Lei Zhang
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Publication
Journal: Neuroscience letters
November/11/2018
Abstract
Stroke is the leading cause of disability and death in the world. Central post-stroke pain (CPSP), a central neuropathic pain syndrome occurring after cerebral stroke, is a serious problem. But on account of the lack of reliable animal models, the mechanisms underlying CPSP remains poorly understood. To better understand of the pathophysiological basis of CPSP, we developed and characterized a new rat model of CPSP. This model is based on a hemorrhagic stroke lesion with intra-thalamic autologous blood (ITAB) injection in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that the animals displayed a significant decrease in mechanical allodynia threshold. We found a significant increase in P2 × 4 receptor expression in microglia in thalamic peri-lesion tissues post-hemorrhage. The mechanical allodynia in rats with CPSP were reversed by blocking P2 × 4 receptors. A significant alleviation of mechanical allodynia was achieved following the administration of adrenergic antidepressants and antiepileptics. Meanwhile, we found a significant decrease in P2 × 4 receptor expression after treatment with these drugs. Taken together, our results suggest that targeting P2 × 4 receptor may be effective in the treatment of CPSP.
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Journal: Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology
April/27/2014
Publication
Journal: Scientific reports
February/19/2017
Abstract
Multilayer dye aggregation at the dye/TiO2 interface of dye-sensitized solar cells is probed via first principles calculations, using p-methyl red azo dye as an example. Our calculations suggest that the multilayer dye aggregates at the TiO2 surface can be stabilized by π…π stacking and hydrogen bond interactions. Compared with previous two-dimensional monolayer dye/TiO2 model, the multilayer dye aggregation model proposed in this study constructs a three-dimensional multilayer dye/TiO2 interfacial structure, and provides a better agreement between experimental and computational results in dye coverage and dye adsorption energy. In particular, a dimer forms by π…π stacking interactions between two neighboring azo molecules, while one of them chemisorbs on the TiO2 surface; a trimer may form by introducing one additional azo molecule on the dimer through a hydrogen bond between two carboxylic acid groups. Different forms of multilayer dye aggregates, either stabilized by π…π stacking or hydrogen bond, exhibit varied optical absorption spectra and electronic properties. Such variations could have a critical impact on the performance of dye sensitized solar cells.
Publication
Journal: Journal of thoracic disease
December/6/2018
Abstract
UNASSIGNED
Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) benefits of a micropapillary/solid (MS) pattern in patients with stage IB lung adenocarcinoma.
UNASSIGNED
Patients with pathologically-confirmed stage IB adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection between January 2009 and December 2011 were included. The tumors were reclassified into three categories: MS patterns absent (MS-); non-predominant MS patterns (MS+); predominant MS (MS++). The correlations of prognosis and ACT with recurrence-free survival (RFS) were evaluated.
UNASSIGNED
Overall, 497 (MS-, n=269; MS+, n=177; MS++, n=51) patients were enrolled in the study. In univariate analysis, the MS+ [hazard ratio (HR), 1.437; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.030-2.006; P=0.033] and MS++ (HR, 2.818; 95% CI, 1.792-4.432; P<0.001) groups had significantly poor prognosis compared with MS- group. Multivariate analysis revealed that age ≥65 (HR, 1.504; 95% CI, 1.077-2.099; P=0.017), serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ≥10 ng/mL (HR, 1.658; 95% CI, 1.048-2.623; P=0.031) and MS++ (HR, 2.529; 95% CI, 1.550-4.126; P<0.001) were significant prognostic factors. Furthermore, subgroup analysis showed that MS++ patients but not MS- and MS+ derived RFS (recurrence-free survival) benefit from ACT (HR, 0.357; 95% CI, 0.152-0.836; P=0.018).
UNASSIGNED
MS pattern successfully differentiated the prognosis difference among stage IB lung adenocarcinomas and identified patients who benefitted from ACT.
