Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
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Pubmed
Journal: CA: a cancer journal for clinicians
May/4/2015
Abstract

Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests.

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Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of pathology
March/5/2000
Abstract

A recent report that 93 per cent of invasive cervical cancers worldwide contain human papillomavirus (HPV) may be an underestimate, due to sample inadequacy or integration events affecting the HPV L1 gene, which is the target of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based test which was used. The formerly HPV-negative cases from this study have therefore been reanalyzed for HPV serum antibodies and HPV DNA. Serology for HPV 16 VLPs, E6, and E7 antibodies was performed on 49 of the 66 cases which were HPV-negative and a sample of 48 of the 866 cases which were HPV-positive in the original study. Moreover, 55 of the 66 formerly HPV-negative biopsies were also reanalyzed by a sandwich procedure in which the outer sections in a series of sections are used for histological review, while the inner sections are assayed by three different HPV PCR assays targeting different open reading frames (ORFs). No significant difference was found in serology for HPV 16 proteins between the cases that were originally HPV PCR-negative and -positive. Type-specific E7 PCR for 14 high-risk HPV types detected HPV DNA in 38 (69 per cent) of the 55 originally HPV-negative and amplifiable specimens. The HPV types detected were 16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 45, 52, and 58. Two (4 per cent) additional cases were only HPV DNA-positive by E1 and/or L1 consensus PCR. Histological analysis of the 55 specimens revealed that 21 were qualitatively inadequate. Only two of the 34 adequate samples were HPV-negative on all PCR tests, as against 13 of the 21 that were inadequate ( p< 0.001). Combining the data from this and the previous study and excluding inadequate specimens, the worldwide HPV prevalence in cervical carcinomas is 99.7 per cent. The presence of HPV in virtually all cervical cancers implies the highest worldwide attributable fraction so far reported for a specific cause of any major human cancer. The extreme rarity of HPV-negative cancers reinforces the rationale for HPV testing in addition to, or even instead of, cervical cytology in routine cervical screening.

Pubmed
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
February/20/2003
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the risk associated with the various HPV types has not been adequately assessed.

METHODS

We pooled data from 11 case-control studies from nine countries involving 1918 women with histologically confirmed squamous-cell cervical cancer and 1928 control women. A common protocol and questionnaire were used. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interviews, and cervical cells were collected for detection of HPV DNA and typing in a central laboratory by polymerase-chain-reaction-based assays (with MY09/MY11 and GP5+/6+ primers).

RESULTS

HPV DNA was detected in 1739 of the 1918 patients with cervical cancer (90.7 percent) and in 259 of the 1928 control women (13.4 percent). With the GP5+/6+ primer, HPV DNA was detected in 96.6 percent of the patients and 15.6 percent of the controls. The most common HPV types in patients, in descending order of frequency, were types 16, 18, 45, 31, 33, 52, 58, and 35. Among control women, types 16, 18, 45, 31, 6, 58, 35, and 33 were the most common. For studies using the GP5+/6+ primer, the pooled odds ratio for cervical cancer associated with the presence of any HPV was 158.2 (95 percent confidence interval, 113.4 to 220.6). The odds ratios were over 45 for the most common and least common HPV types. Fifteen HPV types were classified as high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82); 3 were classified as probable high-risk types (26, 53, and 66); and 12 were classified as low-risk types (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81, and CP6108). There was good agreement between our epidemiologic classification and the classification based on phylogenetic grouping.

CONCLUSIONS

In addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82 should be considered carcinogenic, or high-risk, types, and types 26, 53, and 66 should be considered probably carcinogenic.

Pubmed
Journal: Nature reviews. Cancer
June/19/2002
Abstract

Links between human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and cervical cancer were first suspected almost 30 years ago. DNA of specific HPV types has since been found in almost all cervical cancer biopsies. HPV oncogenes that are expressed in these cells are involved in their transformation and immortalization, and are required for the progression towards malignancy. Epidemiological studies have underlined that HPVs are the main aetiological factor for cervical cancer. But how has this knowledge been translated into the clinic to allow the prevention, screening and treatment of cervical cancer?

