Adenocarcinoma
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Pubmed
Journal: PloS one
September/29/2015
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To prospectively investigate the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cellularity in lung cancer.

METHODS

Sixty patients histopathologically confirmed with lung cancer (41 men, 19 women) underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the chest (with b values of 50 and 1000 s/mm2). The median mean ADC (ADC mean) value and median minimum ADC (ADC min) value within each primary tumour were calculated and compared with the median nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio (NCR), which was selected to represent the cellularity. The correlation between the NCR and ADC mean/ADC min was calculated with SPSS 18.0 software.

RESULTS

The mean ADC mean values, ADC min values and median NCR were (1.07 ± 0.12) × 10(-3) mm2/s, (0.86 ± 0.14) × 10(-3) mm2/s, and (14.9 ± 2.6) %, respectively, in adenocarcinoma; (0.88 ± 0.10) × 10(-3) mm2/s, (0.73 ± 0.12) × 10(-3)) mm2/s, and (20.6 ± 4.4) %, respectively, in squamous cell carcinoma; and (0.89 ± 0.13) × 10(-3) mm2/s, (0.67 ± 0.13) × 10(-3) mm2/s, and (18.3 ± 3.5) %, respectively in small cell lung cancer. The NCR of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer is greater than that of adenocarcinoma (P < 0.01 and P = 0.002, respectively). There was an inverse relationship between ADC mean/NCR and ADC min/NCR (r = -0.60, P = 0.001 and r = -0.47, P < 0.001, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

There is a significant inverse relationship between tumour cellularity and ADC in lung cancer. However, tumour cellularity most likely is not the sole determinant of the ADC.

Pubmed
Journal: British journal of cancer
May/2/2001
Abstract

Transgenic mouse models were established to study tumorigenesis of bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas derived from alveolar type II pneumocytes (AT-II cells). Transgenic lines expressing the murine oncogene c- myc under the control of the lung-specific surfactant protein C promoter developed multifocal bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasias, adenomas and carcinomas respectively, whereas transgenic lines expressing a secretable form of the epidermal growth factor (IgEGF), a structural and functional homologue of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), developed hyperplasias of the alveolar epithelium. Since the oncogenes c- myc and TGF alpha are frequently overexpressed in human lung bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas, these mouse lines are useful as models for human lung bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas. The average life expectancies of hemizygous and homozygous c- myc transgenics were 14.25 months and 9.2 months, respectively, suggesting that a dosage effect of c- myc caused an accelerated bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma formation. First analyses of double transgenics, hemizygous for both c- myc and IgEGF, show that these mice develop bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas at the average age of 9 months, indicating that these oncogenes cooperate during the lung cancer formation. Our results demonstrate that c- myc and EGF are directly involved and cooperate with one another during formation of bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas in the lung.

Pubmed
Journal: The American journal of pathology
December/6/2001
Abstract

Serine proteinases modulate the interaction of tumor cells with extracellular matrix components during extravasation and metastasis. The serine proteinase tissue kallikrein has been previously demonstrated in several human adenocarcinomas, and we presently report the localization of immunoreactive kallikrein and its mRNA in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In addition, a synthetic peptide-based inhibitor specific for tissue kallikrein (FE999024) was used in our studies to explore a possible role for kallikrein in cancer cell invasiveness. Matrigel invasion assays were performed with a human breast-cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, which expresses tissue kallikrein in culture. In the presence of FE999024 invasion through Matrigel was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner to a maximum of 39%. We also developed a novel ex vivo assay in which breast cancer cells are infused into the pulmonary circulation of artificially ventilated explanted rat lungs. At intervals up to 6 hours after infusion pulmonary invasion was quantified by bronchial alveolar lavage to recover human cancer cells from the airspace. Invading cells in the lung interstitium were also quantified after immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody specific for human cytokeratin 18. The synthetic kallikrein inhibitor attenuates breast cancer cell invasion into the airspace by 33% when quantified by lavage recovery and up to 34% as quantified in the lung interstitium by cytokeratin 18 immunostaining. Our results indicate tissue kallikrein may participate in the invasion and metastasis of human adenocarcinomas. The newly developed explanted rodent lung assay should be useful for the study of cancer cells, neutrophils, or other extravasating cells.