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Publication
Journal: ACS nano
May/22/2018
Abstract
A fully rollable nanocomposite-based nanogenerator (NCG) is developed by integrating a lead-free piezoelectric hybrid layer with a type of nanofiber-supported silver nanowire (AgNW) network as electrodes. The thin-film nanocomposite is composed of electroactive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix and compositionally modified potassium sodium niobate-based nanoparticles (NPs) with a high piezoelectric coefficient ( d33) of 53 pm/V, which is revealed by the piezoresponse force microscopy measurements. Under periodical agitation at a compressive force of 50 N and 1 Hz, the NCG can steadily render high electric output up to an open-circuit voltage of 18 V and a short-circuit current of 2.6 μA. Of particular importance is the decent rollability of the NCG, as indicated by the negligible decay in the electric output after it being repeatedly rolled around a gel pen for 200 cycles. Besides, the biocompatible NCG can potentially be used to scavenge biomechanical energy from low-frequency human motions, as demonstrated by the scenarios of walking and elbow joint movement. These results rationally expand the feasibility of the developed NCG toward applications in lightweight, diminutive, and multifunctional rollable or wearable electronic devices.
Publication
Journal: Oncogene
November/8/2018
Abstract
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most aggressive brain cancers without effective therapeutics. The Hippo pathway transcriptional coactivators YAP/TAZ were implicated as drivers in GBM progression and could be therapeutic targets. Here we found in an unbiased screen of 1650 compounds that amlodipine is able to inhibit survival of GBM cells by suppressing YAP/TAZ activities. Instead of its known function as an L-type calcium channel blocker, we found that amlodipine is able to activate Ca2+ entry by enhancing store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Amlodipine as well as approaches that cause store depletion and activate SOCE trigger phosphorylation and activation of Lats1/2, which in turn phosphorylate YAP/TAZ and prevent their accumulation in the cell nucleus. Furthermore, we identified that protein kinase C (PKC) beta II is a major mediator of Ca2+-induced Lats1/2 activation. Ca2+ induces accumulation of PKC beta II in an actin cytoskeletal compartment. Such translocation depends on inverted formin-2 (INF2). Depletion of INF2 disrupts both PKC beta II translocation and Lats1/2 activation. Functionally, we found that elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ or PKC beta II expression inhibits YAP/TAZ-mediated gene transcription. In vivo PKC beta II expression inhibits GBM tumor growth and prolongs mouse survival through inhibition of YAP/TAZ in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model. Our studies indicate that Ca2+ is a crucial intracellular cue that regulates the Hippo pathway and that triggering SOCE could be a strategy to target YAP/TAZ in GBM.
Publication
Journal: Experimental and therapeutic medicine
November/13/2018
Abstract
Cardio-cerebrovascular disease is one of the three major causes of mortality in humans and constitutes a major socioeconomic burden. Carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) is a very common lesion of the arterial walls, which leads to narrowing of the arteries, in some cases occluding them entirely, increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a cynomolgus monkey model of carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) induced by puncturing and scratching combined with a high-fat diet. A total of 12 cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups: A, puncturing and scratching carotid artery intimas + high-fat diet (n=3); B, puncturing and scratching carotid artery intimas + regular diet (n=3); C, high-fat diet only (n=3); and D, regular diet only (n=3). Blood was harvested at weeks 4, 6 and 8 and plasma lipid levels were assessed. At week 8, monkeys were sacrificed and carotid arteries were harvested for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to observe pathological changes. The results revealed that a high-fat diet led to increased plasma lipid levels and accelerated plaque formation. Carotid color Doppler ultrasonography was performed and, along with H&E staining, revealed plaque formation in group A. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that a cynomolgus monkey model of CAS model may be successfully constructed by puncturing and scratching of the carotid artery intimas in combination with a high-fat diet.
