest promise for preventing T2DM in genetically predisposed individuals.

Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
July/1/2009
Pubmed
Journal: Diabetes care
January/12/2003
Pubmed
Journal: Science translational medicine
October/24/2016
Abstract

This review discusses current and future pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity, with a focus on the biological control of energy balance.

Pubmed
Journal: Family medicine
December/8/2004
Pubmed
Journal: Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
June/11/2015
Abstract

Glucocorticoids (GC) and their cognate intracellular receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), have been characterised as critical checkpoints in the endocrine control of energy homeostasis in mammals. Indeed, aberrant GC action has been linked to a variety of severe metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As a steroid-binding member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, the GR translocates into the cell nucleus upon GC binding where it serves as a transcriptional regulator of distinct GC-responsive target genes that are - in many cases - associated with glucose and lipid regulatory pathways and thereby intricately control both physiological and pathophysiological systemic energy homeostasis. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of GC/GR function in energy metabolism and systemic metabolic dysfunction, particularly focusing on glucose and lipid metabolism.

Pubmed
Journal: Acta diabetologica
February/8/2006
Abstract

Oxidative stress has been defined as a loss of counterbalance between free radical or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant systems. It is involved in the pathogenesis of different chronic diseases. High levels of ROS production via different biochemical mechanisms accompany diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Elevated oxidative status and reduced antioxidant defence systems in patients with DM and ESRD accelerate the prevalence of atherosclerosis and other chronic complications. Our aim was to reveal the effects of diabetes and haemodialysis (HD) separately and together on oxidative stress. In our study, we included 20 diabetic (DM) patients with no renal disease, 20 non-diabetic haemodialysis (HD), 20 diabetic haemodialysis (DHD) patients and 20 healthy volunteers. We have determined the levels of lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative protein damage as indicated by protein carbonyl (PCO) content and activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in all patient groups and healthy subjects. We found enhanced oxidative stress in all patient groups due to an increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and increased oxidative protein damage in terms of PCO content and reduced activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. Oxidative stress was more profound in diabetic patients undergoing haemodialysis. We conclude that both diabetes and dialysis increase oxidative stress and their combined effect on oxidative stress is the highest in magnitude as observed in diabetic patients undergoing haemodialysis.

Pubmed
Journal: Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
February/8/2006
Abstract

A defect in the blue sensitive mechanism has been reported in certain ocular and systemic diseases. For example, tritanopic colour vision defects and changes to the S-cone electroretinogram (ERG) have been demonstrated in glaucoma and diabetes mellitus. Electrophysiological methods of eliciting the S-cone ERG, however, often result in considerable L- and M-cone intrusion. We report the findings of a study employing the silent substitution S-cone ERG technique, which is thought to represent an almost pure S-cone signal, and the L'Anthony desaturated D15 colour vision test in subjects with Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus with no or minimal background retinopathy. The results of this study show a significantly increased S-cone ERG b-wave implicit time and significantly worse colour vision in those with background retinopathy compared with those with no diabetic retinopathy. This suggests that S-cone pathway dysfunction may be responsible for the deterioration in colour vision found in diabetes mellitus.

Pubmed
Journal: Diabetes care
July/8/1999
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Apolipoprotein(B) [apo(B)] reflects the total mass of atherogenic particles (VLDL, IDL, and LDL), and its increase is associated with cardiovascular disease independently of LDL cholesterol (LDLc) levels. Apo(B) determination has been recently standardized, but attention to regional reference limits is advisable. Our aim was to analyze the frequency of dyslipidemic phenotypes, including those dependent on increased apo(B) in normocholesterolemic type 2 diabetic patients.

METHODS

A total of 100 consecutively seen type 2 diabetic patients (63 men, 37 women; aged 59 +/- 11 years) were included, after excluding those on lipid-lowering therapy. Apo(B) cutoff (1.1 g/l) was obtained from a group of normolipidemic (47 men, 21 women) control subjects, and LDLc, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) cutoff points were those from the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. LDLc levels were obtained by ultracentrifugation if triglyceride levels were > 3.45 mmol/l; otherwise, they were calculated (Friedwald). Apo(B) levels were measured by immunoturbidimetry.

RESULTS

Normocholesterolemia (LDLc < 4.13 mmol/l) appeared in 75 of the 100 patients, of whom 55 were normo- and 20 hypertriglyceridemic. Hyperapolipoprotein(B) [hyperapo(B)] was the most frequent lipid disorder, present in 34 (45%) of the normocholesterolemic patients (22 normo- and 12 hypertriglyceridemic). Low HDLc levels were more prevalent (53%) in patients with hyperapo(B) than in the rest (24%).

