K Tanaka
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Publication
Journal: Annual review of biochemistry
November/19/1996
Abstract
The proteasome is an essential component of the ATP-dependent proteolytic pathway in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for the degradation of most cellular proteins. The 20S (700-kDa) proteasome contains multiple peptidase activities that function through a new type of proteolytic mechanism involving a threonine active site. The 26S (2000-kDa) complex, which degrades ubiquitinated proteins, contains in addition to the 20S proteasome a 19S regulatory complex composed of multiple ATPases and components necessary for binding protein substrates. The proteasome has been highly conserved during eukaryotic evolution, and simpler forms are even found in archaebacteria and eubacteria. Major advances have been achieved recently in our knowledge about the molecular organization of the 20S and 19S particles, their subunits, the proteasome's role in MHC-class 1 antigen presentation, and regulators of its activities. This article focuses on recent progress concerning the biochemical mechanisms and intracellular functions of the 20S and 26S proteasomes.
Publication
Journal: Nature genetics
August/10/2000
Abstract
Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP), one of the most common familial forms of Parkinson disease, is characterized by selective dopaminergic neural cell death and the absence of the Lewy body, a cytoplasmic inclusion body consisting of aggregates of abnormally accumulated proteins. We previously cloned PARK2, mutations of which cause AR-JP (ref. 2), but the function of the gene product, parkin, remains unknown. We report here that parkin is involved in protein degradation as a ubiquitin-protein ligase collaborating with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH7, and that mutant parkins from AR-JP patients show loss of the ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. Our findings indicate that accumulation of proteins that have yet to be identified causes a selective neural cell death without formation of Lewy bodies. Our findings should enhance the exploration of the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by involvement of abnormal protein ubiquitination, including Alzheimer disease, other tauopathies, CAG triplet repeat disorders and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Publication
Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.)
June/29/1997
Abstract
Extracellular levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the nervous system are maintained by transporters that actively remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Homozygous mice deficient in GLT-1, a widely distributed astrocytic glutamate transporter, show lethal spontaneous seizures and increased susceptibility to acute cortical injury. These effects can be attributed to elevated levels of residual glutamate in the brains of these mice.
Publication
Journal: Nature
September/13/2000
Abstract
Measles virus continues to be a major killer of children, claiming roughly one million lives a year. Measles virus infection causes profound immunosuppression, which makes measles patients susceptible to secondary infections accounting for high morbidity and mortality. The Edmonston strain of measles virus, and vaccine strains derived from it, use as a cellular receptor human CD46 (refs 3, 4), which is expressed on all nucleated cells; however, most clinical isolates of measles virus cannot use CD46 as a receptor. Here we show that human SLAM (signalling lymphocyte-activation molecule; also known as CDw150), a recently discovered membrane glycoprotein expressed on some T and B cells, is a cellular receptor for measles virus, including the Edmonston strain. Transfection with a human SLAM complementary DNA enables non-susceptible cell lines to bind measles virus, support measles virus replication and develop cytopathic effects. The distribution of SLAM on various cell lines is consistent with their susceptibility to clinical isolates of measles virus. The identification of SLAM as a receptor for measles virus opens the way to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of measles virus infection, especially the immunosuppression induced by measles virus.
Publication
Journal: Nature
December/21/2000
Abstract
Bone resorption is regulated by the immune system, where T-cell expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor family that is essential for osteoclastogenesis, may contribute to pathological conditions, such as autoimmune arthritis. However, whether activated T cells maintain bone homeostasis by counterbalancing the action of RANKL remains unknown. Here we show that T-cell production of interferon (IFN)-gamma strongly suppresses osteoclastogenesis by interfering with the RANKL-RANK signalling pathway. IFN-gamma induces rapid degradation of the RANK adapter protein, TRAF6 (tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6), which results in strong inhibition of the RANKL-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and JNK. This inhibition of osteoclastogenesis is rescued by overexpressing TRAF6 in precursor cells, which indicates that TRAF6 is the target critical for the IFN-gamma action. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the accelerated degradation of TRAF6 requires both its ubiquitination, which is initiated by RANKL, and IFN-gamma-induced activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our study shows that there is cross-talk between the tumour necrosis factor and IFN families of cytokines, through which IFN-gamma provides a negative link between T-cell activation and bone resorption. Our results may offer a therapeutic approach to treat the inflammation-induced tissue breakdown.