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Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry
May/23/2018
Abstract
A major challenge in the development of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is the alignment of potency, drug-like properties, and selectivity over related aspartyl proteases such as Cathepsin D (CatD) and BACE2. The potential liabilities of inhibiting BACE2 chronically have only recently begun to emerge as BACE2 impacts the processing of the premelanosome protein (PMEL17) and disrupts melanosome morphology resulting in a depigmentation phenotype. Herein, we describe the identification of clinical candidate PF-06751979 (64), which displays excellent brain penetration, potent in vivo efficacy, and broad selectivity over related aspartyl proteases including BACE2. Chronic dosing of 64 for up to 9 months in dog did not reveal any observation of hair coat color (pigmentation) changes and suggests a key differentiator over current BACE1 inhibitors that are nonselective against BACE2 in later stage clinical development.
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Journal: ACS applied materials & interfaces
November/25/2018
Abstract
Thermo-responsive surfaces featured with nanostructures have found wide potential applications in biological and chemical fields. Herein, we report nanostructured thermo-responsive surfaces engi-neered via stable immobilization of thermo-responsive nanogels with assistance of polydopamine. The results show that the thin layer of polydopamine on the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanogels nearly does not affect the thermo-responsive property of the nanogels. The stability of thermo-responsive nanogels on the substrate surfaces immobilized under different pH conditions of dopamine solutions are quatitively studied by fluid shearing experiments inside capil-laries, and the characterization results show that the strong interaction forces between the polydo-pamine layer on the substrate surfaces and the thermo-responsive nanogels are heavily depended on the oxidation state of dopamine molecules. With the proposed strategy, thermo-responsive nanostructured surfaces immobilized with PNIPAM nanogels on two-dimensional and three-dimensional substrate surfaces are generated to respectively achieve smart cell culture plates and smart gating membranes, which demonstrate versatile applications of the nanostructured thermo-responsive surfaces.
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Journal: Oncogene
December/6/2018
Abstract
Macrophages play a crucial role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis (HF). In macrophages, epigenetic mechanisms are increasingly being recognized as crucial controllers of their phenotype. However, the functions of macrophage DNA methylation in experimental models of hepatic fibrosis have not been fully addressed. Here, we analyzed isolated hepatic macrophages DNA methylation from CCL4-induced (4 weeks) mice using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). We identified and validated the methylation status of 26 gene promoter regions associated with CpG islands. We further investigated the function of PSTPIP2 in HF by hepatic-adeno-associated virus (AAV9)-PSTPIP2 overexpression. The molecular mechanisms underlying PSTPIPS2-regulated HF were further explored in mice and RAW264.7 cell line. RRBS results show hypermethylation of PSTPIP2 (chr18: 77,843,840-77,843,968) in the 5'-UTR region. PSTPIP2 expression was significantly decreased in isolated hepatic macrophages from CCL4-induced mice. PSTPIP2 hypermethylation is mediated by the methyltransferases DNMT3a and DNMT3b in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell line. Further investigation indicated that specific overexpression of PSTPIP2 in C57BL/6 mice reduced the inflammatory response and ameliorated liver fibrosis. These data indicated that hypermethylation of PSTPIP2 caused a mixed induction of hepatic classical macrophage (M1) and alternative macrophage (M2) biomarkers in CCL4-induced HF mice. Furthermore, overexpression of PSTPIP2 inhibited the expression of M1 markers by suppressing STAT1 activity, and enhanced the expression of M2 markers by promoting STAT6 activity. In contrast, knockdown of PSTPIP2 promoted M1 polarization and suppressed M2 polarization in vitro. Adding PSTPIP2 expression alleviates liver fibrosis and hepatic inflammation in mice by regulating macrophage polarization.
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Journal: Biotechnology progress
November/26/2018
Abstract
The authors conducted a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to calculate the flow field in the inverted frustoconical shaking bioreactor with 5 L working volume (IFSB-5L). The CFD models were established for the IFSB-5L at different operating conditions (different shaking speeds and filling volumes) and validated by comparison of the liquid height distribution in the agitated IFSB-5L. The "out of phase" operating conditions were characterized by analyzing the flow field in the IFSB-5L at different filling volumes and shaking speeds. The values of volumetric power consumption (P/VL ) and volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kL a) were determined from simulated and experimental results, respectively. Finally, the operating condition effect on P/VL and kL a was investigated. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:478-485, 2018.
