Graphene aerogels (GAs) anchoring hierarchical, mulberry-like ZnO particles are fabricated in situ using a one-step solvothermal reaction. The resulting composites can function as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where they exhibit a high capacity and cyclic stability. The reversible capacities obtained are 365, 320, and 230 mA h g-1 at current densities of 1, 2, and 10 A g-1 . Their high reversible capacity is 445 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1.6 A g-1 ; this value is maintained even after the 500th cycle, The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to strong oxygen bridges between ZnO and graphene, where C-O-Zn linkages provide a good pathway for electron transport during charge/discharge cycles. Additionally, the hierarchical structure of the ZnO microballs suppresses stacking among the graphene layers, allowing the GAs to accelerate the transport of lithium ions. Furthermore, the GA framework enhances the electrical conductivity and buffer any volume expansion.Read more
To explore the anti-angiogenic effects of genistein on synovium in a rat model of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).
Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, genistein group, methotrexate (MTX) group and Gen plus MTX group with 8 rats in each group. Arthritis in rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of type II collagen combined with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). On the second day after the injection, 1 mL of suspension liquid of genistein (30 mg/kg body weight, once daily) and MTX (0.2 mg/kg body weight, once a week) were administered by oral gavage respectively. The rats in normal group and model group were administered with normal saline in the same volume. Synovium of knee joints and peripheral serum were collected from the CIA rats. Microvessel density in synovium (MVD) was detected by immunohistochemical method and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-1, 2 and 9 levels were detected by using Western blotting.
Arthritis index score, paw volume of rats in the model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05), which suggested that a model of CIA induced by injection of type II collagen and CFA was successfully constructed. The arthritis index scores of rats in the treatment groups were decreased compared with the model group. The results of Western blotting showed that genistein obviously attenuate the levels of VEGF and MMP-1, 2 and 9 in serum (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical method showed that MVDs in the treatment groups were reduced as compared with the model group.
The expressions of VEGF and MMP-1, 2 and 9 are related to the synovial pannus formation in CIA rats. The anti-angiogenic activity of genistein may correlate to its inhibitory effect on the expressions of VEGF and MMP-1, 2 and 9 in serum of CIA rats; genistein plus MTX are superior to single agents in treating rheumatoid arthritis.Read more
We have developed a calcium phosphate glass (CPG) doped with Zn(2+) or F(-) or combined Zn(2+) and F(-) ions, which are naturally found in the human body and play a dual role in bone formation and antibacterial activity. Previously, we have demonstrated that this family of CPGs has superior osteoconductive and resorbable properties in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial property of CPGs incorporating Zn(2+) and/or F(-) . We used Streptococcus mutans as a model organism because it is one of the major human oral pathogens and an early colonizer, and it has been associated with several oral infections, such as dental caries, periodontitis, and peri-implantitis. CPGs of 0.01 and 0.05 g were incubated with S. mutans for 0, 2, 4, and 6 h. Serial dilutions were plated in triplicate and colony forming units were determined. The antimicrobial effect of CPG incorporating Zn(2+) or F(-) was greater than CPG incorporating both these ions. CPG without doping produced a moderate antimicrobial effect. This family of CPGs, previously shown to promote new bone formation in vivo, is demonstrated to have superior bactericidal properties.Read more
An increasing number of MRI investigations suggest that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show not only gray matter decreases but also white matter (WM) abnormalities, including WM volume (WMV) deficits and integrity disruption of WM pathways. In this study, we applied multimodal voxel-wise meta-analytical methods to study WMV and fractional anisotropy in AD. Fourteen studies including 723 participants (340 with AD and 383 controls) were involved. The meta-analysis was performed using effect size signed differential mapping. Significant WMV reductions were observed in bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, splenium of corpus callosum, right parahippocampal gyrus, and hippocampus. Decreased fractional anisotropy was identified mainly in left posterior limb of internal capsule, left anterior corona radiata, left thalamus, and left caudate nucleus. Significant decreases of both WMV and fractional anisotropy were found in left caudate nucleus, left superior corona radiata, and right inferior temporal gyrus. Most findings showed to be highly replicable in the jackknife sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, AD patients show widespread WM abnormalities mainly in bilateral structures related to advanced mental and nervous activities.Read more
Abnormal accumulation and aggregation of microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Loss-of-function mutation of DJ-1/Park7 can cause early onset of PD. DJ-1, a molecular chaperone, can inhibit α-synuclein aggregation. Currently, little is known whether or not loss of function of DJ-1 contributes to abnormal MAPs aggregation in neurodegenerative disorders such as PD.