Publication
Journal: Annual review of neuroscience
May/11/1997
Abstract
Cells in area TE of the inferotemporal cortex of the monkey brain selectively respond to various moderately complex object features, and those that cluster in a columnar region that runs perpendicular to the cortical surface respond to similar features. Although cells within a column respond to similar features, their selectivity is not necessarily identical. The data of optical imaging in TE have suggested that the borders between neighboring columns are not discrete; a continuous mapping of complex feature space within a larger region contains several partially overlapped columns. This continuous mapping may be used for various computations, such as production of the image of the object at different viewing angles, illumination conditions, and articulation poses.
Authors
Publication
Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry
May/30/2001
Abstract
Smad7 is an inhibitory Smad that acts as a negative regulator of signaling by the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily proteins. Smad7 is induced by TGF-beta, stably interacts with activated TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaR-I), and interferes with the phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smads. Here we show that Smurf1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for bone morphogenetic protein-specific Smads, also interacts with Smad7 and induces Smad7 ubiquitination and translocation into the cytoplasm. In addition, Smurf1 associates with TbetaR-I via Smad7, with subsequent enhancement of turnover of TbetaR-I and Smad7. These results thus reveal a novel function of Smad7, i.e. induction of degradation of TbetaR-I through recruitment of an E3 ligase to the receptor.
Publication
Journal: Nature
January/11/1993
Abstract
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is the most rapidly turned over mammalian enzyme. We have shown that its degradation is accelerated by ODC antizyme, an inhibitory protein induced by polyamines. This is a new type of enzyme regulation and may be a model for selective protein degradation. Here we report the identification of the protease responsible for ODC degradation. Using a cell-free degradation system, we demonstrate that immunodepletion of proteasomes from cell extracts causes almost complete loss of ATP- and antizyme-dependent degradation of ODC. In addition, purified 26S proteasome complex, but not the 20S proteasome, catalyses ODC degradation in the absence of ubiquitin. These results strongly suggest that the 26S proteasome, widely viewed as specific for ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, is the main enzyme responsible for ODC degradation. The 26S proteasome may therefore have a second role in ubiquitin-independent proteolysis.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of experimental medicine
May/16/2001
Abstract
Prostaglandin (PG)D2, which has long been implicated in allergic diseases, is currently considered to elicit its biological actions through the DP receptor (DP). Involvement of DP in the formation of allergic asthma was recently demonstrated with DP-deficient mice. However, proinflammatory functions of PGD2 cannot be explained by DP alone. We show here that a seven-transmembrane receptor, CRTH2, which is preferentially expressed in T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, and basophils in humans, serves as the novel receptor for PGD2. In response to PGD2, CRTH2 induces intracellular Ca2+mobilization and chemotaxis in Th2 cells in a Galphai-dependent manner. In addition, CRTH2, but not DP, mediates PGD2-dependent cell migration of blood eosinophils and basophils. Thus, PGD2 is likely involved in multiple aspects of allergic inflammation through its dual receptor systems, DP and CRTH2.
Publication
Journal: Nucleic acids research
January/14/1991
Abstract
We describe a highly efficient alkali cation method and library transducing vectors for cloning mammalian cDNAs by trans-complementation of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants. cDNA libraries constructed with the pcD or pcD2 vector are transduced into yeast by cotransfection with a linearized vector, which allows an enhanced homologous recombination between the yeast vector and the library plasmid leading to the efficient formation of concatemers containing pcD molecules. The transformation frequencies obtained by the method are 10(6) colonies per 10(8) cells transfected with 2 micrograms of library and 1 microgram of vector, 50-60% of which contain pcD molecules. The high-efficiency alkali cation method circumvents many of the shortcomings of the spheroplast method generally used for Schiz. pombe transfection. The vectors are maximized for the efficiency of library transduction and minimized for the rearrangements of pcD molecules during propagation in yeast. This system allows rapid screening of multi-million cDNA clone libraries for rare cDNAs in a routine scale of experiments. Using this system, various mammalian cDNAs that are extremely difficult, time-consuming, or unclonable to clone by other methods have been cloned.