Pubmed
Journal: JAMA surgery
August/21/2017
Abstract

UNASSIGNED

Failing to complete chemotherapy adversely affects survival in patients with colorectal cancer. However, the effect of incomplete delivery of neoadjuvant radiotherapy is unclear.

UNASSIGNED

To determine whether incomplete radiotherapy delivery is associated with worse clinical outcomes and survival.

UNASSIGNED

Data on 17 600 patients with stage II to III rectal adenocarcinoma from the 2006-2012 National Cancer Database who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection were included. Multivariable regression methods were used to compare resection margin positivity, permanent colostomy rate, 30-day readmission, 90-day mortality, and overall survival between patients who received complete (45.0-50.4 Gy) and incomplete (<45.0 Gy) doses of radiation as preoperative therapy.

UNASSIGNED

The primary outcome measure was overall survival; short-term perioperative and oncologic outcomes encompassing margin positivity, permanent ostomy rate, postoperative readmission, and postoperative mortality were also assessed.

UNASSIGNED

Among 17 600 patients included, 10 862 were men, with an overall median age of 59 years (range, 51-68 years). Of these, 874 patients (5.0%) received incomplete doses of neoadjuvant radiation. The median radiation dose received among those who did not achieve complete dosing was 34.2 Gy (interquartile range, 19.8-40.0 Gy). Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59-0.81; P < .001) and receiving radiotherapy at a different hospital than the one where surgery was performed (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.62-0.85; P < .001) were independent predictors of failing to achieve complete dosing; private insurance status was predictive of completing radiotherapy (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.16-2.21; P = .004). At 5-year follow-up, overall survival was improved among patients who received a complete course of radiotherapy (3086 [estimated survival probability, 73.2%] vs 133 [63.0%]; P < .001). After adjustment for demographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics, patients receiving a complete vs incomplete radiation dose had a similar resection margin positivity (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.72-1.35; P = .92), permanent colostomy rate (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.70-1.32; P = .81), 30-day readmission rate (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.67-1.27; P = .62), and 90-day mortality (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.33-1.54; P = .41). However, a complete radiation dose had a significantly lower risk of long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59-0.84; P < .001).

UNASSIGNED

Achieving a target radiation dose of 45.0 to 50.4 Gy is associated with a survival benefit in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Aligning all aspects of multimodal oncology care may increase the probability of completing neoadjuvant therapy.

Pubmed
Journal: Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
December/2/2013
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths, is divided into 2 main classes based on its biology, therapy and prognosis: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Many cases are at an advanced stage at diagnosis, which is a major obstacle to improving outcomes. It is important to define the high risk group patients for early diagnosis and chance of cure. Blood group antigens are chemical components on erythrocyte membranes but they are also expressed on a variety of epithelial cells. Links between ABO blood groups with benign or malignant diseases, such as gastric and pancreas cancers, have been observed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between lung cancer histological subtypes and ABO-Rh blood groups.

METHODS

The files of 307 pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were were reviewed retrospectively. Cases with a serologically determined blood group and Rh factor were included and those with a history of another primary cancer were excluded, leaving a total of 221. The distribution of blood groups of the lung cancer patients were compared with the distribution of blood groups of healthy donors admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in the year 2012.

RESULTS

There was no significant difference between patients with lung cancer of either type and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh factor (p: 0.073). There was also no relationship with non small cell cancer histological subtypes.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, we found no relationship between the ABO-Rhesus blood groups and NSCLC and SCLC groups. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of ABO blood groups in SCLC patients.

