5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitors have been shown to be protective in several neurodegenerative disease models; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton conferred direct neuroprotection against glutamate oxidative toxicity by inhibiting ferroptosis, a newly identified iron-dependent programmed cell death. Treatment of HT22 mouse neuronal cell line with glutamate resulted in significant cell death, which was inhibited by zileuton in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, zileuton decreased glutamate-induced production of reactive oxygen species but did not restore glutamate-induced depletion of glutathione. Moreover, the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (ZVAD-fmk) neither prevented HT22 cell death induced by glutamate nor affected zileuton protection against glutamate oxidative toxicity, suggesting that zileuton did not confer neuroprotection by inhibiting caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, glutamate-induced HT22 cell death was significantly inhibited by the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1. Moreover, zileuton protected HT22 neuronal cells from erastin-induced ferroptosis. However, we did not observe synergic protective effects of zileuton and ferrostatin-1 on glutamate-induced cell death. These results suggested that both the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton and the ferropotosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 acted through the same cascade to protect against glutamate oxidative toxicity. In conclusion, our results suggested that zileuton protected neurons from glutamate-induced oxidative stress at least in part by inhibiting ferroptosis.
Five flavonoids (catechin, hyperoside, quercitrin, quercetin, and rutin) were separated and determined by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Effects of several important factors, such as the pH and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, and detection potential were investigated to determine the optimum conditions. The five flavonoids were baseline separated within 20 min in a 60 cm length capillary at a separation voltage of 19.5 kV with a running buffer consisting of 60 mmoL/L Na2B4O7 - 120 mmoL/L NaH2PO4 (pH = 8.8). The relationship between peak current and analyte concentration was linear over about two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 microg/mL for all compounds. This method was successfully used to determine the above five flavonoids in Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. with relatively simple extraction procedures, and the assay results were satisfactory.
Multiple players are involved in the highly complex pathophysiologic responses after stroke. Therefore, therapeutic approaches that target multiple cellular elements of the neurovascular unit in the damage cascade hold considerable promise for the treatment of stroke. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to biologically active eicosanoids called epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are further converted by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to less bioactive diols. EETs have been shown to exert direct cytoprotective effects upon several individual components of the neurovascular unit under simulated ischemic conditions in vitro. However, the cellular mechanism underlying EET-mediated neuroprotective effects after ischemia remains to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects of 14,15-EET and 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)dodecanoic acid (AUDA), a selective inhibitor of sEH, on multiple elements of neurovascular unit of the rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal ischemia. The results showed that exogenous administration of 14,15-EET or AUDA could suppress astrogliosis and glial scar formation, inhibit microglia activation and inflammatory response, promote angiogenesis, attenuate neuronal apoptosis and infarct volume, and further promote the behavioral function recovery after focal ischemia. The results suggest that epoxyeicosanoid signaling is a promising multi-mechanism therapeutic target for the treatment of stroke.
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. In the present study, the antiarrhythmic effects of tempol and tiron, two membrane-permeable radical scavengers, on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in rats in vivo were investigated. The anaesthetized rats were subjected to 5 min of left descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion followed by 30 min of reperfusion. All rats pretreated with saline developed ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) at the onset of reperfusion, and most of the rats died from irreversible VF at the end of reperfusion. However, pretreatment with tempol (30 or 100 mg kg(-1)) 5 min before reperfusion reduced mortality, arrhythmia score and the incidence and duration of VT and VF. In the rats pretreated with high dose of tempol (100 mg kg(-1)), no VF happened and all rats were alive at the end of the experiment. The arrhythmia score was also significantly decreased compared with that of rats pretreated with saline (0.80 +/- 0.4 versus 5.6 +/- 0.4, P < 0.01). Tiron also provided nearly complete protection against reperfusion-induced arrhythmias when given 2 min before reperfusion. On the other hand, intravenous administration of tempol induced decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and pressure rate index (PRI), a relative indicator of myocardial oxygen consumption. In order to determine whether the antiarrhythmic effects of tempol were secondary to the reduction of myocardial oxygen consumption, continuous electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (3 V, 10 ms and 10 Hz) was carried out in a group of rats to induce decreases in MAP, HR and PRI similar to those in the high dose of Tempol group. However, these rats did not show significant changes in the severity of reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. We conclude that both tempol and tiron significantly reduce reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in rats, and this protective action is independent of hemodynamic effects.
