Lili Wang
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Pubmed
Journal: Journal of anxiety disorders
September/27/2015
Abstract

By analyzing data yielded from a sample of Chinese adolescents surviving a high-intensity earthquake, this study investigated the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. The sample included 743 traumatized middle school students (396 females and 332 males) aged 11-17 years (mean=13.6, SD=1.0). Results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that an intercorrelated seven-factor model comprised of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal factors provided a significant better representation of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms than other alternative models. Further analyses indicated that external measures of major depression disorder and panic disorder symptoms displayed unique associations with four PTSD factors. The findings provide further support for the newly proposed seven-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, add to very limited empirical knowledge on the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among adolescents, and carry implications for further refinement of the current classifications of PTSD symptoms and further clinical practice and research on posttraumatic stress symptomatology.

Pubmed
Journal: Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials
February/11/2004
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To optimize the preparation procedure of Suppositoria Radix Bupleuri for Kids.

METHODS

The extraction process and preparation procedure were studied by orthogonal experimental design.

RESULTS

The extraction process was selected and suppositoria was prepared by hard fat.

CONCLUSIONS

This preparation procedure is suitable.

Pubmed
Journal: Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
February/17/2004
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the clinical value of breath-hold magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) combining with dynamic enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

METHODS

MRCP findings of 88 cholangiocarcinoma patients proved surgically and pathologically were analyzed retrospectively.

RESULTS

MRCP examination succeeded in all the 88 patients and the pancreaticobiliary ducts were shown satisfactorily. The accuracy of MRCP in the location of both hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 100%, and the accuracy of detecting hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were 100% and 52.2%, respectively. Combining with dynamic enhanced MRI, the detecting accuracy of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma improved to 91.3%.

CONCLUSIONS

MRCP examination has a high successful rate and can accurately determine the location of hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and the accuracy of qualitative diagnosis for the former two is high. Combining with dynamic enhanced MRI, the specificity of determining extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is also high.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
March/24/2016
Abstract

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. TSC has high frequency of osseous manifestations such as sclerotic lesions in the craniofacial region. However, an animal model that replicates TSC craniofacial bone lesions has not yet been described. The roles of Tsc1 and the sequelae of Tsc1 dysfunction in bone are unknown. In this study, we generated a mouse model of TSC with a deletion of Tsc1 in neural crest-derived (NCD) cells that recapitulated the sclerotic craniofacial bone lesions in TSC. Analysis of this mouse model demonstrated that TSC1 deletion led to enhanced mTORC1 signaling in NCD bones and the increase in bone formation is responsible for the aberrantly increased bone mass. Lineage mapping revealed that TSC1 deficient NCD cells overpopulated the NCD bones. Mechanistically, hyperproliferation of osteoprogenitors at an early postnatal stage accounts for the increased osteoblast pool. Intriguingly, early postnatal treatment with rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, can completely rescue the aberrant bone mass, but late treatment cannot. Our data suggest that enhanced mTOR signaling in NCD cells can increase bone mass through enlargement of the osteoprogenitor pool, which likely explains the sclerotic bone lesion observed in TSC patients.

Pubmed
Journal: Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences
September/7/2015
Abstract

The pathophysiological role of influenza infection is poorly understood. In this study, one non-neurovirulent virus (IAV/Aichi/2/68/H3N2) strain was used to infect intra-nasally mice at different age to investigate the mechanism of cerebral edema formation and lower activities of mitochondria enzymes after influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Mice suffered 46.4% mortality in newborn compared with 96.0% in weanling, 100% in adult on day 7, respectively. IAV-RNA was easily detected in the brain of newborn mice. Significant production of endothelin-1 and inducible nitric oxide syntheses were increased on the 3rd and 5th day after IAV infection, associated with increasing blood-brain barrier permeability, brain edema formation and the higher mortality of animals. Production of tumor necrosis factor-α was related to inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme activities, suggesting that over expression of inflammatory cytokines and lower enzyme activities in mitochondria after IAV infection.

Pubmed
Journal: American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
November/29/2010
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The impact of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) during initial hospitalization for total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) surgery was assessed.