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of clinical pathology
May/30/2002
Abstract

The causal role of human papillomavirus infections in cervical cancer has been documented beyond reasonable doubt. The association is present in virtually all cervical cancer cases worldwide. It is the right time for medical societies and public health regulators to consider this evidence and to define its preventive and clinical implications. A comprehensive review of key studies and results is presented.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
July/26/1995
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Epidemiologic studies have shown that the association of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is strong, independent of other risk factors, and consistent in several countries. There are more than 20 different cancer-associated HPV types, but little is known about their geographic variation.

OBJECTIVE

Our aim was to determine whether the association between HPV infection and cervical cancer is consistent worldwide and to investigate geographic variation in the distribution of HPV types.

METHODS

More than 1000 specimens from sequential patients with invasive cervical cancer were collected and stored frozen at 32 hospitals in 22 countries. Slides from all patients were submitted for central histologic review to confirm the diagnosis and to assess histologic characteristics. We used polymerase chain reaction-based assays capable of detecting more than 25 different HPV types. A generalized linear Poisson model was fitted to the data on viral type and geographic region to assess geographic heterogeneity.

RESULTS

HPV DNA was detected in 93% of the tumors, with no significant variation in HPV positivity among countries. HPV 16 was present in 50% of the specimens, HPV 18 in 14%, HPV 45 in 8%, and HPV 31 in 5%. HPV 16 was the predominant type in all countries except Indonesia, where HPV 18 was more common. There was significant geographic variation in the prevalence of some less common virus types. A clustering of HPV 45 was apparent in western Africa, while HPV 39 and HPV 59 were almost entirely confined to Central and South America. In squamous cell tumors, HPV 16 predominated (51% of such specimens), but HPV 18 predominated in adenocarcinomas (56% of such tumors) and adenosquamous tumors (39% of such tumors).

CONCLUSIONS

Our results confirm the role of genital HPVs, which are transmitted sexually, as the central etiologic factor in cervical cancer worldwide. They also suggest that most genital HPVs are associated with cancer, at least occasionally.

CONCLUSIONS

The demonstration that more than 20 different genital HPV types are associated with cervical cancer has important implications for cervical cancer-prevention strategies that include the development of vaccines targeted to genital HPVs.

Pubmed
Journal: Lancet (London, England)
September/19/2007
Abstract

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and knowledge regarding its cause and pathogenesis is expanding rapidly. Persistent infection with one of about 15 genotypes of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes almost all cases. There are four major steps in cervical cancer development: infection of metaplastic epithelium at the cervical transformation zone, viral persistence, progression of persistently infected epithelium to cervical precancer, and invasion through the basement membrane of the epithelium. Infection is extremely common in young women in their first decade of sexual activity. Persistent infections and precancer are established, typically within 5-10 years, from less than 10% of new infections. Invasive cancer arises over many years, even decades, in a minority of women with precancer, with a peak or plateau in risk at about 35-55 years of age. Each genotype of HPV acts as an independent infection, with differing carcinogenic risks linked to evolutionary species. Our understanding has led to improved prevention and clinical management strategies, including improved screening tests and vaccines. The new HPV-oriented model of cervical carcinogenesis should gradually replace older morphological models based only on cytology and histology. If applied wisely, HPV-related technology can minimise the incidence of cervical cancer, and the morbidity and mortality it causes, even in low-resource settings.

Pubmed
Journal: JAMA
May/1/2002
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The Bethesda 2001 Workshop was convened to evaluate and update the 1991 Bethesda System terminology for reporting the results of cervical cytology. A primary objective was to develop a new approach to broaden participation in the consensus process.

