K Takahashi
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Publication
Journal: Gene therapy
September/10/2017
Abstract
Morphine appears to be the most active metabolite of heroin; therefore, the effects of morphine are important in understanding the ramifications of heroin abuse. Opioid physical dependence (withdrawal response) may have very long-lasting effects on the motivation for reward, including the incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking behavior. However, the exact mechanisms of morphine withdrawal (MW) are not clear yet, and its treatment remains elusive. Periaqueductal gray (PAG) is one of the important sites in the pathogenesis of MW. Here, we used recombinant herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors that encode the sod2 gene expressing manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to evaluate its therapeutic potential in MW. Microinjection of HSV vectors expressing MnSOD into the PAG reduced the MW syndrome. MnSOD vectors suppressed the upregulated mitochondrial superoxide, and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) and activating transcription factor 6 alpha (ATF6α)) in the PAG induced by MW. Immunostaining showed that mitochondrial superoxide, GRP78 and ATF6α were colocalized with neuronal nuclei (a neuronal-specific marker), suggesting that they are located in the neurons in the PAG. These results suggest that overexpression of MnSOD by HSV vectors may relieve opioid dependence. This study may provide a novel therapeutic approach to morphine physical withdrawal response.
Authors
Publication
Journal: The Review of scientific instruments
November/14/2011
Abstract
High power, long pulse millimeter (mm) wave experiments of the RF test stand (RFTS) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) were performed. The system consists of a 1 MW/170 GHz gyrotron, a long and short distance transmission line (TL), and an equatorial launcher (EL) mock-up. The RFTS has an ITER-relevant configuration, i.e., consisted by a 1 MW-170 GHz gyrotron, a mm wave TL, and an EL mock-up. The TL is composed of a matching optics unit, evacuated circular corrugated waveguides, 6-miter bends, an in-line waveguide switch, and an isolation valve. The EL-mock-up is fabricated according to the current design of the ITER launcher. The Gaussian-like beam radiation with the steering capability of 20°-40° from the EL mock-up was also successfully proved. The high power, long pulse power transmission test was conducted with the metallic load replaced by the EL mock-up, and the transmission of 1 MW/800 s and 0.5 MW/1000 s was successfully demonstrated with no arcing and no damages. The transmission efficiency of the TL was 96%. The results prove the feasibility of the ITER electron cyclotron heating and current drive system.
Publication
Journal: Journal of fish biology
March/21/2011
Abstract
Ontogenetic changes in learning capability were studied in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles ranging from 20 to 95 mm standard length (L(S)) collected from either pelagic or coastal habitats. Simple spatial and reversal learning tasks were used to estimate learning capability. There was no size dependence in the scores of simple reward conditioning using a Y-maze, whereas the scores of reversal learning tasks showed a clear sigmoidal curve of increase with an inflexion point at 51·7 mm L(S). The increase in this learning capability coincided with the size at which juveniles recruit from offshore pelagic to coastal rocky habitats.
Publication
Journal: Uchu Seibutsu Kagaku
November/10/2008
Publication
Journal: Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
July/26/2007
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Hookwire localization is the current standard technique for radiological marking of nonpalpable breast lesions. Stereotactic directional vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB) is of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to replace surgical biopsy. Wire localization for metallic marker clips placed after SVAB is needed.
OBJECTIVE
To describe a method for performing computed tomography (CT)-guided hookwire localization using a radial approach for metallic marker clips placed percutaneously after SVAB.
METHODS
Nineteen women scheduled for SVAB with marker-clip placement, CT-guided wire localization of marker clips, and, eventually, surgical excision were prospectively entered into the study. CT-guided wire localization was performed with a radial approach, followed by placement of a localizing marker-clip surgical excision. Feasibility and reliability of the procedure and the incidence of complications were examined.
RESULTS
CT-guided wire localization surgical excision was successfully performed in all 19 women without any complications. The mean total procedure time was 15 min. The median distance on CT image from marker clip to hookwire was 2 mm (range 0-3 mm).
CONCLUSIONS
CT-guided preoperative hookwire localization with a radial approach for marker clips after SVAB is technically feasible.