METHODS

Using Medicare Provider Analysis and Review files, patients who underwent THR, TKR, or hip fracture surgery from 2005 to 2007 were identified using appropriate procedure codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. Medicare managed care patients were excluded from the study. Eligible patients were classified as having had deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), DVT and PE, or no VTE during their initial hospitalization. Risk adjustment was performed using propensity score matching. Medicare cost, cost to beneficiaries, and cost to primary payers were analyzed to determine risk-adjusted differences in outcome measures, including mortality, rehospitalization, bleeding, length of stay, and total health care expenditures related to VTE events.

RESULTS

A total of 170,047 patients were identified. Postoperative VTE events occurred in 3,014 patients (1.77%) during their initial hospitalization. Risk-adjusted mortality rates were three to four times higher for patients with VTE compared with those without VTE. Patients with VTE were more likely to be rehospitalized and experience bleeding within 30 days. Risk-adjusted differences in annual mean cost, including Medicare cost and costs to beneficiaries and primary payers, were significantly greater for patients with VTE.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients who developed VTE after THR or TKR had a higher likelihood of mortality, bleeding, and rehospitalization; were hospitalized longer; and incurred higher costs to Medicare, Medicare beneficiaries, and private payers compared with patients without VTE.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM
July/21/2011
Abstract

Estrogenic activity risks in the Pearl River system (Liuxi River, Zhujiang River and Shijing River) in South China were assessed by combined chemical analysis and recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) bioassay for surface waters and sediments collected in both dry and wet seasons. The xenoestrogens 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A were detected at almost every sampling site at concentrations of several ng L(-1) (ng g(-1)) to tens of μg L(-1) (μg g(-1)) in surface waters (and sediments). The estrogens estrone and 17β-estradiol were also detected in most of the samples with concentrations from several ng L(-1) (ng g(-1)) to tens of ng L(-1) (ng g(-1)) in surface waters (and sediments). However, synthetic estrogens diethylstilbestrol and 17α-ethinylestradiol were only detected at a few sites. The 17β-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) screened by the YES bioassay were in the range of 0.23-324 ng L(-1) in surface waters and from not detected to 101 ng g(-1) in sediments. Shijing River displayed one to two orders of magnitude higher levels for both measured chemical concentrations and estrogenic activities than the Zhujiang River and the Liuxi River. A risk assessment for the surface waters showed high risks for the downstream reaches of the Liuxi River and the upstream to midstream reaches of the Zhujiang River and the Shijing River. Higher estrogenic risks were observed in the wet season than in the dry season for surface waters, probably due to the input of runoff and direct overflow of small urban streams during heavy rain events. Only small variations in estrogenic risk were found for the sediments between the two seasons, suggesting that sediments are a sink for these estrogenic compounds in the rivers.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of cataract and refractive surgery
April/25/2016
Abstract

To evaluate the accuracy of toric intraocular lens (IOL) alignment in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery using the Truevision 3-dimensional (3-D) computer-guided visualization system compared with a manual marking method.

Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Retrospective comparative case series.

Preoperatively, all patients had corneal topography measurements with a color light-emitting diode topographer. The 3-D system used the anterior keratometry values to create an optimized plan for the toric IOL alignment. Intrastromal marks were created by the femtosecond laser at the intended toric meridian, guided by manual ink marks placed at the 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock limbus with the patient sitting upright. Intraoperatively, the 3-D system was used to align the IOL and measure the angular position of the femtosecond marks relative to the IOL meridian. Three weeks postoperatively, the manifest refraction, corrected distance visual acuity, and toric IOL alignment were recorded.

The mean 3-D imaging error was -0.58 degrees ± 3.90 (SD) (range -9 to 5 degrees), and the mean manual ink error was -0.27 ± 3.65 degrees (range -8 to 5 degrees); neither was statistically significantly different from zero (P = .28 and P = .76, respectively). The mean absolute errors were 2.96 ± 2.54 degrees and 2.88 ± 2.18 degrees, respectively.

The 3-D computer-guided system and manual marking combined with femtosecond laser marks were similar in accuracy for toric alignment.

Dr. Wang received research support from Ziemer USA, Inc. Dr. Weikert is a consultant to Ziemer USA, Inc. Dr. Koch is a consultant to Alcon Laboratories, Inc., and Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., and received research support from Ziemer USA, Inc., i-Optics Corp, and Truevision Systems. None of the other authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

Pubmed
Journal: Scientific reports
October/3/2018
Abstract

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep22241.