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Journal: Bioscience reports
December/6/2018
Abstract
The association of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) polymorphism rs2981582 with breast cancer has been extensively studied, whereas the role of this polymorphism in non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) has not been elucidated. We thus investigated a potential association of rs2981582 with NFPA. A total of 79 patients and 142 healthy control participants were enrolled in our study. DNA of the participants was extracted from peripheral blood samples and genotyped by using the MassARRAY method. We found that the AA genotype was associated with a higher risk of developing NFPA (OR = 1.743, 95%CI: 1.151-2.64, P=0.008). After adjusting for risk factors, significant difference was still observed between the two groups (OR = 1.862, 95%CI: 1.172-2.957, P=0.008). Moreover, under the assumptions of the recessive model (OR = 3.051, 95%CI: 1.403-6.635, P=0.005) and the additive model (AG: OR = 0.329, 95%CI: 0.144-0.755, P=0.009; AA: OR = 0.326, 95%CI: 0.141-0.757, P=0.009), rs2981582 was associated with an increased risk of NFPA. Our results proved that FGFR2 rs2981582 AA genotype was associated with a higher risk of NFPA. The recessive model and additive model also showed increased the risk of NFPA.
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Journal: Oncology letters
November/13/2018
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to compare the differentiation between breast cancer and benign breast lesions and study regional distribution characteristics in various subtypes of breast cancer using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters. This retrospective study involved 119 patients with breast cancer and 22 patients with benign breast lesions, who underwent 3.0T breast magnetic resonance imaging examinations. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameters (slow ADC, fast ADC and fraction of fast ADC) were obtained from patients with breast cancer and benign lesions using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with b-values of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 sec/mm2. Compared with patients with benign breast lesions, patients with breast cancer exhibited decreased ADC (P<0.001), slow ADC (P<0.001) and fast ADC (P<0.001) values, and higher fraction of fast ADC (P<0.001) values. Tumors with metastatic axillary lymph nodes demonstrated increased fraction of fast ADC values (P<0.001) and decreased slow ADC values (P<0.001) compared with tumors without metastatic axillary lymph nodes. The Fast ADC values of tumor tissues in estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative groups were higher than in positive groups (P<0.001), and the slow ADC values of tumor tissues were lower in ER and PR negative groups than positive groups (P<0.001). Luminal B (HER2- negative) tumor (P<0.001) and peritumor (P<0.001) tissues exhibited decreased fraction of fast ADC values, in comparison with other subtypes. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor tissue exhibited increased fast ADC (P<0.001) and fraction of fast ADC values (P<0.001), and decreased slow ADC values (P<0.001), when compared with other subtypes. The TNBC tumor edge tissues had increased fraction of fast ADC values compared with other subtypes (P<0.01) and TNBC tumor tissues (P<0.05). Therefore, the IVIM parameters of tumor, tumor edge and peritumor tissues in various subtypes of breast cancer may be useful for differentiation of breast cancer subtypes and to assess the invasive extent of the tumors.