METHODS

Forum groups composed of 6 to 10 individuals were responsible for developing recommendations for discussion at the workshop. Each forum group included at least 1 cytopathologist, cytotechnologist, clinician, and international representative to ensure a broad range of views and interests. More than 400 cytopathologists, cytotechnologists, histopathologists, family practitioners, gynecologists, public health physicians, epidemiologists, patient advocates, and attorneys participated in the workshop, which was convened by the National Cancer Institute and cosponsored by 44 professional societies. More than 20 countries were represented.

METHODS

Literature review, expert opinion, and input from an Internet bulletin board were all considered in developing recommendations. The strength of evidence of the scientific data was considered of paramount importance.

METHODS

Bethesda 2001 was a year-long iterative review process. An Internet bulletin board was used for discussion of issues and drafts of recommendations. More than 1000 comments were posted to the bulletin board over the course of 6 months. The Bethesda Workshop, held April 30-May 2, 2001, was open to the public. Postworkshop recommendations were posted on the bulletin board for a last round of critical review prior to finalizing the terminology.

CONCLUSIONS

Bethesda 2001 was developed with broad participation in the consensus process. The 2001 Bethesda System terminology reflects important advances in biological understanding of cervical neoplasia and cervical screening technology.

Pubmed
Journal: Cancer metastasis reviews
September/16/2007
Abstract

Hypoxia, a characteristic feature of locally advanced solid tumors, has emerged as a pivotal factor of the tumor (patho-)physiome since it can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Hypoxia represents a "Janus face" in tumor biology because (a) it is associated with restrained proliferation, differentiation, necrosis or apoptosis, and (b) it can also lead to the development of an aggressive phenotype. Independent of standard prognostic factors, such as tumor stage and nodal status, hypoxia has been suggested as an adverse prognostic factor for patient outcome. Studies of tumor hypoxia involving the direct assessment of the oxygenation status have suggested worse disease-free survival for patients with hypoxic cervical cancers or soft tissue sarcomas. In head & neck cancers the studies suggest that hypoxia is prognostic for survival and local control. Technical limitations of the direct O(2) sensing technique have prompted the use of surrogate markers for tumor hypoxia, such as hypoxia-related endogenous proteins (e.g., HIF-1alpha, GLUT-1, CA IX) or exogenous bioreductive drugs. In many - albeit not in all - studies endogenous markers showed prognostic significance for patient outcome. The prognostic relevance of exogenous markers, however, appears to be limited. Noninvasive assessment of hypoxia using imaging techniques can be achieved with PET or SPECT detection of radiolabeled tracers or with MRI techniques (e.g., BOLD). Clinical experience with these methods regarding patient prognosis is so far only limited. In the clinical studies performed up until now, the lack of standardized treatment protocols, inconsistencies of the endpoints characterizing the oxygenation status and methodological differences (e.g., different immunohistochemical staining procedures) may compromise the power of the prognostic parameter used.

Pubmed
Journal: MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports
March/26/2007
Abstract

These recommendations represent the first statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on June 8, 2006. This report summarizes the epidemiology of HPV and associated diseases, describes the licensed HPV vaccine, and provides recommendations for its use for vaccination among females aged 9-26 years in the United States. Genital HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States; an estimated 6.2 million persons are newly infected every year. Although the majority of infections cause no clinical symptoms and are self-limited, persistent infection with oncogenic types can cause cervical cancer in women. HPV infection also is the cause of genital warts and is associated with other anogenital cancers. Cervical cancer rates have decreased in the United States because of widespread use of Papanicolaou testing, which can detect precancerous lesions of the cervix before they develop into cancer; nevertheless, during 2007, an estimated 11,100 new cases will be diagnosed and approximately 3,700 women will die from cervical cancer. In certain countries where cervical cancer screening is not routine, cervical cancer is a common cancer in women. The licensed HPV vaccine is composed of the HPV L1 protein, the major capsid protein of HPV. Expression of the L1 protein in yeast using recombinant DNA technology produces noninfectious virus-like particles (VLP) that resemble HPV virions. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a mixture of four HPV type-specific VLPs prepared from the L1 proteins of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 combined with an aluminum adjuvant. Clinical trials indicate that the vaccine has high efficacy in preventing persistent HPV infection, cervical cancer precursor lesions, vaginal and vulvar cancer precursor lesions, and genital warts caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, or 18 among females who have not already been infected with the respective HPV type. No evidence exists of protection against disease caused by HPV types with which females are infected at the time of vaccination. However, females infected with one or more vaccine HPV types before vaccination would be protected against disease caused by the other vaccine HPV types. The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is 11-12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged 13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening, and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.