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Pubmed
Journal: Epilepsia
August/21/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify the causative gene of autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and benign familial infantile seizures (PKD/BFIS) in a large Chinese family and explore the potential pathogenic mechanism of a PRRT2 (proline-rich transmembrane protein 2) variant.

METHODS

Genetic testing was performed via whole exome sequencing. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the protein expression level and subcellular localization of the PRRT2 mutant in HeLa cells and N2A cells. Coimmunoprecipitation was conducted to investigate the interaction of the PRRT2 mutant with syntaxin 1B (STX1B).

RESULTS

In a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant PKD/BFIS showing wide phenotypic heterogeneity, including patients suffering from PKD, BFIS, or epilepsy and asymptomatic variant carriers, a c.621dupA variant in PRRT2 was identified in the proband and was shown to cosegregate with the phenotype in this family. This variant results in premature termination at codon 224, producing a truncated protein (p.Ser208Ilefs*17) in which the two conserved hydrophobic segments and the cytoplasmic loop are missing. Both the expression and subcellular localization of PRRT2 are strongly affected by the c.621dupA variant. In addition, we found that PRRT2 directly interacts with STX1B, a SNARE protein critical for neurotransmitter release, whereas the truncated variant p.Ser208Ilefs*17 lacking the helix-loop-helix domain fails to bind to STX1B.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings identified a PRRT2 variant in a family with PKD/BFIS and confirmed STX1B as a new binding partner of PRRT2, which suggested that the loss of the interaction between PRRT2 and STX1B may contribute to the pathogenesis of PKD/BFIS.

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Pubmed
Journal: Toxicology and applied pharmacology
August/12/2018
Abstract

Triptolide (TP), a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., is widely used in the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune disorders. Its clinical application is limited by severe adverse effects, especially cardiotoxicity. Accumulative evidences indicate that TP induces DNA damage by inhibiting RNA polymerase. Considering the relationship among DNA damage, p53, and the role of p53 in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, we speculate that TP-induced cardiotoxicity results from p53 activation. In this study, the role of p53 in TP-induced cardiotoxicity was investigated in H9c2 cells, primary cardiomyocytes, and C57BL/6 genetic background p53-/- mice. p53 protein level was elevated by TP in vitro and in acute heart injury models. With TP administration (1.2 mg/kg), p53 deficiency prevented heart histology injury and decreased serum cardiac troponin I (cTn-I) and apoptotic proteins. Mechanistically, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining identified that TP-induced toxicity is dependent on p53 nuclear translocation and transactivation of Bcl2 family genes, leading to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and mitochondria dysfunction. Consistently, p53 antagonist PFTα counteracted TP-induced p53 overexpression and regulation of Bcl2 family transcription, which improved mitochondrial membrane integrity and prevented apoptosis. Moreover, Bax antagonist Bax inhibitor peptide (BIP) V5 ameliorated TP-induced apoptosis through suppressing membrane depolarization and ROS accumulation. These results suggest that TP-induced cardiotoxicity is p53-dependent by promoting Bax-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

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Pubmed
Journal: World journal of gastroenterology
December/18/2005
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To explore the effect of six bile salts, including glycocholate (GC), glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), glycodeoxycholate (GDC), taurocholate (TC), taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC), taurodeoxycholate (TDC), and two bile acids including cholic acid (CA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on esophageal cancer Eca109 cell line.

METHODS

Eca109 cells were exposed to six bile salts, two bile acids and the mixed bile salts at different concentrations for 24-72 h. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect the cell proliferation. Apoptotic morphology was observed by phase-contrast video microscopy and deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Sub-G1 DNA fragmentations and early apoptosis cells were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM) with propidium iodide (PI) staining and annexin V-FITC conjugated with PI staining. Apoptosis DNA ladders on agarose were observed. Activation of caspase-3 was assayed by FCM with FITC-conjugated monoclonal rabbit anti-active caspase-3 antibody and expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were examined immunocytochemically in 500 micromol/L-TC-induced apoptosis cells.