Publication
Journal: Molecular microbiology
February/2/1997
Abstract
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the production of many virulence factors and secondary metabolites is regulated in concert with cell density through quorum sensing. Two quorum-sensing regulons have been identified in which the LuxR homologues LasR and RhlR are activated by N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL) and N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (BHL) respectively. The lasR and rhlR genes are linked to the luxl homologues lasl and rhll, which are responsible for synthesis of OdDHL and BHL, respectively. As lasRl and rhlRl are both involved in regulating synthesis of exoenzymes such as elastase, we sought to determine the nature of their interrelationship. By using lacZ transcriptional fusions in both homologous (P. aeruginosa) and heterologous (Escherichia coli) genetic backgrounds we provide evidence that (i) lasR is expressed constitutively throughout the growth cycle, (ii) rhlR expression is regulated by LasR/OdDHL, and (iii) that RhlR/BHL regulates rhll. We also show that expression of the stationary-phase sigma factor gene rpoS is abolished in a P. aeruginosa lasR mutant and in the pleiotropic BHL-negative mutant PANO67. Furthermore, our data reveal that kin E. coli, an rpoS-lacZ fusion is regulated directly by RhlR/BHL. Taken together, these results indicate that P. aeruginosa employs a multilayered hierarchical quorum-sensing cascade involving RhlR/BHL and LasR/OdDHL, interlinked via RpoS, to integrate the regulation of virulence determinants and secondary metabolites with adaptation and survival in the stationary phase.
Publication
Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
August/27/1997
Abstract
The role of intestinal bacterial flora in oral tolerance induction to the IgE response was investigated using germfree (GF) mice. When GF mice were orally administered 20 mg of OVA as tolerogen before a systemic challenge with OVA, the Th1-mediated responses, such as the production of IgG2a and IFN-gamma, were abrogated, while the Th2-mediated immune responses, such as the production of IgE, IgG1, and IL-4, were maintained. Moreover, the basal level of IL-4 production in vitro was significantly higher in the GF mice than that of IL-4 in specific pathogen-free mice when challenged systemically with OVA. On the other hand, both Th1 and Th2 responses were fully sensitive to such tolerance induction in specific pathogen-free mice. The reconstitution of intestinal flora of GF mice with Bifidobacterium infantis, one of the predominant bacteria in the intestinal flora, restored the susceptibility of these Th2 responses to oral tolerance induction; however, this was only effective when such reconstitution was performed in neonates, but not in mice at an older age. These results thus suggested that intestinal bacterial flora play a crucial role in generating a Th2 cell population whose size and response are adequately regulated and, consequently, fully susceptible to oral tolerance induction, probably by affecting the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue at the neonatal stage.
Publication
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
February/27/2000
Abstract
Aberrant inhibition of programmed cell death (apoptosis) prevents normal homeostasis and promotes tissue tumorigenesis, but whether it also influences the outcome of common cancers has remained arguable. The expression of a novel IAP apoptosis inhibitor, survivin, in breast cancer and its association with tumor cell apoptosis and overall prognosis were examined in this study. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that survivin expression was positive in 118 of 167 cases (70.7%) of breast carcinomas of histological stages I to IH. In contrast, no expression of survivin in adjacent normal tissue was detected. Although survivin expression was not correlated with p53 mutations, survivin-positive cases were strongly associated with bcl-2 expression (78.0% versus 47.5%; P = 0.0005) and reduced apoptotic index (0.62% +/- 0.51% versus 1.27% +/- 1.37%; P < 0.0001). In addition, patients with low apoptotic index (<0.52%) had worse survival rates than the group with high apoptotic index >> or =0.52%; P = 0.028), and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis identified apoptotic index as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.024). The results suggest that apoptosis inhibition by survivin, alone or in cooperation with bcl-2, is a significant prognostic parameter of worse outcome in breast carcinoma.
