A new triterpene glycoside ilexdunnoside A (1) and a new sulfated triterpene derivative ilexdunnoside B (2), together with five known analogues 3-7 were isolated from the roots of Ilex dunniana Levl. The structures were established by NMR spectroscopic analysis and acid hydrolysis. Results of an in vivo study of the biological activity showed that 75% ethanol and n-butanol extracts of the plant displayed anti-inflammatory activities against ear edema in mice, with inhibition rates of 23.5% and 37.5%, respectively, at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Furthermore, Compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited moderate indirect inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells in vitro, with IC50 values of 11.60, 12.30 and 9.70 μM, respectively.Read more
The components of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are expressed in the kidney and bone. Kidney disease and bone injury are common complications associated with diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on the kidney and bone of db/db mice. The db/db mice were orally administered by gavage with captopril for 8weeks with db/+ mice as the non-diabetic control. Serum and urine biochemistries were determined by standard colorimetric methods or ELISA. Histological measurements were performed on the kidney by periodic acid-schiff staining and on the tibial proximal metaphysis by safranin O and masson-trichrome staining. Trabecular bone mass and bone quality were analyzed by microcomputed tomography. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied for molecular analysis on mRNA and protein expression. Captopril significantly improved albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in db/db mice, and these effects might be attributed to the down-regulation of angiotensin II expression and the expression of its down-stream profibrotic factors in the kidney, like connective tissue growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus markedly increased in db/db mice in response to captopril. Treatment with captopril induced a decrease in bone mineral density and deterioration of trabecular bone at proximal metaphysis of tibia in db/db mice, as shown in the histological and reconstructed 3-dimensional images. Even though captopril effectively reversed the diabetes-induced changes in calcium-binding protein 28-k and vitamin D receptor expression in the kidney as well as the expression of RAS components and bradykinin receptor-2 in bone tissue, treatment with captopril increased the osteoclast-covered bone surface, reduced the osteoblast-covered bone surface, down-regulated the expression of type 1 collagen and transcription factor runt-related transcription factor 2 (markers for osteoblastic functions), and up-regulated the expression of carbonic anhydrase II (marker for bone resorption). Captopril exerted therapeutic effects on renal injuries associated with type 2 diabetes but worsened the deteriorations of trabecular bone in db/db mice; the latter of which was at least in part due to the stimulation of osteoclastogenesis and the suppression of osteogenesis by captopril.Read more
The present study compares the efficacy of 915- and 2450-MHz contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided percutaneous microwave coagulation with that of CEUS-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of trauma-induced spleen hemorrhage.
In a canine splenic artery hemorrhage model with two levels of arterial diameter (A, <1 mm and B, between 1 and 2 mm), hemostatic therapy was performed using 915- and 2450-MHz microwaves and drug injection. Therapy efficacy was measured by comparing bleeding rate, hemostatic time, bleeding index, bleeding volume, and pathology.
The most efficient technique was CEUS-guided 915-MHz percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy in terms of action time and total blood loss. The success rate of the 915-MHz microwave group was higher than that of the 2450-MHz microwave and the drug injection groups (except A level, P < 0.05). Hemostatic time, bleeding index, and bleeding volume were significantly less in the 915-MHz microwave group than those in the 2450-MHz microwave and drug injection groups (P < 0.05). Obvious degeneration and necrosis of parenchyma and large intravascular thrombosis were observed in the cavity of larger vessels in the 915-MHz microwave group, but pathologic changes of light injury could be seen in the other groups.