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Journal: The Lancet. Neurology
February/25/2010
Publication
Journal: Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
February/20/2019
Abstract
In order to resolve the large fluctuations in temperature range problem of Luojia 1-01 satellite caused by low heat inertia and poor thermal conductivity of structure, a quasi-all-passive thermal control system (TCS) design is presented under the conditions of limited resources including mass and power consumption. The effectiveness of the TCS design is verified by both ground thermal balanced test and related telemetry data of on-orbit performance. Firstly, according to the structural features and working modes of the satellite, isothermal design was implemented and the effectiveness was verified by thermal analysis using finite element method. Secondly, based on the results of the thermal analysis, thermal design was optimized and verified by the thermal balanced test. Finally, the thermal design was proved to be effective by temperature data acquired from telemetry data of on-orbit performance, and the thermal analysis model was improved and updated based on the results of thermal balanced test and temperature data of on-orbit performance. The on-orbit data indicates that temperature of optical camera stables at about 12 °C, temperature of battery stables at 19 °C, temperature of instruments inside and outside the satellite cabin is ranging from 10 °C to 25 °C. Temperature fluctuation range of optical camera is less than 2 °C when it is not imaging. Temperature fluctuation range of instruments not facing the sun is less than 4 °C. The data suggests that the temperature level of the satellite meets general design requirements, and the quasi-all-passive TCS design of the satellite is practicable.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
November/13/2018
Abstract
To compare efficacy of different extracts from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. with both immune inflammation and joint destruction in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Rats were divided into normal group (Nor), control group (CIA), TG group (treated with tripterygium glycoside), E70 group (treated with 70% ethanol extract from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.), EA group (treated with ethyl acetate fraction from E70), and EN group (treated with n-butyl alcohol fraction from E70). All extracts from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. could significantly inhibit ankle swelling, pathological manifestations, and cytokine levels in serum and spleen, by using foot volume measurement, H&E staining, ELISA, and RT-QPCR methods, respectively. All extracts could significantly inhibit rough joint surface and marginal osteophytes, improve RANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease MMP-9 expression, by using micro-CT and immunohistochemical staining. The activation of IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway was also inhibited by all extracts. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction from E70 presented better effect on RANKL/OPG system. This study identified effective extracts from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. relieving immune inflammation and maintaining structural integrity of joints in CIA rats.
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Journal: Waste management (New York, N.Y.)
November/19/2018
Abstract
Recently, bio-drying is becoming a promising method to treat the slurry-type food waste together with recovering refused derived fuels (RDFs). In practice, however, conventional process frequently encountered low temperature and inefficient drying performance due to the low microbial activity and organics degradability. In order to improve bio-drying performance, in this study, an externally thermal assistant strategy was proposed to increase water evaporation and stimulate microbial degradability. Based on this idea, a series of experiments were conducted to establish, evaluate and optimize the thermally assisted bio-drying system. It was found that staged heating acclimation was an effective strategy to obtain a superior thermophilic inoculum with high metabolic activity and microbial consortia. In thermally assisted bio-drying process, an extremely high metabolic activity [cumulative OUR, 38.98 mg/(g TS·h)] was obtained, which was greatly higher than that of conventional bio-drying [19.74 mg/(g TS·h)]. Furthermore, thermally assisted bio-drying exhibited a high water-evaporation capacity as thermal drying (157.9 g vs. 147.8 g), which was 3-fold higher than conventional bio-drying. Heat balance calculation indicated that externally supplying a small fraction (12.94%) of thermal energy triggered conventional bio-drying, thus greatly promoting water removal with high energy utilization efficiency as conventional bio-drying (Qevapo 60.30% vs. 64.62%). In addition, the increased air-flow rates greatly accelerated water removal with high bio-energy efficiencies, especially at 0.8 L·min-1·kg-1. The drying effect after 4 days was close to that of 20 days in conventional bio-drying. This research suggests that thermally assisted bio-drying is a promising approach to upgrade conventional bio-drying with high efficiency and low energy cost.
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Journal: Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment
November/13/2018
Abstract
UNASSIGNED
The aim of this study was to observe the effects of different frequencies of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampal CA3 region of cerebral ischemic rats.
UNASSIGNED
Middle cerebral artery occlusion was successfully introduced to simulate cerebral infarction in 48 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats. Totally, 48 rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the EA 5-Hz group, and the EA 50-Hz group, 16 in each group. The rats in the control group were placed in an ordinary cage and fed normally without any treatment. EA treatment was given at a certain frequency 24 hours after surgery in the EA 5-Hz group and EA 50-Hz group. Morris water maze test was used to measure the learning and memory abilities of rats in each group after 14-day treatment with EA. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of BDNF- and NGF-positive cells in the ischemic hippocampal CA3 area of the rats.