RESULTS

Five bile salts except for GC, and two bile acids and the mixed bile salts could initiate growth inhibition of Eca109 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TUNEL, FCM, and DNA ladder assays all demonstrated apoptosis induced by bile salts and bile acids at 500 micromol/L, except for GC. Early apoptosis cell percentages in Eca109 cells treated with GCDC, GDC, TC, TCDC, TDC, CA at 500 micromol/L for 12 h, DCA at 500 micromol/L for 6 h, and mixed bile salts at 1000 micromol/L for 12 h were 7.5%, 8.7%, 14.8%, 8.9%, 7.8%, 9.3%, 22.6% and 12.5%, respectively, all were significantly higher than that in control (1.9%). About 22% of the cell population treated with TC at 500 micromol/L for 24 h had detectable active caspase-3, and were higher than that in the control (1%). Immunocytochemical assay suggested that TC down-regulated Bcl-2 protein level and up-regulated Bax protein level.

CONCLUSIONS

GCDC, GDC, TC, TCDC, TDC, CA and DCA, except for GC, can inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of esophageal cancer Eca109 cells. Activation of caspase-3, decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein are involved in TC-induced apoptosis of Eca109 cells.

Pubmed
Journal: Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology
June/14/2018
Abstract

In this study, through setting runoff plots in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fo-rest, the runoff water samples were collected and tested from January to October, 2013. Combining with soil nitrogen data before and after the rainy season, we analyzed the characteristics of soil nitrogen transportation in chestnut forest around the Fushi Reservoir watershed in north Zhejiang Pro-vince, China. The results showed that among the 10 surface runoff events of Chinese chestnut fo-rest, there exhibited a significant difference in runoff water volume of each runoff plot, and the maximum amount was 0.51 m3. Nitrogen was the major element associated with nutrient loss in the study region. The concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN) andchemical oxygen demend (CODMn) in the runoff water ranged from 0.02-1.87, 0.04-3.53, 1.69-5.33 and 5.30-14.07 mg·L-1, respectively. The water quality indexes were greatly affected by the runoff volume, and the relationship between the amount of nitrogen loss and runoff could be well fitted by using a linear equation. The difference in nitrogen contents of the soil in the upper, middle and lower part of the runoff plots was evident both before and after the rainy season. Moreover, the nitrogen content increased with the increasing altitude, but this trend decreased with increasing soil depth. Comparison of the difference between the four forms of soil nitrogen (NO3--N, NH4+-N, TN and hydrolyzable nitrogen Hydro-N of soil) before and after the rainy season showed that there existed significant differences in Hydro-N and TN, and the average diffe-rence values were 20.21 and 307.49 mg·kg-1, respectively. In this area, there was a great risk of nitrogen loss with runoff, and the potential non-point source pollution in Fushi Reservoir should be concerned.

Pubmed
Journal: Molecular pharmacology
November/13/2018
Abstract

Species differences in renal drug transporters continue to plague drug development with animal models failing to adequately predict renal drug toxicity. For example, adefovir, a renally excreted antiviral drug, failed clinical studies for human immunodeficiency virus due to pronounced nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, we demonstrated that there are large species differences in the kinetics of interactions of a key class of antiviral drugs, acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), with organic anion transporter 1 [(OAT1) SLC22A6] and identified a key amino acid residue responsible for these differences. In OAT1 stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells, the Km value of tenofovir for human OAT1 (hOAT1) was significantly lower than for OAT1 orthologs from common preclinical animals, including cynomolgus monkey, mouse, rat, and dog. Chimeric and site-directed mutagenesis studies along with comparative structure modeling identified serine at position 203 (S203) in hOAT1 as a determinant of its lower Km value. Furthermore, S203 is conserved in apes, and in contrast alanine at the equivalent position is conserved in preclinical animals and Old World monkeys, the most related primates to apes. Intriguingly, transport efficiencies are significantly higher for OAT1 orthologs from apes with high serum uric acid (SUA) levels than for the orthologs from species with low serum uric acid levels. In conclusion, our data provide a molecular mechanism underlying species differences in renal accumulation of nephrotoxic ANPs and a novel insight into OAT1 transport function in primate evolution.