Pubmed
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
May/16/2007
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. A phase 3 trial was conducted to evaluate a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV-6/11/16/18) for the prevention of high-grade cervical lesions associated with HPV-16 and HPV-18.

METHODS

In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 12,167 women between the ages of 15 and 26 years to receive three doses of either HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo, administered at day 1, month 2, and month 6. The primary analysis was performed for a per-protocol susceptible population that included 5305 women in the vaccine group and 5260 in the placebo group who had no virologic evidence of infection with HPV-16 or HPV-18 through 1 month after the third dose (month 7). The primary composite end point was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer related to HPV-16 or HPV-18.

RESULTS

Subjects were followed for an average of 3 years after receiving the first dose of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine efficacy for the prevention of the primary composite end point was 98% (95.89% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 100) in the per-protocol susceptible population and 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) in an intention-to-treat population of all women who had undergone randomization (those with or without previous infection). The estimated vaccine efficacy against all high-grade cervical lesions, regardless of causal HPV type, in this intention-to-treat population was 17% (95% CI, 1 to 31).

CONCLUSIONS

In young women who had not been previously infected with HPV-16 or HPV-18, those in the vaccine group had a significantly lower occurrence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia related to HPV-16 or HPV-18 than did those in the placebo group. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00092534 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).

Pubmed
Journal: Lancet (London, England)
August/6/2009
Abstract

BACKGROUND

The human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was immunogenic, generally well tolerated, and effective against HPV-16 or HPV-18 infections, and associated precancerous lesions in an event-triggered interim analysis of the phase III randomised, double-blind, controlled PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA). We now assess the vaccine efficacy in the final event-driven analysis.

METHODS

Women (15-25 years) were vaccinated at months 0, 1, and 6. Analyses were done in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (ATP-E; vaccine, n=8093; control, n=8069), total vaccinated cohort (TVC, included all women receiving at least one vaccine dose, regardless of their baseline HPV status; represents the general population, including those who are sexually active; vaccine, n=9319; control, n=9325), and TVC-naive (no evidence of oncogenic HPV infection at baseline; represents women before sexual debut; vaccine, n=5822; control, n=5819). The primary endpoint was to assess vaccine efficacy against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+) that was associated with HPV-16 or HPV-18 in women who were seronegative at baseline, and DNA negative at baseline and month 6 for the corresponding type (ATP-E). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00122681.

RESULTS

Mean follow-up was 34.9 months (SD 6.4) after the third dose. Vaccine efficacy against CIN2+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 92.9% (96.1% CI 79.9-98.3) in the primary analysis and 98.1% (88.4-100) in an analysis in which probable causality to HPV type was assigned in lesions infected with multiple oncogenic types (ATP-E cohort). Vaccine efficacy against CIN2+ irrespective of HPV DNA in lesions was 30.4% (16.4-42.1) in the TVC and 70.2% (54.7-80.9) in the TVC-naive. Corresponding values against CIN3+ were 33.4% (9.1-51.5) in the TVC and 87.0% (54.9-97.7) in the TVC-naive. Vaccine efficacy against CIN2+ associated with 12 non-vaccine oncogenic types was 54.0% (34.0-68.4; ATP-E). Individual cross-protection against CIN2+ associated with HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 was seen in the TVC.

CONCLUSIONS

The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine showed high efficacy against CIN2+ associated with HPV-16/18 and non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and substantial overall effect in cohorts that are relevant to universal mass vaccination and catch-up programmes.

BACKGROUND

GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals.

