We assessed the effects of light intensity and spectrum on the growth and survival of Takifugu rubripes larvae from 30 to 69 days after hatching. Five lighting regimes were applied using 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 W m-2 full spectrum white (W0.5, W1.5, W3.0), 0.5 W m-2 yellow (Y0.5), and 0.5 W m-2 blue light (B0.5). At the end of the experiment, body length, wet weight, and specific growth rate from day 0 to day 39 were significantly greater in larvae reared under W3.0 than under B0.5 (P ˂ 0.05). No significant differences were observed among W0.5, W1.5, and W3.0, or among W0.5, Y0.5, and B0.5 (P > 0.05). Survival rate was significantly higher in larvae reared under W1.5 than W0.5 (P ˂ 0.05), but no significant differences were observed among W0.5, Y0.5, and B0.5 (P > 0.05). Additionally, light conditioning did not affect the total thickness of the retina. Although the ratio of the thickness of the retinal pigment epithelium layer/total thickness (TT) was significantly higher in larvae exposed to W3.0 compared with those exposed to other light conditions, and the thickness of the outer nuclear layer/TT was significantly lower in larvae exposed to W3.0 compared with those exposed to W0.5 (P < 0.05), no relationship was confirmed between the structure of the retina and the growth performance of the T. rubripes larvae. Expression patterns of two stress-related and seven growth-related genes were also compared with the biometric parameters investigated in the experimental groups. No significant differences in the aanat1a, crh, ss1, igf1, or igf2 expression were observed among the five treatments. Pomc expression was significantly lower in larvae exposed to W1.5 than the larvae exposed to W0.5, and it was significantly lower in larvae exposed to Y0.5 than in larvae exposed to W0.5 or B0.5 (P < 0.05). Significant differences were also found in the expression of gh, with the highest levels being observed under W3.0, while the lowest levels were observed in B0.5 (P < 0.05). Ghrh expression was significantly higher in W3.0 (P < 0.05). These results should be considered when designing rearing protocols for fugu larvae in aquaculture systems.