Publication
Journal: EMBO reports
March/21/2002
Abstract
The ubiquitin-proteasome system catalyses the immediate destruction of misfolded or impaired proteins generated in cells, but how this proteolytic machinery recognizes abnormality of cellular proteins for selective elimination remains elusive. Here, we report that the C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) with a U-box domain is an E3 ubiquitin-ligase collaborating with molecular chaperones Hsp90 and Hsc70. Thermally denatured firefly luciferase was multiubiquitylated by CHIP in the presence of E1 and E2 (Ubc4 or UbcH5c) in vitro, only when the unfolded substrate was captured by Hsp90 or Hsc70 and Hsp40. No ubiquitylating activity was detected in CHIP lacking the U-box region. CHIP efficiently ubiquitylated denatured luciferase trapped by the C-terminal region of Hsp90, which contains a CHIP binding site. CHIP also showed self-ubiquitylating activity independent of target ubiquitylation. Our results indicate that CHIP can be regarded as 'a quality-control E3' that selectively ubiquitylates unfolded protein(s) by collaborating with molecular chaperones.
Publication
Journal: Cell
December/23/1990
Abstract
Sequencing of the neurofibromatosis gene (NF1) revealed a striking similarity among NF1, yeast IRA proteins, and mammalian GAP (GTPase-activating protein). Using both genetic and biochemical assays, we demonstrate that this homology domain of the NF1 protein interacts with ras proteins. First, expression of this NF1 domain suppressed the heat shock-sensitive phenotype of yeast ira1 and ira2 mutants. Second, this NF1 domain, after purification as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein, strongly stimulated the GTPase activity of yeast RAS2 and human H-ras proteins. The GST-NF1 protein, however, did not stimulate the GTPase activity of oncogenic mutant ras proteins, H-rasVal-12 and yeast RAS2Val-19 mutants, or a yeast RAS2 effector mutant. These results establish that this NF1 domain has ras GAP activity similar to that found with IRA2 protein and mammalian GAP, and therefore may also regulate ras function in vivo.
Publication
Journal: Genes & development
April/12/1993
Abstract
Using mouse immunoglobulin mu (IgM) pre-mRNA as the model substrate for in vitro splicing, we have explored the role of exon sequences in splicing. We have found that deletion of the 5' portion of exon M2 of the IgM gene abolishes the splicing of its immediately upstream intron. Splicing was restored when a purine-rich sequence found within the deleted region was reinserted into the deletion construct. This M2 exon sequence was able to stimulate the splicing of a heterologous intron of the Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA that contains a suboptimal 3' splice site sequence. These results show that the IgM M2 exon sequence functions as a splicing enhancer. We found that the assembly of the early splicing complex is stimulated by the M2 exon sequence. In vitro competition experiments show that this stimulatory effect is mediated by the interaction of some trans-acting factors. Our results suggest that the U1 snRNP is one such factor. We propose that recognition of an enhancer exon sequence by the components of splicing machinery plays a vital role in the selection of splice sites, not only for the IgM pre-mRNA but for other pre-mRNAs. We designate such a sequence as exon recognition sequence (ERS).
Publication
Journal: The Journal of cell biology
August/2/1998
Abstract
Nek2 (for NIMA-related kinase 2) is a mammalian cell cycle-regulated kinase structurally related to the mitotic regulator NIMA of Aspergillus nidulans. In human cells, Nek2 associates with centrosomes, and overexpression of active Nek2 has drastic consequences for centrosome structure. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of a novel human centrosomal protein, C-Nap1 (for centrosomal Nek2-associated protein 1), first identified as a Nek2-interacting protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Antibodies raised against recombinant C-Nap1 produced strong labeling of centrosomes by immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that C-Nap1 is associated specifically with the proximal ends of both mother and daughter centrioles. On Western blots, anti-C-Nap1 antibodies recognized a large protein >>250 kD) that was highly enriched in centrosome preparations. Sequencing of overlapping cDNAs showed that C-Nap1 has a calculated molecular mass of 281 kD and comprises extended domains of predicted coiled-coil structure. Whereas C-Nap1 was concentrated at centrosomes in all interphase cells, immunoreactivity at mitotic spindle poles was strongly diminished. Finally, the COOH-terminal domain of C-Nap1 could readily be phosphorylated by Nek2 in vitro, as well as after coexpression of the two proteins in vivo. Based on these findings, we propose a model implicating both Nek2 and C-Nap1 in the regulation of centriole-centriole cohesion during the cell cycle.
Publication
Journal: Stroke
September/26/2001
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Iba1 is a novel calcium-binding protein and is specifically expressed in microglia in the brain. It has been suggested that Iba1 plays an important role in regulation of the function of microglia. In the present study we examined time-dependent Iba1 expression after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and characterized microglial activation in various brain regions.
METHODS
Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced by the intraluminal filament technique. After 1.5 hours of transient ischemia, Iba1 expression was examined by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. The microglial activation in association with ischemic severity was characterized by double immunostaining with other specific markers.
RESULTS
In the peri-ischemic area, heavily Iba1 immunoreactive cells rapidly appeared at 3.5 hours after reperfusion. Immunoreactivity was further increased and peaked at 7 days. In the ischemic core, round Iba1-positive cells, which may be blood-borne monocytes, appeared from 24 hours and reached a peak at 4 to 7 days. Double immunostaining revealed that activated microglia in the peri-ischemic area upregulated Iba1 expression but were negative for the macrophage marker ED1. ED1-positive cells were clearly restricted to the ischemic core.
CONCLUSIONS
These findings suggest the following: (1) Iba1 expression may be associated with microglial activation in ischemic brain, and Iba1 immunostaining can be useful to evaluate the pathophysiological roles of activated microglia in ischemic injury. (2) Expression of ED1 antigen is strictly restricted to severe ischemic damage, whereas activated microglia in the peri-ischemic area showed Iba1 upregulation without ED1. Therefore, microglia may exhibit difference of antigenicity in the severity of ischemic brain injury.
Publication
Journal: Infection and immunity
February/15/1995
Abstract
We have recently demonstrated that the macrophage L-arginine-dependent cytotoxic pathway effectively kills the virulent Erdman strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro via the generation of toxic reactive nitrogen intermediates by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. This report demonstrates that two distinct inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (aminoguanidine and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine) render similar deleterious effects on tuberculous infection in mice, as assessed by mortality, bacterial burden, and pathological tissue damage, thus confirming the importance of reactive nitrogen intermediates in resistance against M. tuberculosis.
Publication
Journal: Nature genetics
December/3/1997
Publication
Journal: Journal of neurophysiology
July/5/1994
Abstract
1. To infer relative roles of cortical areas at different stages of the ventral visual pathway, we quantitatively examined visual responses of cells in V2, V4, the posterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (posterior IT), and the anterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (anterior IT), using anesthetized macaque monkeys. 2. The critical feature for the activation was first determined for each recorded cell by using a reduction method. We started from images of three-dimensional complex objects and simplified the image of effective stimuli step by step by eliminating a part of the features present in the image. The simplest feature that maximally activated the cell was determined as the critical feature. The response to the critical feature was then compared with responses of the same cell to a routine set of 32 simple stimuli, which included white and black bars of four different orientations and squares or spots of four different colors. 3. Cells that responded maximally to particular complex object features were found in posterior IT and V4 as well as in anterior IT. The cells in posterior IT and V4 were, however, different from the cells in anterior IT in that many of them responded to some extent to some simple features, that the size of the receptive field was small, and that they intermingled in single penetrations with cells that responded maximally to some simple features. The complex critical features in posterior IT and V4 varied; they consisted of complex shapes, combinations of a shape and texture, and combinations of a shape and color. 4. We suggest that local neuronal networks in V4 and posterior IT play an essential role in the formation of selective responses to complex object features.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
May/16/1993
Abstract
The rpoS gene of Escherichia coli encodes a putative RNA polymerase sigma factor that is considered to be the central regulator of gene expression in stationary phase. The gene product (sigma 38) was overproduced using the cloned rpoS gene and purified to homogeneity. Reconstituted RNA polymerase holoenzyme (E sigma 38) was found to recognize in vitro a number of typical sigma 70-type promoters, including the lacUV5 and trp promoters. Some, however, were recognized exclusively or preferentially by E sigma 70, whereas at least one, fic, was favored by E sigma 38. Thus E. coli promoters can be classified into three groups: the first group is recognized by E sigma 70 and E sigma 38, but the second and third groups are recognized substantially by either E sigma 70 or E sigma 38 alone. In contrast to other minor sigma factors, sigma 38 shares a set of amino acid sequences common among the principal sigma factors of eubacteria and is therefore a member of the RpoD-related protein family. The intracellular level of sigma 38 was demonstrated to increase in vivo upon entry into stationary phase. These results together indicate that sigma 38 is a second principal sigma factor in stationary-phase E. coli.
Publication
Journal: The EMBO journal
October/20/1996
Abstract
The RHO1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a homolog of the mammalian RhoA small GTP-binding protein, which is implicated in various actin cytoskeleton-dependent cell functions. In yeast, Rho1p is involved in bud formation. A yeast strain in which RHO1 is replaced with RhoA shows a recessive temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. A dominant suppressor mutant was isolated from this strain. Molecular cloning of the suppressor gene revealed that the mutation occurred at the pseuodosubstrate site of PKC1, a yeast homolog of mammalian protein kinase C. Two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that GTP-Rho1p, but not GDP-Rho1p, interacted with the region of Pkc1p containing the pseudosubstrate site and the C1 domain. MKK1 and MPK1 encode MAP kinase kinase and MAP kinase homologs, respectively, and function downstream of PKC1. A dominant active MKK1-6 mutation or overexpression of MPK1 suppressed the temperature sensitivity of the RhoA mutant. The dominant activating mutation of PKC1 suppressed the temperature sensitivity of the RhoA mutant. The dominant activating mutation of PKC1 suppressed the temperature sensitivity of two effector mutants of RHO1, rho1(F44Y) and rho1(E451), but not that of rho1(V43T). These results indicate that there are at least two signaling pathways regulated by Rho1p and that one of the downstream targets is Pkc1p, leading to the activation of the MAP kinase cascade.
Publication
Journal: Journal of neurophysiology
November/5/1991
Abstract
1. The inferotemporal cortex (IT) has been thought to play an essential and specific role in visual object discrimination and recognition, because a lesion of IT in the monkey results in a specific deficit in learning tasks that require these visual functions. To understand the cellular basis of the object discrimination and recognition processes in IT, we determined the optimal stimulus of individual IT cells in anesthetized, immobilized monkeys. 2. In the posterior one-third or one-fourth of IT, most cells could be activated maximally by bars or disks just by adjusting the size, orientation, or color of the stimulus. 3. In the remaining anterior two-thirds or three-quarters of IT, most cells required more complex features for their maximal activation. 4. The critical feature for the activation of individual anterior IT cells varied from cell to cell: a complex shape in some cells and a combination of texture or color with contour-shape in other cells. 5. Cells that showed different types of complexity for the critical feature were intermingled throughout anterior IT, whereas cells recorded in single penetrations showed critical features that were related in some respects. 6. Generally speaking, the critical features of anterior IT cells were moderately complex and can be thought of as partial features common to images of several different natural objects. The selectivity to the optimal stimulus was rather sharp, although not absolute. We thus propose that, in anterior IT, images of objects are coded by combinations of active cells, each of which represents the presence of a particular partial feature in the image.
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