Pubmed
Journal: International journal of cancer
August/15/2007
Abstract

Data on human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in invasive and pre-invasive cervical cancer is essential to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and HPV-based screening tests. A meta-analyses of HPV type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) identified a total of 14,595 and 7,094 cases, respectively. In ICC, HPV16 was the most common, and HPV18 the second most common, type in all continents. Combined HPV16/18 prevalence among ICC cases was slightly higher in Europe, North America and Australia (74-77%) than in Africa, Asia and South/Central America (65-70%). The next most common HPV types were the same in each continent, namely HPV31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58, although their relative importance differed somewhat by region. HPV18 was significantly more prevalent in adeno/adenosquamous carcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma, with the reverse being true for HPV16, 31, 33, 52 and 58. Among HSIL cases, HPV16/18 prevalence was 52%. However, HPV 16, 18 and 45 were significantly under-represented, and other high-risk HPV types significantly over-represented in HSIL compared to ICC, suggesting differences in type-specific risks for progression. Data on HPV-typed ICC and HSIL cases were particularly scarce from large regions of Africa and Central Asia.

Pubmed
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
February/11/1998
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent in sexually active young women. However, precise risk factors for HPV infection and its incidence and duration are not well known.

METHODS

We followed 608 college women at six-month intervals for three years. At each visit, we collected information about lifestyle and sexual behavior and obtained cervicovaginal-lavage samples for the detection of HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot hybridization. Pap smears were obtained annually.

RESULTS

The cumulative 36-month incidence of HPV infection was 43 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 36 to 49 percent). An increased risk of HPV infection was significantly associated with younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, black race, an increased number of vaginal-sex partners, high frequencies of vaginal sex and alcohol consumption, anal sex, and certain characteristics of partners (regular partners having an increased number of lifetime partners and not being in school). The median duration of new infections was 8 months (95 percent confidence interval, 7 to 10 months). The persistence of HPV for > or =6 months was related to older age, types of HPV associated with cervical cancer, and infection with multiple types of HPV but not with smoking. The risk of an abnormal Pap smear increased with persistent HPV infection, particularly with high-risk types (relative risk, 37.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 14.6 to 94.8).

CONCLUSIONS

The incidence of HPV infection in sexually active young college women is high. The short duration of most HPV infections in these women suggests that the associated cervical dysplasia should be managed conservatively.

Pubmed
Journal: The Lancet. Oncology
December/6/2010
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Knowledge about the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. We aimed to provide novel and comprehensive data about the worldwide genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer.

METHODS

Paraffin-embedded samples of histologically confirmed cases of invasive cervical cancer were collected from 38 countries in Europe, North America, central South America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Inclusion criteria were a pathological confirmation of a primary invasive cervical cancer of epithelial origin in the tissue sample selected for analysis of HPV DNA, and information about the year of diagnosis. HPV detection was done by use of PCR with SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping with a reverse hybridisation line probe assay. Sequence analysis was done to characterise HPV-positive samples with unknown HPV types. Data analyses included algorithms of multiple infections to estimate type-specific relative contributions.

RESULTS

22,661 paraffin-embedded samples were obtained from 14,249 women. 10,575 cases of invasive cervical cancer were included in the study, and 8977 (85%) of these were positive for HPV DNA. The most common HPV types were 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 with a combined worldwide relative contribution of 8196 of 8977 (91%, 95% CI 90-92). HPV types 16 and 18 were detected in 6357 of 8977 of cases (71%, 70-72) of invasive cervical cancer. HPV types 16, 18, and 45 were detected in 443 of 470 cases (94%, 92-96) of cervical adenocarcinomas. Unknown HPV types that were identified with sequence analysis were 26, 30, 61, 67, 69, 82, and 91 in 103 (1%) of 8977 cases of invasive cervical cancer. Women with invasive cervical cancers related to HPV types 16, 18, or 45 presented at a younger mean age than did those with other HPV types (50·0 years [49·6-50·4], 48·2 years [47·3-49·2], 46·8 years [46·6-48·1], and 55·5 years [54·9-56·1], respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

To our knowledge, this study is the largest assessment of HPV genotypes to date. HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 should be given priority when the cross-protective effects of current vaccines are assessed, and for formulation of recommendations for the use of second-generation polyvalent HPV vaccines. Our results also suggest that type-specific high-risk HPV-DNA-based screening tests and protocols should focus on HPV types 16, 18, and 45.