We presented evidence that DJ-1 could bind to microtubule associated protein1b Light Chain (MAP1b-LC). Overexpression of DJ-1 prevented MAP1b-LC aggregation in HEK293t and SH-SY5Y cells while DJ-1 knocking down (KD) enhanced MAP1b-LC aggregation in SH-SY5Y cells. The increase in insoluble MAP1b-LC was also observed in the DJ-1 null mice brain. Moreover, in the DJ-1 KD SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of MAP1B-LC led to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis.
Our results suggest that DJ-1 acts as a molecular chaperone to inhibit MAP1B aggregation thus leading to neuronal apoptosis. Our study provides a novel insight into the mechanisms that underly the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD).Read more
A novel type of stationary phase selectivity classification "triangle" has been developed based on the Snyder-Dolan (S-D) Hydrophobic-Subtraction Model, wherein the apices of a set of four triangles represent the relative contributions of steric hindrance (chi(S)), hydrogen-bonding acidity (chi(A)), hydrogen-bonding basicity (chi(B)), cation-exchange capacity (chi(C)) to selectivity. We found that "effective selectivity" of a stationary phase is mathematically given by the ratio of system dependent interaction coefficients but not their absolute values. Thus by normalizing the S*, A, B and C terms of the S-D model by H, we were able to obtain four parameters which fully define the chromatographic selectivity of the stationary phases. By examining the parameters in groups of three, we can represent all the result in a set of four "selectivity triangles". The distinctive feature of this approach compared to the S-D phase classification scheme is that it allows the visualization of column selectivity by plotting three-dimensional data in a two-dimensional space. Moreover, it very clearly shows that the RPLC columns thus far characterized cover only a small fraction of separation selectivity space leaving a great deal of room for researchers to develop novel RPC materials. Various applications of these "selectivity triangles" will be discussed in this paper.Read more
Two endophenotypes of arterial calcification, calcification on arterial wall and calcification in atherosclerotic plaques, are associated with different types of cardiovascular events. Mgp-deficient mice showed matrix Gla protein (MGP) is strongly associated with calcification on arterial wall without atherosclerotic plaques, and MGP variants were not significantly associated with myocardial infarction. MGP may play different roles in the 2 endophenotypes.
We analyzed the associations of MGP variants rs4236, rs1800801, and rs1800802 with the 2 endophenotypes determined by multidetector computed tomography angiography. A total of 585 with calcification on coronary artery wall, 675 with calcification in coronary atherosclerotic plaques, 454 with calcification on aortic wall, and 725 controls were enrolled. After Bonferroni correction, rs4236 and rs1800801 were still associated with calcification on arterial wall, the odds ratios were 0.708 (95% confidence interval, 0.540-0.928) for rs4236 and 0.652 (95% confidence interval, 0.479-0.888) for rs1800801 in coronary artery wall calcification, and 0.699 (95% confidence interval, 0.525-0.931) for rs4236 and 0.650 (95% confidence interval, 0.467-0.905) for rs1800801 in aortic wall calcification, respectively. The variants were correlated with calcification severity by ln(CAC Agatston score+1) in coronary artery wall calcification but not in atherosclerotic plaque calcification. In accordance with their associations with calcification on arterial wall, rs4236C and rs1800801A were associated with higher MGP plasma levels, whereas rs1800802C was associated with lower MGP levels in normal controls. Because of the role of calcification in plaque vulnerability, their associations with acute myocardial infarction were also determined in 771 controls and 752 patients, no association was found.