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Pubmed
Journal: Scientific reports
February/19/2017
Abstract

Growing evidence links environmental exposure to hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and ADIPOQ that encodes adiponectin is considered as an important gene for T2DM. However, the role of ADIPOQ-HCH interaction on T2DM risk remains unclear. Thus, a paired case-control study was conducted in an East Chinese community. A total of 1446 subjects, including 723 cases and 723 controls matched on age, gender and residence, were enrolled, and 4 types of HCH isomers were measured in serum samples using GC-MS/MS. Additionally, 4 candidate ADIPOQ SNPs (rs182052, rs266729, rs6810075, and rs16861194) were genotyped by TaqMan assay, and plasma adiponectin was measured using ELISA. No associations between 4 SNPs and T2DM risk were found, but T2DM risk significantly increased with serum levels of β-HCH (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the synergistic interaction between β-HCH and rs182052 significantly increased T2DM risk (OR I-additive model = 2.20, OR I-recessive model = 2.13). Additionally, individuals carrying only rs182052 (A allele) with high levels of β-HCH had significant reduction in adiponectin levels (P = 0.016). These results indicate that the interaction between rs182052 and β-HCH might increase the risk of T2DM by jointly decreasing the adiponectin level and potentially trigger T2DM development.

Pubmed
Journal: Scientific reports
February/19/2017
Abstract

Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend < 0.001). Additionally, BDE47 treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

Pubmed
Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
March/23/2016
Abstract

Endogenous neural stem cells in central canal of adult mammalian spinal cord exhibit stem cell properties following injury. In the present study, the endogenous neural stem cells were labeled with Dil to track the differentiation of cells after mild spinal cord injury (SCI). Compared with 1 and 14 days post mild injury, the number of endogenous neural stem cells significantly increased at the injured site of spinal cord on 3 and 7 days post-injury. Dil-labeled βIII-tublin and GFAP expressing cells could be detected on 7 days post-injury, which indicated that the endogenous neural stem cells in central canal of spinal cord differentiated into different type of neural cells, but there were more differentiated astrocytes than the neurons after injury. Furthermore, after injury the expression of inhibitory Notch1 and Hes1 mRNA began to increase at 6 hours and was evident at 12 and 24 hours, which maintained high levels up to 7 days post-injury. These results indicated that a mild SCI in rat is sufficient to induce endogenous neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation. However, the ability to differentiate into neurons is limited, which may be, at least in part, due to high expression of inhibitory Notch1 and Hes1 genes after injury.

Pubmed
Journal: Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
March/21/2012
Pubmed
Journal: Drug delivery
November/7/2017
Abstract

The present work aimed to apply the liquid antisolvent precipitation (LAP) method for preparing the apigenin nanoparticles and thereby improving the solubility and bioavailability of apigenin. The different experimental parameters on particle size were optimized through central composite design (CCD) using the Design-Expert® software. Under the optimum conditions, the particle size of the apigenin nanosuspension was about 159.2 nm. In order to get apigenin nanoparticles, the freeze-drying method was selected and the mannitol was used as a cryoprotectant. Then the solid state properties of the apigenin nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo gravimetric (TG), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results obtained displayed that the apigenin nanoparticles exhibited near-spherical shape and could be transformed into an amorphous form. In addition, the dissolving test, the bioavailability in rats, and the antitumor activity were also studied. The experimental results showed that the solubility of the apigenin nanoparticles were about 29.61 times and 64.81 times of raw apigenin in artificial gastric juice and in artificial intestinal juice, respectively, and the apigenin nanoparticles showed higher dissolution rates compared to raw apigenin, and was about 6.08 times and 6.14 times than that of raw apigenin in artificial gastric juice and in artificial intestinal juice. The oral bioavailability of apigenin nanoparticles was about 4.96 times higher than that of the raw apigenin, but the apigenin nanoparticles had no toxic effect on the organs of rats. In addition, the apigenin nanoparticles had a higher inhibition to HepG2 cells by lower IC50 than that of raw apigenin.

Pubmed
Journal: Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
July/1/2013
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effect of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), on radiosensitivity in breast cancer cells.

METHODS

Two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, were evaluated. The methylation status and the mRNA expression of three genes (ER, PR, and HIC-1) that were frequently hypermethylated in these cell lines were determined as a function of DAC exposure. 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo-(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) absorbance and a colony-forming assay were used to estimate cell viability and radiosensitivity. Using cell-cycle analysis, γ-histone H2A (γ-H2AX) formation assays and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) analysis of three genes correlated with radiosensitivity (BRCA1, 14-3-3σ, and E-cadherin), the mechanism of DAC enhancement of radiosensitivity was explored.

