Platinum-based therapeutic strategies have been widely used in ovarian cancer treatment. However, drug resistance has greatly limited therapeutic efficacy. Recently, tolerance to cisplatin has been attributed to other factors unrelated to DNA. p62 (also known as SQSTM1) functions as a multifunctional hub participating in tumorigenesis and may be a therapeutic target. Our previous study showed that p62 was overexpressed in drug-resistant ovarian epithelial carcinoma and its inhibition increased the sensitivity to cisplatin. In this study, we demonstrate that the activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway and K63-linked ubiquitination of RIP1 was higher in cisplatin-resistant ovarian (SKOV3/DDP) cells compared with parental cells. In addition, cisplatin resistance could be reversed by inhibiting the expression of p62 using siRNA. Furthermore, deletion of the ZZ domain of p62 that interacts with RIP1 in SKOV3 cells markedly decreased K63-linked ubiquitination of RIP1 and inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, loss of the ZZ domain from p62 led to poor proliferative capacity and high levels of apoptosis in SKOV3 cells and made them more sensitive to cisplatin treatment. Collectively, we provide evidence that p62 is implicated in the activation of NF-κB signaling that is partly dependent on RIP1. p62 promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis thus mediating drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells.
The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, overexpressed in many tumor cells, is an attractive target for potential small molecule anticancer drug discovery. Herein, we report a different structural modification approach on ABT-263 by merging the piperazinyl-phenyl fragment into a bicyclic framework leading to a series of novel analogues, among which tetrahydroisoquinoline 13 was nearly equally potent against Bcl-2 as ABT-263. Further SAR in the P4-interaction pocket affored the difluoroazetidine substituted analogue 55, which retained good Bcl-2 activity with improved Bcl-2/Bcl-xL selectivity.
This study examines the interaction between hERG and Kv4.3. The functional interaction between hERG and Kv4.3, expressed in a heterologous cell line, was studied using patch clamp techniques, western blot, immunofluorescence, and co-immunoprecipitation. Co-expression of Kv4.3 with hERG increased hERG current density (tail current after a step to +10 mV: 26 ± 3 versus 56 ± 7 pA/pF, p < 0.01). Kv4.3 co-expression also increased the protein expression and promoted the membrane localization of hERG. Western blot showed Kv4.3 increased hERG expression by Hsp70. hERG and Kv4.3 co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated in cultured 293 T cells, indicating physical interactions between hERG and Kv4.3 proteins in vitro. In addition, Hsp70 interacted with hERG and Kv4.3 respectively, and formed complexes with hERG and Kv4.3. The α subunit of Ito Kv4.3 can interact with and modify the localization of the α subunit of IKr hERG, thus providing potentially novel insights into the molecular mechanism of the malignant ventricular arrhythmia in heart failure.
Osteoporosis presents a challenge to the long-term success of osseointegration of endosseous implants. The bio-inspired 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa) coating is widely used as a basic layer to bind osteogenetic molecules that may improve osseointegration. To date, little attention has focused on application of Dopa alone or binding inhibitors of bone resorption in osteoporosis. Local use of a bisphosphonate such as zoledronic acid (ZA), an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, has been proven to improve implant osseointegration. In this study, ovariectomized rats were divided into four groups and implanted with implants with different surface modifications: sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA), SLA modified with Dopa (SLA-Dopa), SLA modified with ZA (SLA-ZA), and SLA modified with Dopa and ZA (SLA-Dopa + ZA). Measurement of removal torque, micro-computed tomography and histology revealed a greater extent of bone formation around the three surface-modified implants than SLA-controls. No synergistic effect was observed for combined Dopa + ZA coating. Microarray analysis showed the Dopa coating inhibited expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, similarly to the mechanism of action of ZA. Simple Dopa modification resulted in a similar improvement in osseointegration compared to ZA. Thus, our data suggest simple Dopa coating is promising strategy to promote osseointegration of implants in patients with osteoporosis.
One specific behavior can be synergistically modulated by different neural pathways. Medial septal (MS) cholinergic system innervates widespread cortical and subcortical regions and participates in pain modulation, but the underlying neural pathways are not fully understood. This study examined the contribution of MS cholinergic neurons and 2 neural pathways: MS-rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and MS-ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1), in modulating perceptual and affective pain behaviors in a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain. We found that chronic pain activated MS cholinergic neurons and pyramidal neurons in the rACC, but suppressed pyramidal neuronal activities in the vCA1, all of which contributed to the maintenance of pathological pain. Chemogenetic inhibition of MS cholinergic neurons or the MS-rACC pathway inhibited rACC pyramidal neuronal activities and attenuated perceptual and affective dimensions of chronic pain. By contrast, chemogenetic activation of MS cholinergic neurons also produced analgesia, but by rescuing hypofunctional pyramidal neurons in vCA1. These results clearly demonstrate that the MS cholinergic system differentially modulates chronic inflammatory pain through MS-rACC or MS-vCA1 pathways. More significantly, our research provides evidence for a novel paradigm of neural circuit modulation: MS cholinergic inhibition and activation induce similar analgesia but through distinct neural pathways.