MGP genetic variants showed association with calcification on arterial wall but not with calcification in atherosclerotic plaques.Read more
During HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), decreasing in excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT-2) in astrocyte plasma membranes leads to elevated levels of extracellular glutamate and, in turn, neuronal apoptosis. We used immunohistochemistry, western blot, qRT-PCR, and RNA interference to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the decreased EAAT-2 expression during HAND at the tissue and cellular levels. We used simian immunodeficiency virus-human immunodeficiency virus chimeric virus (SHIV)-infected macaques as an in vivo model of HAND. Our results show that EAAT-2 expression was decreased in the cerebral cortex, while AEG-1 expression was increased, and the expression levels of these proteins were negatively correlated. In vitro analyses showed that HIV-1 Tat inhibited EAAT-2 expression by inducing overexpression of AEG-1. More specifically, HIV-1 Tat increased AEG-1 expression via the PI3-K signaling pathway, while increasing EAAT-2 inhibition by YinYan-1 (YY-1) via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results warrant testing AEG-1 as a potential therapeutic target for treating HAND.Read more
In this work, we proposed a simple co-mixing method to fabricate magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs). MIPs were commercial products while magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by chemical oxidation and solvothermal methods. When MNPs and MIPs (with mass ratio 1:1) were co-mixed and vortexed evenly in methanol, they could assemble into magnetic composites spontaneously and thus be magnetically separable. To testify the feasibility of the magnetic composites in sample preparation, the resultant magnetic MIPs were applied as sorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in milk samples. Under optimized conditions, a rapid, convenient, and efficient method for the determination of three FQs in milk samples was established by magnetic MIPs based MSPE coupling with high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The limits of detection (LODs) for three FQs were found to be 1.8-3.2ng/g. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 9.5% and 12.5%, respectively. The recoveries of FQs for two spiked milk samples were in the range from 94.0% to 124.4% with the RSDs less than 11.6%.Read more
To assess the effects of three different bowel preparation methods on the incidence of infectious complications in patients who underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy.
The standard bowel preparation protocol for prostate biopsy has not been established.
A retrospective study in a single centre.
From January 2013-December 2015, the clinical records of 1,130 patients who underwent prostate biopsy were, respectively, reviewed. All the patients received metronidazole prophylaxis before biopsy. The patients were divided into three groups according to the bowel preparation methods: patients in Group A (n = 402) received only soapy enema; patients in Group B (n = 413) received polyethylene glycol; while patients in Group C (n = 315) received polyethylene glycol plus povidone-iodine enema. Infectious complications were classified as fever (>37.5°C), urinary tract infection and sepsis. The postoperative adverse events were also observed.
The overall postbiopsy infectious complications were observed in 48 (4.25%) patients of all the cases, including 23 (5.72%) cases in Group A, 20 (4.84%) cases in Group B and five patients (1.59%) in Group C. There was significant difference among the groups (p = .018). In detail, these infectious complications included 22 (1.95%) cases of fever and 26 (2.30%) cases of urinary tract infection. No sepsis was observed among the total patients. The incidence of adverse events was 14.43% (58/402) occurred in Group A, 25.91% (107/413) in Group B and 26.67% (84/315) in Group C. The difference was statistically significant.
Our study confirmed that combined preparation regimens of polyethylene glycol with povidone-iodine enema could significantly reduce the postbiopsy infection rate. Conventional soapy enema is associated with less adverse events.
Findings of this study provide useful evidence-based information for healthcare professionals. The application of combined preparation regimens of polyethylene glycol with povidone-iodine enema resulted in better improvement in the prevention of postbiopsy infection.Read more