RESULTS

DAC induced the demethylation and reactivation of silent genes in both cell lines. The combination of DAC and irradiation induced growth suppression in vitro. DAC, 5 μM, enhanced sensitivity to ionizing radiation. DAC followed by irradiation correlated with G2/M arrest and the retardation of repair of radiation-induced double strand breaks. DAC reversed the methylation status of genes connected with radiosensitization. The different radiosensitization effects observed with different breast cancers cells may correlate with the primary methylation status of radiosensitizing genes.

CONCLUSIONS

Treatment strategies that include DAC present promising options for sensitizing breast cancer cells to irradiation.

Pubmed
Journal: Anti-cancer drugs
September/18/2002
Abstract

Adriamycin (ADR, doxorubicin), a drug having cardiotoxicity, is electrically charged as a cation in blood. We therefore investigated whether iontophoresis caused by direct electric current (DC; 50 microA, 90 min) would cause systemic modification of ADR pharmacokinetics. Cathode and anode were placed into a right kidney and muscles of the abdominal wall, respectively, in six Donryu rats. Urinary excretion of ADR, as measured by catheterizing into the right kidney, was significantly higher in the DC group than in the controls (p < 0.05). Both plasmic and renal ADR clearances were significantly higher in the DC group (p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). Tissue ADR concentrations were significantly lower in the DC group (heart: p<0.003; liver and lung: both p<0.05). These results suggest that electric therapy might potentially induce modification of ADR pharmacokinetics by iontophoresis, and that the therapy might effectively change ADR concentration both locally and systemically.

Pubmed
Journal: Food chemistry
January/8/2017
Abstract

Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches. With increasing reaction time, the relative crystallinity and endothermic enthalpy of the modified starches gradually decreased, whereas the melting peak temperatures and resistant starch contents increased. Slight differences were observed in thermal parameters, relative crystallinity, and branch chain length distribution between the modified native and acid-thinned starches. Moreover, the digestibility of the modified starches was not affected by acid hydrolysis pretreatment, but was affected by the percentage of intermediate and long chains.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of biotechnology
October/26/2014
Abstract

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play pivotal roles in diverse signaling pathways related to plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study, a group B MAPK gene in Zea mays, ZmSIMK1, was functionally analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that ZmSIMK1 transcript could be induced by drought, salt, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) and certain exogenous signaling molecules. Analysis of the ZmSIMK1 promoter revealed a group of putative cis-acting elements related to drought and defense responses. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) staining produced similar results as qRT-PCR. ZmSIMK1 was mainly localized in the nucleus, and further study indicated that the C-terminal domain (CD) was essential for targeting to the nucleus. Transgenic tobacco accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS), had higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and osmoregulatory substances and exhibited an increased germination rate compared with wild-type (WT) tobacco under drought stress. ROS-related and drought stress-responsive genes in transgenic tobacco were significantly upregulated compared with the same genes in WT lines under drought stress. Moreover, overexpression of ZmSIMK1 promoted the hypersensitive response (HR) and pathogen-related gene (PR) transcription in addition to triggering systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco.

Pubmed
Journal: Cardiorenal medicine
March/3/2015
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To analyze the relationship between oral active vitamin D treatment and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients.

METHODS

We examined the association of oral calcitriol treatment with mortality in 156 MHD patients (80 men and 76 women; mean age: 59 ± 15 years). The survival analysis of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was performed using the Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional-hazards analyses.

RESULTS

In all, 108 of the 156 patients received active vitamin D treatment. The intact parathyroid hormone level was obviously lower in the patients who received active vitamin D treatment than in those who did not. Throughout the whole follow-up, overall mortality was 16.7% (26 deaths, 13 in each group). The cardiovascular mortality rates were 14.6% (8/48) in the control group and 4.6% (5/108) in the calcitriol group. The crude analysis of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality using the Kaplan-Meier curve showed a significant reduction in mortality risk for patients who received oral active vitamin D compared with those who did not receive it (p = 0.015 and 0.026, respectively). Cox's regression analysis showed that active vitamin D treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.399, 95% CI 0.185-0.862, p = 0.019) and cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.295, 95% CI 0.094-0.93, p = 0.037). However, after adjusting for potential confounding variables, oral active vitamin D therapy was no longer clearly associated with a lower risk of either all-cause or cardiovascular mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

Oral active vitamin D treatment was associated with improved survival in MHD patients. However, this survival benefit was smaller than previously reported, and a large cohort study should be performed.

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