Pubmed
Journal: The American journal of surgical pathology
September/10/2007
Abstract

The histologic distinction between high-grade prostate cancer and infiltrating high-grade urothelial cancer may be difficult, and has significant implications because each disease may be treated very differently (ie, hormone therapy for prostate cancer and chemotherapy for urothelial cancer). Immunohistochemistry of novel and established prostatic and urothelial markers using tissue microarrays (TMAs) were studied. Prostatic markers studied included: prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostein (P501s), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), NKX3.1 (an androgen-related tumor suppressor gene), and proPSA (pPSA) (precursor form of PSA). "Urothelial markers" included high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), p63, thrombomodulin, and S100P (placental S100). TMAs contained 38 poorly differentiated prostate cancers [Gleason score 8 (n=2), Gleason score 9 (n=18), Gleason score 10 (n=18)] and 35 high-grade invasive urothelial carcinomas from radical prostatectomy and cystectomy specimens, respectively. Each case had 2 to 8 tissue spots (0.6-mm diameter). If all spots for a case showed negative staining, the case was called negative. The sensitivities for labeling prostate cancers were PSA (97.4%), P501S (100%), PSMA (92.1%), NKX3.1 (94.7%), and pPSA (94.7%). Because of PSA's high sensitivity on the TMA, we chose 41 additional poorly differentiated primary (N=36) and metastatic (N=5) prostate carcinomas which showed variable PSA staining at the time of diagnosis and performed immunohistochemistry on routine tissue sections. Compared to PSA, which on average showed 18.8% of cells with moderate to strong positivity, cases stained for P501S, PSMA, and NKX3.1 had on average 42.5%, 53.7%, 52.9% immunoreactivity, respectively. All prostatic markers showed excellent specificity. HMWCK, p63, thrombomodulin, and S100P showed lower sensitivities in labeling high-grade invasive urothelial cancer in the TMAs with 91.4%, 82.9%, 68.6%, and 71.4% staining, respectively. These urothelial markers were relatively specific with only a few prostate cancers showing scattered (<or=2%) weak-moderate positive cells. In summary, PSA can be used as the first screening marker for differentiating high-grade prostate adenocarcinoma from high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry for P501S, PSMA, NKX3.1, and pPSA are useful when high-grade prostate cancer is suspected based on the morphology or clinical findings, yet shows negative or equivocal PSA staining. HMWCK and p63 are superior to the novel markers thrombomodulin and S100P.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of cutaneous pathology
March/12/2008
Abstract

Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare, benign adnexal tumor arising most often on the extremities of elderly individuals. It is typically a slow-growing, flesh- to reddish-colored nodule or plaque. Histologically, the tumor consists of anastomosing cords of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounded by a fibrovascular stroma containing plasma cells. The cords contain scattered ductal structures lined with cuboidal cells resembling eccrine ducts. The co-existence of ESFA with squamous cell carcinoma has been described, eliciting the term eccrine syringofibroadenoma. The differential diagnosis includes poroma, porocarcinoma, fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and clear cell acanthoma. ESFA stain positively with epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen. Cytokeratin studies have been inconsistent.

Pubmed
Journal: Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
May/25/2014
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The long-term survival of patients with completely resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not optimal because of undetected lymph node micrometastasis at the time of surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of survivin and livin mRNA expression in histopathologically negative lymph nodes of stage I NSCLC patients as markers of micrometastasis.

METHODS

Clinical data and tissue samples of primary tumor and lymph nodes were collected from 44 patients with stage I NSCLC. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect survivin and livin mRNA expression in these tumor and lymph node samples.

RESULTS

Survivin mRNA was detected in all tumors, and livin mRNA was detectable in 39 of the 44 primary tumors. The cut-off values of survivin and livin mRNA levels for diagnosing micrometastasis in lymph nodes were set up according to the expression of survivin and livin mRNA in control lymph nodes. Fifteen (34.1 %) of 44 stage I NSCCL patients had micrometastasis in lymph nodes by survivin and/or livin mRNA positive expression. Survival analysis showed higher rate of cancer recurrences and tumor-related death in patients with lymph node micrometastasis (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Tumor-free survival and overall survival were significantly worse in patients with lymph node micrometastasis compared with those without such micrometastasis (P = 0.007 and P = 0.01, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

RT-RCR assay for survivin and livin mRNA can be considered as useful diagnostic tool for the detection of lymph node micrometastasis for stage I NSCLC patients.