UNASSIGNED
The EA 5-Hz group and EA 50-Hz group had significantly improved learning and memory ability compared with the control group according to Morris water maze findings (P<0.05). The number of BDNF- and NGF-positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region of the ischemic hemisphere in the 5-Hz group and 50-Hz EA group was significantly more than that in the control group after EA treatment (P<0.05), and the difference in the 50-Hz group was more obvious than that in the 5-Hz group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).
UNASSIGNED
EA stimulation of "Baihui" and "Dazhui" can promote the expression of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampal CA3 region of cerebral ischemic rats, and the 50-Hz EA stimulation effect is more obvious.
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Journal: BMC genomics
November/13/2018
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Beak deformity, typically expressed as the crossing of upper and lower mandibles, is found in several indigenous chicken breeds, including the Beijing-You chickens studied here. Beak deformity severely impairs the birds' growth and welfare. Although previous studies shed some light on the genetic regulation of this complex trait, the genetic basis of this malformation remains incompletely understood.
RESULTS
In this study, single SNP- and pathway-based genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were performed using ROADTRIPS and SNP ratio test (SRT), respectively. A total of 48 birds with deformed beaks (case) and 48 normal birds (control) were genotyped using Affymetrix 600 K HD genotyping arrays. As a result, 95 individuals and 429,539 SNPs were obtained after quality control. The P-value was corrected by a Bonferroni adjustment based on linkage disequilibrium pruning. The single SNP-based association study identified one associated SNP with 5% genome-wide significance and seven suggestively associated SNPs. Four high-confidence genes, LOC421892, TDRD3, RET, and STMN1, were identified as the most promising candidate genes underlying this complex trait in view of their positions, functions, and overlaps with previous studies. The pathway-based association study highlighted the association of six pathways with beak deformity, including the calcium signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS
Potentially useful candidate genes and pathways for beak deformity were identified, which should be the subject of further functional characterization.
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Journal: Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
December/31/2018
Abstract
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to detect the expression of fork-head box D3 (FOXD3) and investigate its diagnostic value in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS The relative expression of FOXD3 at mRNA and protein levels was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Chi-square test was used to explore the relevance of FOXD3 expression with clinical features of NSCLC patients. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was built to estimate the diagnostic value of FOXD3 in distinguishing NSCLC patients from healthy controls. RESULTS Serum FOXD3 expression was weakly expressed in NSCLC patients compared to the controls at mRNA and protein levels (P<0.001) and low FOXD3 expression was positively correlated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and differentiation. The ROC curve indicated that FOXD3 acts as a diagnostic bio-marker for NSCLC patients, with an AUC of 0.826 corresponding to a sensitivity of 77.1% and a specificity of 74.6%, and an optimal cutoff point of 2.38. CONCLUSIONS Decreased expression of serum FOXD3 was observed in NSCLC patients, and it was found to be a potential molecular marker for the diagnosis of NSCLC.
Publication
Journal: Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
October/1/2019
Abstract
High body mass index (BMI) is the most common parameter to assess excess adiposity, and has been linked to glomerular hyperfiltration (GH). However, BMI may be misleading in the estimation of body fat content due to its inability to discriminate between body fat and lean mass. In recent years, the convenient biological impedance analysis (BIA) has made prediction of certain diseases somewhat feasible and accessible using body composition (BC). Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between BC and GH among Chinese adult population. A total of 6902 adults (aged 38.6 ± 8.3 years, 70.1% males) who consecutively visited the Health Checkup Clinic were enrolled. BC including fat mass and lean body mass (LBM) was evaluated by BIA. The upper quartile of eGFR which exceeded 117.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 was defined as GH, in comparison with the lower three quartiles (control group). As a categorical outcome, GH subjects had higher fat/LBM than the control group, which was 34.7 ± 10.9 (%) vs. 34.0 ± 10.5 (%), P = 0.01; however, the BMI in GH group was lower than in the control group, which was 24.5 ± 3.7 (%) vs. 24.9 ± 3.6 (%), P<0.001. Fat/height and Fat/BSA were not significantly different between the two groups. Moreover, after adjusted for potential confounders, fat/LBM significantly correlated with GH (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.93). The study revealed that fat/LBM significantly correlated with GH among Chinese adult population, which highlights that adiposity might be an important and potentially modifiable determinant of GH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Publication
Journal: Current eye research
November/14/2018
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To examine the impact of diet on the incidence of cataract surgery among the working-aged diabetic population in Australia.