Pubmed
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
July/14/1983
Abstract

DNA from one biopsy sample of invasive cancer of the cervix contained sequences hybridizing with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 DNA only under nonstringent conditions. This DNA was molecularly cloned in lambda phage. Under stringent conditions of hybridization it cross-hybridized to a minor extent (less than 0.1%) with HPV types 10, 14, and 15 and showed no homology with DNA of other human HPV types. We therefore propose to designate it tentatively as HPV 16. HPV 16 DNA was used as a probe to test additional cancer biopsy samples from cervical, vulval, and penile cancer, as well as benign genital warts (condylomata acuminata) and cervical dysplasias for the presence of homologous sequences. In 61.1% (11/18) of cervical cancer samples from German patients sequences were found hybridizing with HPV 16 DNA under conditions of high stringency. In contrast, only 34.8% (8/23) of cancer biopsy samples from Kenya and Brazil revealed this DNA. Vulval and penile cancer biopsy samples hybridized to 28.6% (2/7) or 25% (1/4), respectively. Only 2 out of 33 condylomata acuminata contained HPV 16 DNA. Both positive tumors harbored in addition HPV 6 or HPV 11 DNA. The data thus indicate that HPV 16 DNA prevails in malignant tumors, rendering an accidental contamination with papillomavirus DNA from adjacent papillomas rather unlikely. The rare presence in benign genital papillomas in addition to common genital papillomaviruses suggests a dependence of HPV 16 replication on helper virus.

Pubmed
Journal: Nature
April/18/1985
Abstract

DNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 has been found closely associated with human genital cancer, supporting the concept that members of this virus group are key factors in the aetiology of genital cancer. HPV 18 DNA sequences were also detected in cell lines derived from cervical cancer. We have now analysed these cell lines, HeLa, C4-1 and 756, for the structural organization and transcription of the HPV 18 genome and we find that the HPV 18 DNA is integrated into the cellular genome and is amplified in HeLa and 756 cells. Almost the complete HPV 18 genome seems to be present in 756 cells, with the early region being disrupted into two portions in each integrated copy. In HeLa and C4-1 cells, a 2-3 kilobase (kb) segment of HPV 18-specific sequences is missing from the E2 to L2 region. HPV 18 sequences are specifically transcribed from the E6-E7-E1 region into poly(A)+ RNAs of 1.5-6.5 kb. Hybridization analysis of cDNA clones indicated that some of the transcripts are composed of HPV 18 and cellular sequences. In addition, poly(A)+ RNA hybridizing with HPV 16 DNA was found in two out of three cervical carcinoma biopsies.