Chaperonin-mediated protein folding is complex. There have been diverse results on folding behavior, and the chaperonin molecules have been investigated as enhancing or retarding the folding rate. To understand the diversity of chaperonin-mediated protein folding, we report a study based on simulations using a simplified Gō-type model. By considering effects of affinity between the substrate protein and the chaperonin wall and spatial confinement of the chaperonin cavity, we study the thermodynamics and kinetics of folding of an unfrustrated substrate protein encapsulated in a chaperonin cavity. The affinity makes the hydrophobic residues of the protein bind to the chaperonin wall, and a strong (or weak) affinity results in a large (or small) effect of binding. Compared with the folding in bulk, the folding in chaperonin cavity with different strengths of affinity shows two kinds of behaviors: one with less dependence on the affinity but more reliance on the spatial confinement effect and the other relying strongly on the affinity. It is found that the enhancement or retardation of the folding rate depends on the competition between the spatial confinement and the affinity due to the chaperonin cavity, and a strong affinity produces a slow folding while a weak affinity induces a fast folding. The crossover between two kinds of folding behaviors happens in the case that the favorable effect of confinement is balanced by the unfavorable effect of the affinity, and a critical affinity strength is roughly defined. By analyzing the contacts formed between the residues of the protein and the chaperonin wall and between the residues of the protein themselves, the role of the affinity in the folding processes is studied. The binding of the residues with the chaperonin wall reduces the formation of both native contacts and nonnative contact or mis-contacts, providing a loose structure for further folding after allosteric change of the chaperonin cavity. In addition, 15 single-site-mutated mutants are simulated in order to test the validity of our model and to investigate the importance of affinity. Inspiringly, our results of the folding rates have a good correlation with those obtained from experiments. The folding rates are inversely correlated with the strength of the binding interactions, i.e., the weaker the binding, the faster the folding. We also find that the inner hydrophobic residues have larger effects on the folding kinetics than those of the exterior hydrophobic residues. We suggest that, besides the confinement effect, the affinity acts as another important factor to affect the folding of the substrate proteins in chaperonin systems, providing an understanding of the folding mechanism of the molecular chaperonin systems.
Herein, SiO2 nanotubes have been fabricated via a facile two step hard-template growth method and evaluated as an anode for Li-ion batteries. SiO2 nanotubes exhibit a highly stable reversible capacity of 1266 mAhg(-1) after 100 cycles with negligible capacity fading. SiO2 NT anodes experience a capacity increase throughout the first 80 cycles through Si phase growth via SiO2 reduction. The hollow morphology of the SiO2 nanotubes accommodates the large volume expansion experienced by Si-based anodes during lithiation and promotes preservation of the solid electrolyte interphase layer. The thin walls of the SiO2 nanotubes allow for effective reduction in Li-ion diffusion path distance and, thus, afford a favorable rate cyclability. The high aspect ratio character of these nanotubes allow for a relatively scalable fabrication method of nanoscale SiO2-based anodes.
Labeling proteins with biotin is a widely used method to identify target proteins due to biotin's strong binding affinity for streptavidin. Combined with alkyne-azide cycloaddition, which enables the coupling of probes to targeted proteins, biotin tags linked to an alkyne or azide have become a powerful tool for purification and analysis of proteins in proteomics. However, biotin requires harsh elution conditions to release the captured protein from the bead matrix. Use of these conditions reduces signal to noise and complicates the analysis. To improve affinity capture, cleavable linkers have been introduced. Here, we demonstrate the use of a cyclic acetal biotin probe that is prepared easily from commercially available starting materials, is stable to cell lysates, yet is cleaved under mildly acidic conditions, and which provides an aldehyde for further elaboration of the protein, if desired.
In this study, single and double-labeling immunofluorescence histochemistry, Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to study the expression of P2Y(6) receptors in developing mouse skeletal muscle and during injury and repair. The results show that P2Y(6) receptor immunoreactive (ir) cells were first detected in the dermamyotome at embryonic (E) day 9. The number and immunostaining intensity of the P2Y(6) receptor-ir cells increased from E9 to E13, but decreased from E15 to postnatal day 60 in the developing skeletal muscle system. The expression levels of P2Y(6) receptor protein and mRNA increased rapidly from 1 to 5 days after skeletal muscle injury and then decreased almost to the control level from 7 to 10 days, at the beginning of regeneration. P2Y(6) receptor-immunoreactivity was mainly localized to the ends of single myoblasts and myotube processes in the developing and injury-repair skeletal muscle tissues. These data suggest that the P2Y(6) receptor may be involved in the development and regeneration of skeletal muscle, especially in the migration and extension of the myoblast and myotube in developing and regenerating skeletal muscle.
In recent years, haze pollution in China is becoming increasingly serious, especially in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. In order to identify the temporal and spatial distributional characteristics of PM2.5 aerosol mass concentration in the region, this study selected the inland plain of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as the research area, and used MODIS AOD as the main predictor in a mixed effects model to establish the daily relationship of AOD-PM2.5 in the study area, from 2013 to 2014. The model was validated by a ten-fold cross validation method. The results showed that the correlation between AOD-PM2.5 can be improved by daily calibration of the mixed effects model (R2=0.78); the cross-validated R2 was 0.70, and RMSE and RPE were 20.80 μg·m-3 and 28.76%, respectively. Considering the importance of unbiased PM2.5 predictions, the correction factors calculated from the surface PM2.5 measurements were applied to correct the biases in the predicted annual average PM2.5 concentrations introduced by non-stochastic missing AOD measurements. The results showed that the annual average concentration of PM2.5 in the study area was higher than 75 μg·m-3, and the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration was higher in the southern and western regions, and lower in the northern and eastern regions. These results suggest that the mixed effects model can be used to monitor ground PM2.5, and also provide a scientific basis for the control of atmospheric particulate pollution in the region.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are the substances that are released by most types of cells and have an important role in cell to cell communication. Among the most highly researched EVs are exosome. Recent studies show that exosomes derived from cells have different roles and targets. Many studies show that exosome can efficiently deliver many different kinds of cargo to the target cell. Therefore, they are often used to deliver therapeutic cargo for treatment. The exosomes that have been used include both natural ones and those that have been modified with other substances to increase the delivery ability. This article provides a review of both exosomes derived from various cells and modified exosome and their ability in delivering the many kinds of cargo to the target cell.