To investigate the relationship between ceruloplasmin (CP) and Parkinson's disease (PD), and the correlation between CP level and the time difference between nonmotor symptoms and motor symptoms and the diagnosis were also mentioned.
Sixty-six patients diagnosed with PD for the first time were included in the study. They were divided into CP reduction group (31 cases) and CP normal group (35 cases) according to their CP level. The estimated time difference between nonmotor symptoms and motor symptoms and the diagnosis were recorded respectively. The magnetic sensitive nigra phase value was measured by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI).
Ceruloplasmin level was middling correlated with age (r = .561, p < .001). There was strong negative correlation between CP level and UPDRS scores (r = -.727, p < .001). The CP level was significantly correlated with the magnetic sensitive nigra phase value (r = .891, p < .001). CP level showed moderate correlation with the time difference from nonmotor symptoms to motor symptoms (r = .559, p < .001), besides, the time difference between nonmotor symptoms and the diagnosis (r = .525, p < .001) and CP level was also moderately related.
Ceruloplasmin interference in iron metabolism was closely related with PD development. And there were slight corrections between CP level and the time difference from nonmotor symptoms to motor symptoms or the diagnosis.
Rationale: Radioresistance is considered the main cause of local relapse in lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of radioresistance remain poorly understood. This study investigates the role of CDK16 in radioresistance of human lung cancer cells. Methods: The expression levels of CDK16 were determined by immunohistochemistry in lung cancer tissues and adjacent normal lung tissues. Immunoprecipitation assay and GST pulldown were utilized to detect the protein-protein interaction. The phosphorylation of p53 was evaluated by in vitro kinase assay. Poly-ubiquitination of p53 was examined by in vivo ubiquitination assay. Cell growth and apoptosis, ROS levels and DNA damage response were measured for functional analyses. Results: We showed that CDK16 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and tissues, and high levels of CDK16 are correlated with lymph node stage and poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Furthermore, we provided evidence that CDK16 binds to and phosphorylates p53 at Ser315 site to inhibit transcriptional activity of p53. Moreover, we uncovered that this phosphorylation modification accelerates p53 degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Importantly, we demonstrated that CDK16 promotes radioresistance by suppressing apoptosis and ROS production as well as inhibiting DNA damage response in lung cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CDK16 negatively modulates p53 signaling pathway to promote radioresistance, and therefore represents a promising therapeutic target for lung cancer radiotherapy.
Aroma-active compounds and non-volatile substances determine the characteristic aroma and taste of yeast extract (YE). Changes in the characteristic aroma and taste of YE due to thermal reaction are rarely studied, and the relationship between aroma-active compounds and non-volatile compounds is not yet clear.
Non-volatile compounds identified by HPLC and LC/MS/MS were reduced by a rise in temperature, except for some amino acids. Peptides underwent degradation. In addition, a further rise in temperature above 120 °C resulted in a bitter and sour taste. Furans, pyrazines, thiophenes, thiazoles and some branched chain sulfur compounds were derived from GC/O/MS (SPME and SAFE). Sensory results revealed that the concentration of volatile compounds increased with an increase in temperature. The overall aroma profiles of YE at 25, 100 and 110 °C were buttery, green, nutty and meaty, while YE at 140 °C had a strong sour and sulfur odour.
The non-volatile compounds of YE were reduced and different volatile compounds were produced under different thermal treatments. There was a negative correlation between these two types of compounds. The different taste sensors and all precursors were correlated with each other. There are significant relationships between different odorants and aroma-active compounds of YE after thermal treatment. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Prostate cancer-associated non-coding RNA transcript-1(PCAT-1), which is a newly discovered long non-coding RNA, is up-regulated in various cancers. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the clinicopathological and prognostic value of PCAT-1 in patients with malignant tumors.
A systematic literature search involved PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE database, Ovid, Chinese CNKI, and the Chinese WanFang database. The role of PCAT-1 in cancers was evaluated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
A total of 1005 patients from nine studies were included in this meta-analysis. High expression of PCAT-1 was associated with depth of infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and TNM stage. However, increased PCAT-1 expression was not related to gender, tumor size and differentiation. Moreover, high PCAT-1 expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), and the pooled results suggested that PCAT-1 expression can be an independent predictive factor for overall survival.
This meta-analysis provides evidence that PCAT-1 expression is closely correlated with depth of infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and TNM stage, and that increased PCAT-1 expression may be a potential prognostic biomarker in human cancers. However, more large-scale studies are warranted.
Strobilanthes A (1), a novel isocoumarin with an unusual tetrahydro-4H-pyran-4-one moiety fused isocoumarin core skeleton, together with a known compound (2) was isolated from Strobilanthes cusia. Its chemical structures were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The biosynthetic pathway of 1 could be supposed to be originally derived from 3-methylisocoumarin, a product of AA-MA pathway. Both of two compounds displayed anti-influenza virus activity in vitro.