METHODS
This cohort study was conducted among 8,752 participants with diabetes aged 45-65 years who were recruited to the 45 and Up Study from 2006 to 2016. The data was linked to the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) to obtain data on cataract surgery. Diabetes was defined as self-reported on questionnaire or diabetes medication history based on Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Diet was assessed at baseline, using a self-administered questionnaire and healthy diet scores were calculated based on Australian Dietary Guidelines. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between diet and the incidence of cataract surgery during the follow-up.
RESULTS
During a mean follow-up of 8.4 years (73,431 person-years), 914 diabetic participants underwent cataract surgery with a corresponding rate of 12.4 cases per 1,000 person-years. After adjusting for age and gender, the hazard ratios (HR) of cataract surgery for the highest compared to the lowest intake quintile of red meat and poultry were 1.24 (95%CI, 1.00-1.55) and 1.24 (95%CI, 1.02-1.51), respectively. Further adjustment for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors resulted in no significant difference between cataract surgery risk and healthy diet scores or specific diet groups. In gender-stratified analyses, increasing consumption of red meat (HR for highest versus lowest quintile, 1.39; 95%CI, 1.00-1.93; P for trend = 0.01) and poultry (HR for highest versus lowest quintile, 1.40; 95%CI, 1.05-1.87; P for trend = 0.01) were associated with a higher risk of cataract surgery in women after adjustment of age, gender, income, education level, body mass index, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, family history of diabetes, diabetes duration, insulin use, lifestyle and other dietary factors.
CONCLUSIONS
Higher consumption of red meat and poultry is related to an elevated risk of cataract surgery in the working-aged female population with diabetes.
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Journal: Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
August/5/2018
Abstract
A laboratory cement quality analysis apparatus based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been developed for rapid analysis of cement composition and ratio values. In this paper, the overall structure, the optical system, the sample preparation process, as well as the spectral data analysis methods are introduced. The calibration model is established with internal standard method. A comparison as to the measurement results between LIBS and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has been made and being analyzed. It shows that by using the LIBS apparatus, the mean absolute error of CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 in cement raw materials is 0.46%, 0.25%, 0.13%, and 0.05%, respectively, while the mean absolute error of the ratio value such as KH, SM, and IM in cement clinker is 0.02, 0.05, and 0.04, respectively. The generated cement plasmas are verified to be in the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) condition by calculating both the plasma temperature and the electron density.
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Journal: MethodsX
October/31/2019
Abstract
Random forests (RF) is a powerful species distribution model (SDM) algorithm. This ensemble model by default can produce categorical and numerical species distribution maps based on its classification tree (CT) and regression tree (RT) algorithms, respectively. The CT algorithm can also produce numerical predictions (class probability). Here, we present a detailed procedure involving the use of the CT and RT algorithms using the RF method with presence-only data to model the distribution of species. CT and RT are used to generate numerical prediction maps, and then numerical predictions are converted to binary predictions through objective threshold-setting methods. We also applied simple methods to deal with collinearity of predictor variables and spatial autocorrelation of species occurrence data. A geographically stratified sampling method was employed for generating pseudo-absences. The detailed procedural framework is meant to be a generic method to be applied to virtually any SDM prediction question using presence-only data. •How to use RF as a standard method for generic species distributions with presence-only data•How to choose RF (CT or RT) methods for the distribution modeling of species•A general and detailed procedure for any SDM prediction question.
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