CONCLUSIONS

Hyperapo(B) was found in almost half of the normocholesterolemic type 2 diabetic patients and was frequently associated with low HDLc levels and hypertriglyceridemia. Thus, given its independent association with cardiovascular disease and that it identifies high-risk phenotypes in normocholesterolemic diabetic patients apo(B) should be used to evaluate the lipidic pattern of these patients.

Pubmed
Journal: Life sciences
April/21/1988
Abstract

Because biotin treatment may lower blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes, we chose to study such an effect in non-insulin dependent diabetes. Twenty-six diabetic KK mice, moderately hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, were treated for 10 weeks: 9 animals with 2 mg of biotin/Kg, 8 with 4 mg of biotin/Kg, and 9 with saline (controls). Blood glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance, insulin response to oral glucose, and blood glucose decrease in response to insulin were quantitated. Compared to controls, biotin treatment lowered post-prandial glucose levels, and improved tolerance to glucose and insulin resistance. Serum immunoreactive insulin levels in biotin-treated mice were like the controls.

Pubmed
Journal: Diabete & metabolisme
October/11/1988
Abstract

In diabetic patients, hyperglycaemia results in the non enzymatic glycation of many proteins. We studied the glycation of HDL of patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes compared with that of control subjects. Although a basal glycation was detectable in HDL of normal individuals, this increased by about 400% in HDL of both groups of diabetic patients. The degree of HDL glycation was positively correlated with blood glucose concentration. All the HDL apoproteins were glycated but the glycation of apo A-I represented about 80% of the total HDL. These data were compared to those obtained in vitro after incubation of normal apo A-I either as free molecular species or as phospholipid/apo A-I complex, in the presence of glucose (0 to 80 mmol/l) at 37 degrees C. The resulting apo A-I glycation was dependent upon both time of incubation and glucose concentration and was largely increased in the presence of phospholipids. These data suggest that the in vivo glycation of HDL apoproteins might depend upon glucose concentration but might also be partly influenced by their lipid environment.

Pubmed
Journal: Vaccine
February/23/1997
Abstract

This study was designed to determine the effect of Type II diabetes mellitus in older adults on two measures of the cell-mediated immune response to influenza vaccination. Twenty-two elderly persons with diabetes mellitus were compared to 20 healthy seniors, all of whom were living independently in the community. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were challenged in vitro with live influenza virus, pre-vaccination and 4 and 12 weeks post-vaccination. PBMC culture supernatants were assayed for IL-2 activity as a measure of the helper T-cell response to vaccination. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response was determined using an assay of granzyme B activity in PBMC lysates. Initial analysis of the data showed increased IL-2 production in post-vaccination PBMC cultures from the diabetic group compared to the healthy group. However, when vaccination histories were used in an analysis of variance, it was found that the difference between the two groups was related to vaccination history. Study subjects vaccinated one year prior to participation in this study compared to those who had not been previously vaccinated, demonstrated a significantly suppressed IL-2 response to vaccination. Type II diabetes mellitus had no effect on the IL-2 response to vaccination. The granzyme B response to vaccination was not significantly affected by previous vaccination and results were similar for the healthy and diabetic elderly groups.

Pubmed
Journal: Heart (British Cardiac Society)
September/11/2006
Pubmed
Journal: Chinese medical journal
January/27/2015
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Lymphocyte function and homeostasis is associated with immune defence to infection. Apoptosis of lymphocytes might be a considerably important component which has an impact on immunity to infections in people with hyperglycemia. The aim of this study was to explore the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of lymphocyte in diabetic patients.

METHODS

Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and fifty healthy volunteers were included in this study. Annexin V and propidiumiodide (PI) were joined in the isolated lymphocytes and the rate of lymphocyte apoptosis was calculated with flow cytometry. Observation of the lymphocytes was done using transmission electron microscopy; mitochondria had been extracted and then mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected to assess mitochondrial function; the mRNA level of Bcl-2, cytochrome c (Cyt-C), caspase-9 and caspase-3 were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

RESULTS

Apoptosis rate of lymphocyte was significantly higher in diabetic group than that in normal control group (P < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy showed lymphocyte shrinkage and breakage, chromatin condensation and less mitochondria; a fall in MMP levels was also evident; Bcl-2 concentration was reduced and the expressions of caspase-9, caspase-3 and Cyt-C were elevated (P < 0.05) in diabetic patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The rate of lymphocyte apoptosis was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than that in normal population. Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway may play a very important role in decreasing function of lymphocyte in diabetes.

Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
April/12/2015
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of poorly controlled type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of tramadol enantiomers in patients with neuropathic pain.

METHODS

Nondiabetic patients (control group, n = 12), patients with T1DM (n = 9) or T2DM (n = 9), all with neuropathic pain and phenotyped as cytochrome P450 2D6 extensive metabolizers, received a single oral dose of 100 mg racemic tramadol. Serial blood samples were collected over a 24-h period.

RESULTS

Patients with T1DM showed reduced Cmax of both tramadol enantiomers. The plasma concentrations of the active (+)-M1 were significantly reduced in T1DM (area under the curve plasma concentration versus time (AUC∞ ): 313.1 ng·h/ml) when compared with nondiabetic patients (AUC∞ : 1246.6 ng·h/ml). The fraction unbound of (+)-M1 was increased in patients with T1DM. Patients with T1DM and T2DM showed reduced AUC and increased fraction unbound of (-)-M1.

CONCLUSIONS

The reduced total plasma concentrations of the active (+)-M1 in patients with T1DM may not be of clinical relevance because they are counterbalanced by the increased fraction unbound.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of clinical nursing
April/5/2015
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine sexual lives of women with diabetes mellitus (type 2) (DM) and impact of culture on solution for problems related to sexual life.

BACKGROUND

DM has long been considered a risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men and women, although the evidence in women is less clear. This study was conducted to emphasise the effect of DM and culture on sexual life.

METHODS

A descriptive and qualitative study.

METHODS

Planned as descriptive and qualitative, this study was conducted with 38 women who matched with the following inclusion criterion: living in a neighbourhood with low socio-economic status in the province of Kayseri, Turkey. The Participant Information Form, Diabetes Control Form, the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), Sexual Life Definition Form and Semi-Structured Interview Form for revealing problems lived in sexual life, besides the results of laboratory tests, were used for data collection.

RESULTS

Mean age of the participating women was 51·34 ± 5·85 years. Total score of ASEX was found to be correlated with the type of DM treatment, duration of DM diagnosis, complications of DM, relation with her husband, level of HbA1c and systolic-diastolic blood pressure (p < 0·05). Of the participating women, 47·4% expressed that they had problems with sexual relation.

CONCLUSIONS

Most of the women with DM were determined to have problems in sexual functions besides the disease, and the impact of culture on the solution for problems lived within sexual life was effective.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings can help guide to raise the health of Turkish women with diabetes and to plan appropriate nursing interventions.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao
April/5/2015
Abstract

Lipidomics is increasingly becoming a viable method for researchers to routinely identify the various sterols present in samples, beyond just measuring cholesterol itself. In particular, the measurement of intermediates in cholesterol synthesis can shed new insights into not only the flux through the pathway, but also numerous disease states where levels of sterol intermediates are drastically altered. In this review, we indicate several intermediates that are relevant to disease, and discuss the challenges for analysing them, including the need for standardised methodology or universal controls across the lipidomics field.

Pubmed
Journal: Yonsei medical journal
April/27/2005
Abstract

Insulin resistance, which implies impairment of insulin signaling in the target tissues, is a common cause of type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue plays an important role in insulin resistance through the dysregulated production and secretion of adipose-derived proteins, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, resistin, angiotensinogen, and adiponectin. Adiponectin was estimated to be a protective adipocytokine against atherosclerosis, and also to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the relationship between fasting plasma adiponectin concentration and adiposity, body composition, insulin sensitivity (ITT, HOMAIR, QUICK), lipid profile, fasting insulin concentration were examined in Korean type 2 diabetes. The difference in the adiponectin concentrations was also examined in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, with adjustment for gender, age and body mass index. 102 type 2 diabetics and 50 controls were examined. After a 12-h overnight fast, all subjects underwent a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Baseline blood samples were drawn for the determinations of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. The body composition was estimated using a bioelectric impedance analyzer (Inbody 2.0). The insulin sensitivity was estimated using the insulin tolerance test (ITT), HOMAIR and QUICK methods. In the diabetic group, the fasting adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in men than in women. They were negatively correlated with BMI (r=-0.453), hip circumference (r=-0.341), fasting glucose concentrations (r=-0.277) and HOMAIR (r= -0.233). In addition, they were positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=0.321) and HDL-cholesterol (r= 0.291). The systolic blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol were found to be independent variables, from a multiple logistic regression analysis, which influenced the adiponectin concentration. Compared with the non-diabetic group, the adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in the diabetic group, with the exception of obese males. In conclusion, the plasma adiponectin concentrations were closely related to the insulin resistance parameters in Korean type 2 diabetic patients.

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