Pubmed
Journal: Cancer research
November/20/1996
Abstract

Experimental tumors contain a significant fraction of microregions that are chronically or transiently hypoxic. Experimental evidence showing that hypoxia (and subsequent reoxygenation) may have a profound impact on malignant progression and on responsiveness to therapy is growing. The clinical relevance of tumor oxygenation in human solid malignancies is under investigation. We have developed and validated a clinically applicable method for measurement of tumor oxygenation in locally advanced cancer of the uterine cervix using a computerized polarographic electrode system. Applying this procedure in patients with cervical cancers </= 3 cm in diameter, who gave informed consent, we have been studying the clinical relevance of tumor oxygenation prospectively since 1989. As of June 1995, 103 patients with advanced cancers of the uterine cervix [Federation Internationale des Gynaecologistes et Obstetristes (FIGO) stages Ib, bulky (n = 13), IIa and IIb (n = 51), IIIa and IIIb (n = 34), and IVa and IVb (n = 5)] had entered the study. Fifty % of the patients had carcinomas with median pO2 readings <10 mm Hg, referred to as hypoxic tumors. Tumor oxygenation was found to be independent of various patient demographics and also of pretreatment tumor characteristics, such as clinical tumor stage and size, histological type, and differentiation. However, histopathological examination of the surgical specimens following radical tumor resection in 47 patients showed that low-pO2 tumors exhibited larger tumor extensions and more frequent (occult) parametrial spread, as well as lymph-vascular space involvement, compared to well-oxygenated tumors of similar clinical stage and size. Forty-two patients completing primary radiation therapy and 47 patients who underwent radical surgery were analyzed for treatment outcome after a median observation period of 28 months (range, 3-76 months). Patients with hypoxic tumors had significantly worse disease-free and overall survival probabilities compared to patients with nonhypoxic tumors. Cox regression analysis identified tumor oxygenation and FIGO stage as the most important independent prognostic factors. The poorer outcome of the patients with hypoxic tumors was mainly due to locoregional failures with and without distant metastases, irrespective of whether surgery or radiation was applied as primary treatment. Tumor oxygenation as measured with a standardized polarographic method proved to be a powerful new pretherapeutic prognostic parameter providing important information on malignant progression in terms of extracervical tumor spread and radioresistance in advanced cervical cancers.

Pubmed
Journal: Anticancer research
December/9/2001
Abstract

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow substance from the root of the plant Curcuma longa Linn., has been demonstrated to inhibit carcinogenesis of murine skin, stomach, intestine and liver. However, the toxicology, pharmacokinetics and biologically effective dose of curcumin in humans have not been reported. This prospective phase-I study evaluated these issues of curcumin in patients with one of the following five high-risk conditions: 1) recently resected urinary bladder cancer; 2) arsenic Bowen's disease of the skin; 3) uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN); 4) oral leucoplakia; and 5) intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Curcumin was taken orally for 3 months. Biopsy of the lesion sites was done immediately before and 3 months after starting curcumin treament. The starting dose was 500 mg/day. If no toxicity > or = grade II was noted in at least 3 successive patients, the dose was then escalated to another level in the order of 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, and 12,000 mg/day. The concentration of curcumin in serum and urine was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 25 patients were enrolled in this study. There was no treatment-related toxicity up to 8,000 mg/day. Beyond 8,000 mg/day, the bulky volume of the drug was unacceptable to the patients. The serum concentration of curcumin usually peaked at 1 to 2 hours after oral intake of crucumin and gradually declined within 12 hours. The average peak serum concentrations after taking 4,000 mg, 6,000 mg and 8,000 mg of curcumin were 0.51 +/- 0.11 microM, 0.63 +/- 0.06 microM and 1.77 +/- 1.87 microM, respectively. Urinary excretion of curcumin was undetectable. One of 4 patients with CIN and 1 of 7 patients with oral leucoplakia proceeded to develop frank malignancies in spite of curcumin treatment. In contrast, histologic improvement of precancerous lesions was seen in 1 out of 2 patients with recently resected bladder cancer, 2 out of 7 patients of oral leucoplakia, 1 out of 6 patients of intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, I out of 4 patients with CIN and 2 out of 6 patients with Bowen's disease. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that curcumin is not toxic to humans up to 8,000 mg/day when taken by mouth for 3 months. Our results also suggest a biologic effect of curcumin in the chemoprevention of cancer.

Pubmed
Journal: Nature reviews. Cancer
August/12/2010
Abstract

An association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer was initially reported over 30 years ago, and today there is overwhelming evidence that certain subtypes of HPV are the causative agents of these malignancies. The p53 and retinoblastoma proteins are well-characterized targets of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but recent studies have shown that the alteration of additional pathways are equally important for transformation. These additional factors are crucial regulators of cell cycle progression, telomere maintenance, apoptosis and chromosomal stability. Understanding how HPV oncoproteins modify these activities provides novel insights into the basic mechanisms of oncogenesis.

Pubmed
Journal: Cancer cell
June/29/2010
Abstract

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and invasion. We demonstrate that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation. Using a mouse model of squamous skin carcinogenesis, we found a proinflammatory gene signature in CAFs isolated from dysplastic skin. This signature was maintained in CAFs from subsequent skin carcinomas and was evident in mammary and pancreatic tumors in mice and in cognate human cancers. The inflammatory signature was already activated in CAFs isolated from the initial hyperplastic stage in multistep skin tumorigenesis. CAFs from this pathway promoted macrophage recruitment, neovascularization, and tumor growth, activities that are abolished when NF-kappaB signaling was inhibited. Additionally, we show that normal dermal fibroblasts can be "educated" by carcinoma cells to express proinflammatory genes.

Pubmed
Journal: The New England journal of medicine
April/14/1999
Abstract

METHODS

On behalf of the Gynecologic Oncology Group, we performed a randomized trial of radiotherapy in combination with three concurrent chemotherapy regimens -- cisplatin alone; cisplatin, fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea; and hydroxyurea alone -- in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. Women with primary untreated invasive squamous-cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma of the cervix of stage IIB, III, or IVA, without involvement of the para-aortic lymph nodes, were enrolled. The patients had to have a leukocyte count of at least 3000 per cubic millimeter, a platelet count of at least 100,000 per cubic millimeter, a serum creatinine level no higher than 2 mg per deciliter (177 micromol per liter), and adequate hepatic function. All patients received external-beam radiotherapy according to a strict protocol. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of three chemotherapy regimens: 40 mg of cisplatin per square meter of body-surface area per week for six weeks (group 1); 50 mg of cisplatin per square meter on days 1 and 29, followed by 4 g of fluorouracil per square meter given as a 96-hour infusion on days 1 and 29, and 2 g of oral hydroxyurea per square meter twice weekly for six weeks (group 2); or 3 g of oral hydroxyurea per square meter twice weekly for six weeks (group 3).

RESULTS

The analysis included 526 women. The median duration of follow-up was 35 months. Both groups that received cisplatin had a higher rate of progression-free survival than the group that received hydroxyurea alone (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The relative risks of progression of disease or death were 0.57 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.78) in group 1 and 0.55 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.75) in group 2, as compared with group 3. The overall survival rate was significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3, with relative risks of death of 0.61 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.85) and 0.58 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.81), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Regimens of radiotherapy and chemotherapy that contain cisplatin improve the rates of survival and progression-free survival among women with locally advanced cervical cancer.

Pubmed
Journal: Lancet (London, England)
May/3/2006
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Effective vaccination against HPV 16 and HPV 18 to prevent cervical cancer will require a high level of sustained protection against infection and precancerous lesions. Our aim was to assess the long-term efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine against incident and persistent infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 and their associated cytological and histological outcomes.

METHODS

We did a follow-up study of our multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial reported in 2004. We included women who originally received all three doses of bivalent HPV-16/18 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine (0.5 mL; n=393) or placebo (n=383). We assessed HPV DNA, using cervical samples, and did yearly cervical cytology assessments. We also studied the long-term immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine.

RESULTS

More than 98% seropositivity was maintained for HPV-16/18 antibodies during the extended follow-up phase. We noted significant vaccine efficacy against HPV-16 and HPV-18 endpoints: incident infection, 96.9% (95% CI 81.3-99.9); persistent infection: 6 month definition, 94.3 (63.2-99.9); 12 month definition, 100% (33.6-100). In a combined analysis of the initial efficacy and extended follow-up studies, vaccine efficacy of 100% (42.4-100) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions associated with vaccine types. We noted broad protection against cytohistological outcomes beyond that anticipated for HPV 16/18 and protection against incident infection with HPV 45 and HPV 31. The vaccine has a good long-term safety profile.

CONCLUSIONS

Up to 4.5 years, the HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and induces a high degree of protection against HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical lesions. There is also evidence of cross protection.

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