Pubmed
Journal: Urology
December/22/2003
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the long-term sexual potency and attrition in sexual function after iodine-125 ((125)I) seed radiotherapy and the effect of sildenafil on radiation-induced erectile dysfunction (ED).

METHODS

This prospective study consisted of 86 sexually active patients (mean age 63.5 +/- 7.7 years) who underwent (125)I seed implantation from 1997 to 1999 to treat low-volume prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen less than 10 ng/mL, Gleason score 6 or less, stage T1-T2). All patients were followed up every 6 to 8 months for 4 years. Patients prescribed sildenafil citrate for ED completed the abridged five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaires.

RESULTS

The median follow-up was 49.7 months (range 36 to 66). Of 86 patients, 43 (50%) did not initiate drug therapy; and only 36 (83.7%) of the 43 were interviewed at 4 years. Twenty-three (63.8%) of the 36 patients had erections sufficient for vaginal penetration, with a total mean +/- SD IIEF-5 score of 15.76 +/- 1.13. The other 50% (43 of 86) initiated sildenafil citrate for treatment of ED after seed implantation, with a minimal follow-up of 6 months. At 4 years, 32 (74%) of the 43 were responding positively to sildenafil citrate, with a total IIEF-5 score of 18.3 +/- 1.2. The mean EDITS +/- SD score was 76.5 +/- 3.2, and the spousal satisfaction rate was 72% (31 of 43). The dropout rate was 37% (16 of 43); 10 (63%) of the 16 discontinued because of a lack of efficacy, 3 (19%) because of a return of natural erections sufficient for vaginal penetration, and 3 (19%) discontinued because of side effects (headaches).

CONCLUSIONS

ED is a major long-term issue after (125)I seed radiotherapy, with a long-term potency rate of 29%. Sildenafil citrate improves erections in most patients after (125)I seed implantation.

Pubmed
Journal: Clinical colorectal cancer
July/5/2006
Abstract

BACKGROUND

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of irinotecan/cetuximab administered as third- or fourth-line therapy in a retrospective series of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to oxaliplatin and irinotecan.

METHODS

Most patients (90%) had been previously treated with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin, and all had received oxaliplatin-based regimens before receiving irinotecan-based second-line treatment. Sixty patients with irinotecan-refractory colorectal cancer received a regimen comprising weekly irinotecan 120 mg/m2 as a 1-hour intravenous infusion and cetuximab 400 mg/m2 infused over 2 hours as the initial dose and 250 mg/m2 infused over 1 hour for the subsequent administrations. A single treatment cycle comprised 4 weekly infusions followed by 2 weeks of rest.

RESULTS

According to an intent-to-treat analysis, a partial response was exhibited in 12 of 60 enrolled patients (20%; 95% confidence interval, 11%-32%) with a median duration of 5.1 months (range, 3-7.4 months). The tumor growth control rate was 50% (95% confidence interval, 37%-63%). Objective responses did not correlate with performance status, number of sites of disease, and pretreatments or epidermal growth factor receptor status. The median progression-free survival was 3.1 months (range, 1.2-9 months), whereas median overall survival was 6 months (range, 2-13 months). Both survival parameters correlated with performance status at the beginning of treatment. The main grade 3/4 toxicities were nausea (33%), diarrhea (27%), leukopenia (18%), asthenia (13%), and acne-like reaction (13%).

CONCLUSIONS

Our data suggest that the weekly irinotecan/cetuximab regimen is feasible in an outpatient setting and tolerated by most patients. At present, combinations of chemotherapy with cetuximab are being evaluated in patients with earlier-stage disease in a number of ongoing studies.

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