By analyzing data yielded from a sample of Chinese adolescents surviving a high-intensity earthquake, this study investigated the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. The sample included 743 traumatized middle school students (396 females and 332 males) aged 11-17 years (mean=13.6, SD=1.0). Results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that an intercorrelated seven-factor model comprised of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal factors provided a significant better representation of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms than other alternative models. Further analyses indicated that external measures of major depression disorder and panic disorder symptoms displayed unique associations with four PTSD factors. The findings provide further support for the newly proposed seven-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, add to very limited empirical knowledge on the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents, and carry implications for further refinement of the current classifications of PTSD symptoms and further clinical practice and research on posttraumatic stress symptomatology.
To optimize the preparation procedure of Suppositoria Radix Bupleuri for Kids.
The extraction process and preparation procedure were studied by orthogonal experimental design.
The extraction process was selected and suppositoria was prepared by hard fat.
This preparation procedure is suitable.
To evaluate the clinical value of breath-hold magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) combining with dynamic enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.
MRCP findings of 88 cholangiocarcinoma patients proved surgically and pathologically were analyzed retrospectively.
MRCP examination succeeded in all the 88 patients and the pancreaticobiliary ducts were shown satisfactorily. The accuracy of MRCP in the location of both hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 100%, and the accuracy of detecting hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were 100% and 52.2%, respectively. Combining with dynamic enhanced MRI, the detecting accuracy of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma improved to 91.3%.
MRCP examination has a high successful rate and can accurately determine the location of hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and the accuracy of qualitative diagnosis for the former two is high. Combining with dynamic enhanced MRI, the specificity of determining extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is also high.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate the target gene expression at post-transcriptional level. They are widely involved in biological processes, such as embryonic development, cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis. Evidence suggests that miRNAs can constrain the variation of their target to buffer the fluctuation of expression. However, whether this effect can act on the genome-wide expression remains controversial.
In this study, we comprehensively explored the stably expressed genes (SE genes) and fluctuant genes (FL genes) in the human genome by a meta-analysis of large scale microarray data. We found that these genes have distinct function distributions. miRNA targets are shown to be significantly enriched in SE genes by using propensity analysis of miRNA regulation, supporting the hypothesis that miRNAs can buffer whole genome expression fluctuation. The expression-buffering effect of miRNA is independent of the target site number within the 3'-untranslated region. In addition, we found that gene expression fluctuation is positively correlated with the number of transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region, which suggests that coordination between transcription factors and miRNAs leads to balanced responses to external perturbations.
Our study confirmed that the genetic buffering roles of miRNAs can act on genome expression fluctuation and provides insights into how miRNAs and transcription factors coordinate to cope with external perturbation.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. TSC has high frequency of osseous manifestations such as sclerotic lesions in the craniofacial region. However, an animal model that replicates TSC craniofacial bone lesions has not yet been described. The roles of Tsc1 and the sequelae of Tsc1 dysfunction in bone are unknown. In this study, we generated a mouse model of TSC with a deletion of Tsc1 in neural crest-derived (NCD) cells that recapitulated the sclerotic craniofacial bone lesions in TSC. Analysis of this mouse model demonstrated that TSC1 deletion led to enhanced mTORC1 signaling in NCD bones and the increase in bone formation is responsible for the aberrantly increased bone mass. Lineage mapping revealed that TSC1 deficient NCD cells overpopulated the NCD bones. Mechanistically, hyperproliferation of osteoprogenitors at an early postnatal stage accounts for the increased osteoblast pool. Intriguingly, early postnatal treatment with rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, can completely rescue the aberrant bone mass, but late treatment cannot. Our data suggest that enhanced mTOR signaling in NCD cells can increase bone mass through enlargement of the osteoprogenitor pool, which likely explains the sclerotic bone lesion observed in TSC patients.
The HBx (hepatitis B virus X protein) is a multifunctional regulator of cellular signal transduction and transcription pathways in host-infected cells. Evidence suggests that HBx has a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the lack of efficient large-scale preparation methods for soluble HBx has hindered studies on the structure and function of HBx. Here, a new pMAL-c2x protein fusion and purification system was used for high-level expression of soluble HBx fusion protein. The high-purity fusion protein was obtained via amylose resin chromatography and Q-Sepharose chromatography. The untagged HBx was efficiently and rapidly purified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography after cleavage by Factor Xa at 23 degrees C. The purity of active HBx protein was >99% with a very stable secondary structure dominated by alpha-helix, beta-sheet and random structure. The purified HBx protein can be analysed to determine its crystal structure and function and its capabilities as an effective immunogen.
