To identify the histological level of abnormal vessels associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV), we examined IPCV with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).
Fourteen patients diagnosed with IPCV were examined with Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and OCT.
ICG angiography demonstrated branching vascular networks with polypoidal dilatations at the terminals beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). OCT showed dome-like elevation of the RPE, and moderate reflex or nodular appearance were seen beneath the RPE.
The abnormal vessel associated with IPCV is supposed to be choroidal neovascularization with polypoidal dilatations at the terminals between Bruch's membrane and RPE. We consider that this disease is a peculiar form of age-related macular degeneration.
DNA sequencing of 1.3 kb of rDNA containing both internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) and adjoining rRNA coding regions in each of 11 Echinococcus multilocularis isolates from Germany, Japan, and Alaska resulted in identical nucleotide sequences except for a single polymorphic locus 54 bp upstream of the 3' end of the 18S coding region, separating Eurasian isolates from an Alaskan isolate. The same base substitution was found in each of 2 additional isolates from Alaska. The distribution of the resulting genotypes with regard to their origin is highly significant (>99.9%) and corresponds to the traditional subspecies Echinococcus multilocularis multilocularis and Echinococcus multilocularis sibiricensis.
The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional geometry of scoliosis by using biplane radiographic photogrammetry and to evaluate the flexibility of the deformed spine. Thirty-one patients with idiopathic scoliosis underwent analysis. There was a significant correlation between the degree of the scoliotic angle in the frontal plane, kyphotic angle in the sagittal plane, and the rotational angle of the apical vertebra. Hypokyphosis was associated with a scoliotic angle > 40 degrees in the frontal plane. Similarly, hypokyphosis was related to increased rotation of the apical vertebra (p < 0.01). Although the scoliotic angle was decreased by traction in all cases, axial rotation was less corrected in those patients with scoliotic angle > 40 degrees. This suggests that the rotational stiffness at the apex is related to the degree of the rotational angle of the apical vertebra and to the degree of the frontal curve.
Familial Alzheimer disease mutations of presenilin 1 (PS-1) enhance the generation of A beta1-42, indicating that PS-1 is involved in amyloidogenesis. However, PS-1 transgenic mice have failed to show amyloid plaques in their brains. Because PS-1 mutations facilitate apoptotic neuronal death in vitro, we did careful quantitative studies in PS-1 transgenic mice and found that neurodegeneration was significantly accelerated in mice older than 13 months (aged mice) with familial Alzheimer disease mutant PS-1, without amyloid plaque formation. However, there were significantly more neurons containing intracellularly deposited A beta42 in aged mutant transgenic mice. Our data indicate that the pathogenic role of the PS-1 mutation is upstream of the amyloid cascade.
Developmental changes in immunocompetent cells of the gut during the first week posthatch were determined in broiler chicks fed immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria in the form of Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937-, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM1131(T)-, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAIB6-, or L. gasseri TL2919-supplemented diets. The relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius in chicks fed the immunobiotic diets were slightly higher than the control valued at 1 and 3 d of age, with the exception of spleen weight in the L. gasseri JCM1131(T) at 3 d of age, the bursa of Fabricius weight in the L. gasseri JCM1131(T) at 1 and 3 d of age, and bursa of Fabricius weight in the L. gasseri TL2919 group at 1 d of age. There were no significant differences in body and liver weights among the treatments. When chicks were fed the L. jensenii TL2937- or L. gasseri TL2919-supplemented diets, expression of T cell-related mRNA [cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)] in the foregut was significantly higher than that of control chicks at 3 or 7 d of age. Expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA tended to increase in the foregut of chicks fed the immunobiotic diets, except for the L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAIB6, compared with expression levels in control chicks. The Bu-1 mRNA expression levels in the bursa of Fabricius were not affected by the supplementations with immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria. These results show that immunobiotics, particularly L. gasseri TL2919, might be useful as immunomodulators to stimulate the gut-associated immune system in neonatal chicks, and thereby protect them from disease without decreasing growth performance as a possible substitution of antibiotics.
In mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis (op) mutation, loss of osteoclasts in the postnatal period and their development, differentiation, and maturation following daily M-CSF administration in adult life were investigated. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural approaches, as well as [3H]thymidine autoradiography, clarified the role of M-CSF on osteoclast development and differentiation. In op/op mice osteoclasts appeared normal at birth. However, osteoclast numbers were reduced within a few days after birth, and osteoclasts were undetectable by 3-4 days of age. In adult op/op mice there were no multinuclear osteoclasts; however, small numbers of mononuclear cells (so-called 'preosteoclasts') were observed on the endosteal surface of bone. These preosteoclasts expressed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and showed ultrastructural features of immature osteoclasts. After daily M-CSF administration in op/op mice, osteoclasts developed from the fusion of preosteoclasts and osteoclasts numbers increased to the levels of normal littermates at 3 days. Autoradiographic analysis with [3H]thymidine revealed no labeling in osteoclasts and preosteoclasts. In the mutant mice, M-CSF administration induced numerical increases of monocytes, promonocytes, and earlier precursor cells in bone marrow, ER-MP12- or, ER-MP58-positive granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells (GM-CFCs). Among these macrophage precursors, ER-MP58-positive cells were considered preosteoclast precursors, and possessed marked proliferative potential. These data suggest that an ER-MP58-positive cell subpopulation of GM-CFCs proliferates in response to M-CSF, differentiates into preosteoclasts which fuse with each other to develop into mature osteoclasts.
A new monoclonal antibody, PM-2K, was raised against 24-h cultured human peritoneal macrophages. Immunohistochemically, PM-2K recognized most tissue macrophages in lymphoreticular organs such as the thymus, spleen, lymph node, and tonsil. Kupffer cells of the liver, alveolar macrophages, and macrophages in the interstitial tissue of the kidney, pancreas, and many other organs were also positively labelled. On the other hand, PM-2K failed to recognize blood monocytes, freshly isolated peritoneal macrophages, microglial cells, osteoclasts, and dendritic cells such as Langerhans cells, interdigitating cells, and follicular dendritic cells. In various pathological conditions, PM-2K labelled a wide variety of proliferating macrophages. Reaction products of PM-2K were observed by immunoelectron microscopy on the cytoplasmic membrane of cultured peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of the antigen recognized by PM-2K was determined to be 150 kD by Western blotting. As no cells other than macrophages were reactive with PM-2K, this antibody is considered to be very useful not only in the investigation of macrophage differentiation and maturation, but also in the diagnosis of various proliferative disorders of macrophages.
A case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in the mandible of a 35-year-old woman is presented. In a thorough survey of the world literature, 41 cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma occurring the jaw are reviewed.
The putative core gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was incorporated into a plasmid vector (pCC5-J4), and expressed in Escherichia coli. The product of 180 amino acids (p20c) was purified by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against the putative core protein of HCV (anti-p20c). Anti-p20c was detected in 13 (1.5%) of 873 apparently healthy blood donors. It was detected in 205 (86.5%) of 237 patients with acute or chronic non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatic disease, significantly more frequently (p less than 0.01) than antibodies against the C100-3 protein encoded by nonstructural regions of HCV (anti-C100-3) that was found in 178 (75.1%). Anti-p20c developed in the circulation of a patient with acute NANB hepatitis much earlier than anti-C100-3. HCV RNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in serum samples from blood donors positive for anti-p20c in high titers, one of which was negative for anti-C100-3. These results indicated that anti-p20c would be useful in complementing anti-C100-3 for the diagnosis of NANB hepatitis and further decreasing the incidence of posttransfusion NANB hepatitis.
To analyse the effects of thyroid hormones on β-cell function and glucose metabolism in people with prediabetes who are euthyroid.
A total of 111 people who were euthyroid underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests, of whom 52 were assigned to the normal glucose tolerance and 59 to the prediabetes groups. Homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function, insulinogenic index and areas under the curve for insulin and glucose were evaluated as indices of pancreatic β-cell function.
In both groups, BMI, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment ratio and HDL cholesterol correlated significantly with all indices of pancreatic β-cell function. Free triiodothyronine correlated positively with all insulin secretion indices in the prediabetes group. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that free triiodothyronine was an independent variable that had a positive correlation with all indices of β-cell function in the prediabetes group. By contrast, no such correlation was found in the normal glucose tolerance group.
Free triiodothyronine is associated with both basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in people with prediabetes who are euthyroid; therefore, the regulation of insulin secretion by thyroid hormones is a potentially novel therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes.