K Tanaka
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Publication
Journal: The Review of scientific instruments
November/8/2018
Abstract
We succeeded in increasing the radial observation points of the microwave frequency comb Doppler reflectometer system from 8 to 20 (or especially up to 45) using the high sampling rate of 40 GS/s digital signal processing. For a new acquisition system, the estimation scheme of the Doppler shifted frequency is constructed and compared with the conventional technique. Also, the fine radial profile of perpendicular velocity is obtained, and it is found that the perpendicular velocity profile is consistent with the E × B drift velocity one.
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Journal: Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal
January/31/2017
Abstract
The valence band (VB) structures of wurtzite AlCrN (Cr concentration: 0-17.1%), which show optical absorption in the ultraviolet-visible-infrared light region, were investigated via photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS), x-ray/ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), and ab initio density of states (DOS) calculations. An obvious photoelectron emission threshold was observed ~5.3 eV from the vacuum level for AlCrN, whereas no emission was observed for AlN in the PYS spectra. Comparisons of XPS and UPS VB spectra and the calculated DOS imply that Cr 3d states are formed both at the top of the VB and in the AlN gap. These data suggest that Cr doping could be a viable option to produce new materials with relevant energy band structures for solar photoelectric conversion.
Publication
Journal: Experimental brain research
May/18/1987
Abstract
We have recorded extracellularly from single cells in area 19 of the cat for the purpose of providing a quantitative description of response characteristics. A prominent feature of this area is a high incidence of cells that are end-stopped. Drifting sinusoidal gratings were used to determine spatial and temporal characteristics of the discharge region. In addition, we have conducted independent tests to characterize end zones of receptive fields. When a grating patch was used to stimulate the discharge region alone, all of the cells showed a band-pass spatial frequency tuning characteristic. The optimal spatial frequency ranged from 0.1 to 1.13 cycles/deg, and the distribution had a peak at 0.4 cycles/deg. The bandwidth at half peak amplitude ranged widely from 0.7 to 3.3 octaves (mean 2.0 octaves). When gratings were also presented to the end zones, responses to stimulation of the central region were suppressed. The surround was phase-insensitive in that the relative phase between the grating in the two regions generally did not affect the strength of the suppression. To determine spatial characteristics of the end-zone inhibition, the spatial frequency of the end-zone grating was changed while that for the central pattern was fixed. All cells showed a band-pass characteristic for end-zone inhibition, but in each case, the tuning width was broader than that for excitation. The mean spatial frequency bandwidth of end-zone inhibition was 2.7 octaves. The peak of the inhibition generally coincided with the peak of the excitatory spatial frequency tuning of the discharge center. Considered together, these results show that neurons in area 19 share common properties with those in areas 17 and 18, but they exhibit phase-insensitive end-zone inhibition more frequently.
Publication
Journal: Optics letters
October/1/2012
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Publication
Journal: Journal of synchrotron radiation
October/1/2012
Abstract
Pump and probe X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is used as a local probe of excited atoms, which can provide direct information on lattice distortion, relaxation and atomic rearrangements associated with electronic excitations. In situ XAFS experiments during optical excitation are reported. Utilizing a grazing-incidence fluorescence excitation, which minimizes the mismatch between the probing depths of X-ray excitation and optical pumping, it is found that the dominant photoinduced defect state in amorphous selenium at low temperature is a pair of threefold neutral $C^0_3$ states: $2C^*_2 \rightarrow (C^0_3-C^0_3)$, where $C^*_2$ denotes the twofold excited lone-pair state. The results indicate that optical pumping of chalcogen atoms at low temperature leads to locally over-coordinated defect pairs similar to those in the liquid state. The origin of reversible photostructural changes, such as photodarkening or photoinduced fluidity, is attributed to the structural disorder caused by the formation and annihilation of dynamical interchain bonds during optical melting.
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Publication
Journal: Journal of clinical psychopharmacology
February/1/2001
Publication
Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications
February/1/2001
Abstract
A new histamine receptor, HH4R, was cloned from human leukocyte cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence showed about 40% identity to that of the human histamine H3 receptor, HH3R. HH4R-expressing cells responded to histamine, inhibiting forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation. An H3 agonist, N-alpha-methylhistamine (NAMHA), bound specifically to HH4R, while another H3 agonist, R(-)-alpha-methylhistamine (RAMHA), and the H3 antagonist, thioperamide, competed with this binding. RAMHA, NAMHA, and imetit inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation in HH4R-expressing cells. However, the binding affinities and agonistic activities of H3 agonists to HH4R were weaker than those to HH3R. Low expression of HH4R was detected in a wide variety of peripheral tissues by RT-PCR; however, in contrast with HH3R, expression was not detected in the brain. These observations indicate that the clone is a distinct histamine receptor from HH3R, and thus is named HH4R.
Publication
Journal: Allergologia et immunopathologia
December/21/2018
Abstract
The present cross-sectional study investigated the associations between low birthweight (LBW), high birthweight, preterm birth (PTB), postterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) and the prevalence of wheeze and asthma in Japanese children aged three years (age range, 33-54 months; mean age, 38.7 months).Study subjects were 6364 children. A questionnaire was used to collect all data. Wheeze and asthma were defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood.The prevalence values of wheeze and asthma were 19.5% and 7.7%, respectively. Of the 6364 subjects, 8.8% were classified as LBW (<2500g), 90.4% as normal birthweight, 0.8% as high birthweight (≥4000g), 4.8% as PTB (<37 weeks), 94.8% as term birth, 0.4% as postterm birth (≥42 weeks), 7.8% as SGA (<10th percentile), 82.5% as appropriate for gestational age, and 9.7% as LGA (>90th percentile). Compared with term birth, PTB was independently positively associated with wheeze and asthma: the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.47 (1.11-1.92) and 1.52 (1.02-2.20), respectively. An independent positive association was shown between PTB and wheeze only in boys; the interaction between PTB and sex was significant. Such an interaction between PTB and sex was not seen for asthma. No evident associations were observed between LBW, high birthweight, postterm birth, SGA, or LGA and wheeze or asthma.This is the first study in Japan to show that PTB, but not LBW or SGA, was significantly positively associated with childhood wheeze and asthma.
Publication
Journal: Yeast (Chichester, England)
November/29/2000
Abstract
Two types of HO gene were cloned, sequenced and characterized from the bottom fermenting yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus. The HO gene present on the 1500 kb chromosome was designated Sc-HO (S. cerevisiae-type HO), because the nucleotide sequence of its promoter region and the open reading frame (ORF) was almost identical to that of the S. cerevisiae laboratory strain HO gene (Lab-HO). The other HO gene, designated Lg-HO (Lager-fermenting-yeast specific HO), showed 64% and 83% homology with the promoter and ORF of the Lab-HO at the nucleotide sequence level, respectively, and was located on the 1100 kb chromosome. Analysis of the 4 kb DNA fragment amplified from S. bayanus type strain indicated that the nucleotide sequence of S. bayanus-HO is almost identical to that of the Lg-HO. The SSB1 gene located downstream of the HO gene in S. cerevisiae was also found in the 3' distal region of the Sc-HO, Lg-HO and S. bayanus HO genes. These results showed that the genetic arrangement around the HO loci both of S. pastorianus and S. bayanus is identical to S. cerevisiae. Southern analysis has revealed that Saccharomyces sensu stricto contain four types of HO genes; S. paradoxus-type HO, the Sc-HO, the Lg-HO and S. uvarum-type HO genes. This HO gene diversity provides useful information for the classification of strains belonging to Saccharomyces sensu stricto. The S. pastorianus Sc-HO, Lg-HO and S. bayanus-HO Accession Nos in the DDBJ Nucleotide Sequence Database are AB027449, AB027450 and AB027451, respectively.
Publication
Journal: International journal of molecular medicine
October/15/2000
Abstract
The murine C2C12 myocytes terminally differentiate to myotubes in the mitogen-depletion, and a portion of the cells undergo apoptosis. In this study, a specific proteasome inhibitor lactacystin induced cell cycle withdrawal and precocious expression of myosin in C2C12 cells in mitogen-enriched medium, but these cells did not fuse to form myotubes. Mitogen-starved myocytes could not differentiate to myotubes under the proteasome inhibition. The genes for p21, MyoD, Myogenin and RB were activated, and p27 gene was repressed under the proteasome inhibition, suggesting the transcriptional regulation of these genes linked to the proteasome activity. The induction of p21 prior to MyoD may contribute to the incomplete myogenesis in the presence of lactacystin. In addition, lactacystin-treated C2C12 cells did not undergo apoptosis, while proteasome accumulated in the nuclei of apoptotic cells but not in those of myotubes during mitogen-depleted differentiation. Further, lactacystin induced similarly incomplete differentiation in human RD embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Our findings demonstrated that proteasome has an essential role in myogenesis, especially in transcriptional control of myogenic and cell cycle regulators, cell fusion forming myotubes, and apoptosis.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
August/30/2000
Abstract
A new human thyroid carcinoma cell line, KTC-1, was established from the malignant pleural effusion of a recurrent thyroid carcinoma patient. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal karyotype, and no p53 mutation in exons 5-9 was detected. This cell line is tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Histological findings by light and electron microscopy, such as the absence of follicular structures and the existence of intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions and psammoma bodies, indicated transplanted tumors to be a poorly differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. A low expression level of thyroglobulin was detected by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 and PAX-8 was also detected. No mRNA expression of TSH receptors, thyroid peroxidase, or Na+/I- symporter was detected. Interleukin-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor were secreted into the medium. These findings suggest this cell line to be functionally poorly differentiated. Moreover, all-trans-retinoic acid increased the mRNA expression of thyroglobulin and decreased both the mRNA expression and secretion of interleukin-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor while significantly stimulating growth. RT-PCR analysis of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) revealed that KTC-1 cells express a moderate level of RARalpha and -gamma, but a low level of RARbeta. This cell line may be useful for studying redifferentiation therapy for thyroid carcinoma.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
July/12/2000
Abstract
The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) mediates the selective uptake of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol secretion into bile in the liver. In this study, we identified an SR-BI-associated protein from rat liver membrane extracts by using an affinity chromatography technique. This protein of 523 amino acids contains four PDZ domains and associates with the C terminus of SR-BI by using its N-terminal first PDZ domain. Therefore, we denoted this protein as CLAMP (C-terminal linking and modulating protein). CLAMP was located mostly in the sinusoidal membranes, whereas SR-BI was detected in both sinusoidal and canalicular membranes. After the solubilization of the liver membranes with Triton X-100, SR-BI was immunoprecipitated with anti-CLAMP monoclonal antibody, suggesting the association of these proteins in vivo. By coexpressing SR-BI with CLAMP in Chinese hamster ovary cells, we observed (i) the increase in the expression level of SR-BI, (ii) the reduction in the deacylation rate of the cholesteryl esters taken up from HDL, and (iii) the change in the intracellular distribution of fluorescent lipid 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3, 3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine percholate taken up from HDL. Taken together, these data suggest that CLAMP, a four-PDZ-domain-containing protein, is associated with SR-BI in the liver sinusoidal plasma membranes and may modulate the intracellular transport and metabolism of cholesteryl esters taken up from HDL.
Publication
Journal: Japanese journal of clinical oncology
August/10/2000
Abstract
BACKGROUND
We carried out an open, randomized multi-center clinical trial for advanced head and neck cancer between April 1991 and December 1992. In this report, we update the results and analyze the 5-year survival results.
METHODS
Thirty-two patients with previously untreated stage III and IV resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx were entered into the study. The PEM regimen consisted of cisplatin 60 mg/m2 2 h infusion on day 1, etoposide 40 mg/m2 1 h infusion on days 1, 2 and 3 and mitomycin-C 7 mg/m2 i.v. bolus on day 1.
RESULTS
Among the 32 patients entered into this trial, eight were disqualified from the analysis. Of the remaining 24 patients, 13 were given neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and 11 underwent surgery alone. Among the 13 patients who received NAC, four achieved a complete response (31%) and three a partial response (23%), with an overall response rate of 54%. Myelosuppression was a major side effect. Thrombocytopenia and anemia were dose-limiting toxicities. Other adverse reactions, including mucositis, were all mild and transient. The overall 5-year survival after NAC and without NAC were 83 and 62%, respectively. The survival difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.33).
CONCLUSIONS
NAC does not appear to play a role in the treatment of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx with our PEM regimen. However, the degree of toxicity was limited in our trial and therefore attempts to increase the dosage and/or revise the administration schedule for cancer of the pharynx and T1 to T3 tumor disease appear warranted.
Publication
Journal: Interventional neuroradiology : journal of peritherapeutic neuroradiology, surgical procedures and related neurosciences
October/1/2012
Abstract
CONCLUSIONS
22 cases of stenosed or occluded cerebral arteries were treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in acute stage. There were 10 internal carotid lesions, 4 middle cerebral artery lesions, 5 intracranial vertebral artery lesions, and 3 basilar artery lesions. 14 cases were treated for residual stenosis after recanalization using urokinase. Successful dilatation (over 50%) was achieved in 16 cases (73%).3 lesions were inaccessible due to atherosclerotic change. There were no major complications. Restenosis was observed in 4 internal carotid lesions and 1 middle cerebral lesion. 7 (50%) cases with internal carotid lesions and 5 (63%) cases with vertebrobasilar lesions returned to their previous life. The results suggest that PTA in acute stage is feasible for occlusive disease of cerebral arteries.
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Publication
Journal: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
July/18/2001
Publication
Journal: The Journal of physiology
August/1/2001
Abstract
Local increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in several regions within the bovine lens epithelial cell during application of mechanical stress were clearly visualized in the presence of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, using real-time confocal microscopy. We called the phenomenon 'Ca2+ spots'. Ca2+ spots started in a circular area with a radius of about 1.5 m. These Ca2+ spots spread concentrically, resulting in a mean global increase in [Ca2+]i. The local increase often occurred in a stepwise manner or repetitively at the same region. The spatiotemporal properties of the Ca2+ spots were completely different from those of the Ca2+ wave induced by ATP, a Ca2+-mobilizing agonist. Ca2+ spots were inhibited by decreasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration or by the presence of Gd3+, an inhibitor of mechanosensitive (MS) channels, but not by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump, suggesting that Ca2+ spots arise from Ca2+ influx through Gd3+-sensitive MS channels. On the assumption that, in lens epithelial cells, the open probability of the MS channel is 0.4, the membrane potential is 56 mV and the channel conductance is 50 pS, the estimated maximum flux of Ca2+ in a Ca2+ spot (0.4 x 10-17 to 4.7 x 10-17 mol x s(-1)) was comparable to currents of one or a few MS channels. On real-time three-dimensional confocal imaging analysis, which permitted simultaneous imaging of basal and apical planes of cells at 37.6 ms intervals, Ca2+ spots on the apical plane were more clearly visualized than those on the basal plane. From these results, we propose that the Ca2+ spot is an elementary Ca2+-influx event through MS channels directly coupled with the first step in mechanoreception In addition, our results strongly suggest that LPA functions as an endogenous factor affecting mechanotransduction systems.
Publication
Journal: The Review of scientific instruments
December/27/2012
Abstract
Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic requires a strong probing beam to diagnose a bulk and fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. A mega-watt gyrotron for electron cyclotron resonance heating is used as a probing beam in the large helical device. Spurious mode oscillations are often observed during the turning on/off phase of the modulation. The frequency spectra of the 77-GHz gyrotron output power have been measured, and then one of the spurious modes, which interferes with the CTS receiver system, is identified as the TE(17,6) mode at the frequency of 74.7 GHz. The mode competition calculation indicates that the increase of the magnetic field strength at the gyrotron resonator can avoid such a spurious mode and excite only the main TE(18,6) mode. The spurious radiation at the 74.7 GHz is experimentally demonstrated to be suppressed in the stronger magnetic field than that optimized for the high-power operation.
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Journal: The Review of scientific instruments
December/27/2012
Abstract
In order to measure the poloidal rotation velocity, a Doppler reflectometer has been developed in Large Helical Device (LHD). A remotely controlled antenna tilting system has been installed in an LHD vacuum vessel. A synthesizer is used as the source, and the operation microwave frequency ranges are ka-band and V-band. In LHD last experimental campaign we obtained the Doppler shifted signal, which was consistent with CXRS measurements.
Publication
Journal: IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society
October/1/2012
Abstract
This paper presents stable switching control of an radio-controlled (R/C) hovercraft that is a nonholonomic (nonlinear) system. To exactly represent its nonlinear dynamics, more importantly, to maintain controllability of the system, we newly propose a switching fuzzy model that has locally Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models and switches them according to states, external variables, and/or time. A switching fuzzy controller is constructed by mirroring the rule structure of the switching fuzzy model of an R/C hovercraft. We derive linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions for ensuring the stability of the closed-loop system consisting of a switching fuzzy model and controller. Furthermore, to guarantee smooth switching of control input at switching boundaries, we also derive a smooth switching condition represented in terms of LMIs. A stable switching fuzzy controller satisfying the smooth switching condition is designed by simultaneously solving both of the LMIs. The simulation and experimental results for the trajectory control of an R/C hovercraft show the validity of the switching fuzzy model and controller design, particularly, the smooth switching condition.
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Journal: Theriogenology
October/1/2012
Abstract
The effect of an intramuscular injection of a new analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), fertirelin, on the first-service pregnancy rate in cows was investigated by a double blind experiment. A total of 1,194 cows was injected intramuscularly either with 100 mug of GnRH or placebo (physiological saline solution) at the time of first insemination postpartum. Pregnancy rate (number of cows calved/ number of cows serviced) was 57.2 % in 605 cows treated with GnRH, while the performance was 49.7 % in 589 cows of the placebo group. The difference of pregnancy rates in both groups was significant (P<0.05). GnRH injected at insemination was effective, especially in cows at the first and third lactations, cows at 101 days postpartum or later, cows with daily milk yield of 26-30 kg, and also in cows from the area where a regional average fertility was relatively low.
Publication
Journal: Tonan Ajia kenkyu
March/30/2009
Authors
Publication
Journal: Applied optics
October/1/2012
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Journal: Applied optics
October/1/2012
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Journal: Optics letters
October/1/2012
Abstract
We derive analytical conditions for compensation of the distortion of nonreturn-to-zero pulses in a nonlinear dispersive fiber link with nonlinear gain control. We confirm the validity of the method by means of numerical simulations.
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