The pathophysiological role of influenza infection is poorly understood. In this study, one non-neurovirulent virus (IAV/Aichi/2/68/H3N2) strain was used to infect intra-nasally mice at different age to investigate the mechanism of cerebral edema formation and lower activities of mitochondria enzymes after influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Mice suffered 46.4% mortality in newborn compared with 96.0% in weanling, 100% in adult on day 7, respectively. IAV-RNA was easily detected in the brain of newborn mice. Significant production of endothelin-1 and inducible nitric oxide syntheses were increased on the 3rd and 5th day after IAV infection, associated with increasing blood-brain barrier permeability, brain edema formation and the higher mortality of animals. Production of tumor necrosis factor-α was related to inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme activities, suggesting that over expression of inflammatory cytokines and lower enzyme activities in mitochondria after IAV infection.
The impact of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) during initial hospitalization for total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) surgery was assessed.
Using Medicare Provider Analysis and Review files, patients who underwent THR, TKR, or hip fracture surgery from 2005 to 2007 were identified using appropriate procedure codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. Medicare managed care patients were excluded from the study. Eligible patients were classified as having had deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), DVT and PE, or no VTE during their initial hospitalization. Risk adjustment was performed using propensity score matching. Medicare cost, cost to beneficiaries, and cost to primary payers were analyzed to determine risk-adjusted differences in outcome measures, including mortality, rehospitalization, bleeding, length of stay, and total health care expenditures related to VTE events.
A total of 170,047 patients were identified. Postoperative VTE events occurred in 3,014 patients (1.77%) during their initial hospitalization. Risk-adjusted mortality rates were three to four times higher for patients with VTE compared with those without VTE. Patients with VTE were more likely to be rehospitalized and experience bleeding within 30 days. Risk-adjusted differences in annual mean cost, including Medicare cost and costs to beneficiaries and primary payers, were significantly greater for patients with VTE.
Patients who developed VTE after THR or TKR had a higher likelihood of mortality, bleeding, and rehospitalization; were hospitalized longer; and incurred higher costs to Medicare, Medicare beneficiaries, and private payers compared with patients without VTE.
Estrogenic activity risks in the Pearl River system (Liuxi River, Zhujiang River and Shijing River) in South China were assessed by combined chemical analysis and recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) bioassay for surface waters and sediments collected in both dry and wet seasons. The xenoestrogens 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A were detected at almost every sampling site at concentrations of several ng L(-1) (ng g(-1)) to tens of μg L(-1) (μg g(-1)) in surface waters (and sediments). The estrogens estrone and 17β-estradiol were also detected in most of the samples with concentrations from several ng L(-1) (ng g(-1)) to tens of ng L(-1) (ng g(-1)) in surface waters (and sediments). However, synthetic estrogens diethylstilbestrol and 17α-ethinylestradiol were only detected at a few sites. The 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) screened by the YES bioassay were in the range of 0.23-324 ng L(-1) in surface waters and from not detected to 101 ng g(-1) in sediments. Shijing River displayed one to two orders of magnitude higher levels for both measured chemical concentrations and estrogenic activities than the Zhujiang River and the Liuxi River. A risk assessment for the surface waters showed high risks for the downstream reaches of the Liuxi River and the upstream to midstream reaches of the Zhujiang River and the Shijing River. Higher estrogenic risks were observed in the wet season than in the dry season for surface waters, probably due to the input of runoff and direct overflow of small urban streams during heavy rain events. Only small variations in estrogenic risk were found for the sediments between the two seasons, suggesting that sediments are a sink for these estrogenic compounds in the rivers.
Hepatocyte Annexin A2 (ANXA2) expression is associated with the progression and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Circulating ANXA2 levels in HCC patients are significantly higher compared with that of patients with benign liver disease. ANXA2 levels have been found to correlate with hepatitis B virus infection, extrahepatic metastasis and portal vein thrombus. By contrast, ANXA2 levels do not correlate with tumour size and AFP levels. However, the underlying mechanisms of ANXA2 remain obscure. The results of the current study identified that abnormalities in hepatic ANXA2 expression were localised to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HCC tissues and mainly in the cytoplasm of para-cancerous tissues. ANXA2 was overexpressed in MHCC97-H cells which have high metastatic potential. Following specific ANXA2-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfection in vitro, ANXA-2 was effectively inhibited and the S phase ratio of cells was 27.76%, compared with 36.14% in mock-treated cells. In addition, the invading cell ratio was reduced in the shRNA-treated group (52.16%) compared with the mock-treated group (86.14%). The growth and volume of xenograft tumours in vivo was significantly suppressed (P<0.05) in the shRNA group compared with that of the mock group, indicating that ANXA2 may be a novel and useful target for elucidating molecular mechanisms involving the proliferation and metastasis of HCC.