The present study provides evidence that microwave coagulation therapy is more efficient than thrombin injection for the treatment of splenic hemorrhage. Furthermore, treatment with 915-MHz microwaves stops bleeding more rapidly and generates a wider cauterization zone than does treatment with 2450-MHz microwaves.Read more
Pink crystals composed of antiferromagnetic chains (1) can be transformed into blue crystals composed of a ferromagnetic diamondoid framework (2) with structural and magnetic changes.Read more
HBV genome replication intermediates blocked at early stages of minus strand synthesis have been identified in a study on circulating DNA and RNA during short-term lamivudine therapy. This suggested that the inhibition of HBV replication processes in the liver are mirrored in the blood. Levels of circulating HBV mRNA remained largely unaffected. Here we followed therapy with two patients (patients 1 and 2) up to stages without apparent replication. As in the earlier study, DNA segments produced successively during replication were used as targets for quantitative PCR: X (early minus strand), C (completed minus strand), and preC (nascent plus strand). Corresponding RNA was quantified by RT/PCR. Polyadenylated viral RNA were assayed as full-length (f) and as truncated (tr) RNAs. Blocked X-region intermediates persisted for about one year. After a period of undetectable HBV DNA viral replication resumed in patient 1 because of the emergence of drug-resistant mutants and in patient 2 because of the discontinuation of therapy. In the former case, X-region intermediates reappeared first, then C- and, finally, preC-region intermediates. Stopping therapy, in contrast, led to a simultaneous reappearance of all three types of intermediates. At low replication levels or its absence, trRNA represented the only polyadenylated viral RNA. Apparently, HBV serum nucleic acid markers allow a study of replication and transcription separately. Specifically, it is concluded (1) that PCR assays for monitoring lamivudine therapy must target the X-gene region and (2) that in the absence of HBV replication, trRNA may constitute a serum marker for HBV expression.Read more
A centrosymmetric compound consisting of neutral zigzag chains of [Co(C2O4)(HO(CH2)3OH)]n displays strong intrachain antiferromagnetic interaction and 3D weak ferromagnetic ordering at 10.6 K.Read more
The extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene stimulate the development of advanced composites. Recently, several studies have reported significant synergies in the mechanical, electrical and thermal conductivity properties of polymer nanocomposites by incorporating their nanohybrids. In this work, we created polypropylene nanocomposites with homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and reduced graphene oxides via a facile polymer-latex-coating plus melt-mixing strategy, and investigated their synergistic effects in their viscoelastic, gas barrier, and flammability properties. Interestingly, the results show remarkable synergies, enhancing their melt modulus and viscosity, O2 barrier, and flame retardancy properties and respectively exhibiting a synergy percentage of 15.9%, 45.3%, and 20.3%. As previously reported, we also observed remarkable synergistic effects in their tensile strength (14.3%) and Young's modulus (27.1%), electrical conductivity (32.3%) and thermal conductivity (34.6%). These impressive results clearly point towards a new strategy to create advanced materials by adding binary combinations of different types of nanofillers.Read more
To assess the value of whole-genome high-resolution chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) for the investigation of fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities.
Whole genome high-resolution CytoScanHD array from Affymetrix was employed to investigate 651 fetuses with structural abnormalities detected by ultrasound, for whom standard G-banded chromosome analysis has revealed a normal karyotype. The fetuses were divided into a single malformation group (n=264) and a multiple malformations group (n=387). In total there were 130 chorionic villus samples, 192 amniotic fluid samples and 329 cord blood samples. Extraction of fetal DNA and CMA experiment have followed the standard guidelines from the manufacturers. All copy number variations (CNVs) detected by CMA were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
CMA analysis has detected genomic CNVs in 475 (73%) cases. Clinically significant CNVs were found in 11.5% (75/651) of fetuses, including two uniparental disomies (UPD) and two cryptic mosaicisms. Variations of unknown significance (VOUS) was found in 2.0% (13/651) of tested fetuses.
Above results have suggested that whole-genome and high-resolution CMA is valuable for the analysis of fetuses with structural abnormalities detected by ultrasound, which can increase the detection rate by approximately 11%. CMA using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array has the ability to detect UPD and low-level mosaicisms. Sufficient communication between technicians and genetic counselors, parental testing and comparison the results with in-house and relevant online databases can significantly reduce the rate of VOUS.Read more
To investigate the effect of monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP) on the differentiation of human U251 glioma cells, we treated U251 cells with TCP and/or 100 nmol/L histone deacetylase inhibitor trychostatin A (TSA). The differentiation of U251 cells was observed with inverted microscopy. The cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Apoptosis was observed by Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of differentiation-related genes were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. TCP-induced differentiation was characterized by typical morphological changes, inhibition of cellular proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, decreased expression of the pluripotency transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2, and increased expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). The combination of TCP and TSA treatment also triggered an over-expression of GFAP. These findings suggest that TCP may induce differentiation of U251 glioma cells, and the differentiation process may be promoted by histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA.Read more