In order to provide scientific basis for introduction breeding and production regionalization of Panax notoginseng, the environment of producing area, agronomic traits and medicinal material output were investigated.
Using field survey sampling at harvest time, agronomic traits indicators of leaf segment, stem segment and roots segment etc. of commodity P. notoginseng, longitude and latitude, elevation, soil type, landform of producing area were measured and observed.
The P. notogiseng cultivation was expanding from traditional area like Wenshang to new areas as Honghe, Kunming, Qujing at large scale. Comparing with traditional cultivated fields, the elevation of new fields, which are red soil of moderate or low mountain slopes and gentle hills between 1 800-2 130 m, increases markedly. The agronomic traits of new cultivated fields such as plant height, stem diameter, the ground and underground biomass were better than those of traditional cultivated fields in varying degree. Furthermore, the root weight, taproot weight, taproot length and other agronomic index augmented more than 20%. Comparison among different cultivated fields showed P. notoginseng of Honghe Shiping Niujie, Kunming Shilin Guishan, Honghe Jiangshui Guanting etc. had better agronomic traits, the plant were thick and tall, the taproot and the top of reed were large, the number of root was more. Inversely, P. notoginseng of Kunming Guandu Xiaoshao, Guangxi Jingxi Lutong, Wenshang Yanshan Jiangna were thin and small. Cluster analysis showed that cultivated fields of P. notoginseng which was across clustered by traditional and new cultivated fields can be divided into three groups, including a high-yielding region insist of three new cultivated fields Honghe Shiping Niujie, Kunming Shilin Guishan, Honghe Jiangshui Guanting and one traditional cultivated field Wenshan Yanshan Jiangna. Correlation analysis indicated that the size and weight of taproot and top of reed were significantly positive correlated with plant height, stem diameter, leaf size, leaf weight and stem weight. Regression analysis pointed out that stem diameter, leaf width, leaf length/width, leaf weight were the main factors affecting the dry weight of taproot, and the main factors influencing the dry weight of top of reed were plant height, petiole, leaf length, leaf width and other agronomic traits.
From agronomic traits, P. notoginseng in new cultivated fields were more robust than that in traditional fields, but besides the length of taproot, the difference of rest agronomic traits didn't reach the significant level. It is suggested that, in the west and the north of traditional area, the red soil land of moderate or low mountain slopes and gentle hills where the elevation is between 1 800-2 130 m is suitable for cultivating P. notoginseng. Honghe Shiping Niujie, Honghe Jianshui Guanting, Kuming Shilin Gongshan can be used as vital development area for commodity P. notoginseng.