Publication
Journal: The Veterinary record
January/24/2005
Abstract
A five-month-old, female Japanese domestic shorthair cat with proportionate dwarfism developed neurological disorders, including ataxia, decreased postural responses and generalised body and head tremors, at between two and five months of age. Leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis with abnormal cytoplasmic vacuolations was observed. The concentration of G(M2)-ganglioside in its cerebrospinal fluid was markedly higher than in normal cats, and the activities of beta-hexosaminidases A and B in its leucocytes were markedly reduced. On the basis of these biochemical data, the cat was diagnosed antemortem with G(M2)-gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease). The neurological signs became more severe and the cat died at 10 months of age. Histopathologically, neurons throughout the central nervous system were distended, and an ultrastructural study revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies in these distended neurons. The compound which accumulated in the brain was identified as G(M2)-ganglioside, confirming G(M2)-gangliosidosis. A family study revealed that there were probable heterozygous carriers in which the activities of leucocyte beta-hexosaminidases A and B were less than half the normal value. The Sandhoff-like disease observed in this family of Japanese domestic cats is the first occurrence reported in Japan.
Publication
Journal: Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)
December/15/2004
Abstract
A new version of the E-Cell simulation system,which runs on Windows as well as Linux, has been released as free software under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
Publication
Journal: Acta oto-laryngologica
December/3/2001
Abstract
A recent report demonstrated the presence of a mutation in the Pendred syndrome gene (PDS) of patients with large vestibular aqueducts but without goitre. We studied PDS mutations in members of four Japanese families, among which five affected members showed bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueducts. All affected members exhibited moderate to severe bilateral fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss and the absence of goitre. Three members also suffered from recurrent episodic vertiginous spells. Analysis of PDS mutation revealed two single base changes (mis-sense mutations) in exons 19 and 10. The first was an A-->G transition at nucleotide position 2168, resulting in a predicted His-->Arg substitution at position 723 (H723R), whereas the second was a C-->T transition at nucleotide position 1229, resulting in a predicted Thr-->Met substitution at position 410 (T410M). Both mutations are situated in the extracellular domain close to the C terminal. It thus appears that PDS mutations can lead not only to classic Pendred syndrome, but also to large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical systematics and ecology
June/18/2001
Abstract
The leaf terpenes in Thujopsis dolabrata from all regions in Japan were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The results show that the major constituents of the diterpene hydrocarbon fraction in this conifer are dolabradiene, hibaene, rimuene, 13-epi-dolabradiene and abietatriene. There were wide variations in the contents of the constituents among individuals and habitats. The results also show that T. dolabrata trees from 34 habitats can be classified into three groups based on the composition of the leaf diterpene hydrocarbon.
Publication
Journal: Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
May/16/2001
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) are sometimes treated too aggressively by surgery. We discuss minimal invasive surgery for DCIS on the basis of our experience at the Cancer Institute Hospital in Tokyo.
METHODS
We performed surgery for 667 cases of DCIS between 1987 to 1998. This twelve year period we divided into three periods; 1987-1990,1991-1994, and 1995-1998.
RESULTS
DCIS comprised 10% of all breast cancers, and tended to increase in incidence over time. The number of minimally invasive procedures such as breast conserving treatment (BCT), surgery without axillary dissection, and day surgery increased in later periods. In BCT for DCIS the surgical margin status is the most important factor, the rate of negative surgical margins was higher in DCIS than invasive cancer, and especially high in cases of mammographically detected nonpalpable cancer, the incidence of which is increasing yearly. The outcome of the 667 cases was very good. No distant metastases were observed, and the incidence of ipsilateral breast cancer(including second primary cancer) in these cases was 5%
CONCLUSIONS
Because small cancers, including nonpalpable cases, will be detected more frequently, minimal invasive surgery will become more common for DCIS.
Publication
Journal: The American journal of pathology
February/7/2000
Abstract
To investigate the distribution of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) in various human tissues, we examined tissues of autopsy cases immunohistochemically. ACAT-1 was demonstrated in macrophages, antigen-presenting cells, steroid hormone-producing cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, mesothelial cells, epithelial cells of the urinary tracts, thyroid follicles, renal tubules, pituitary, prostatic, and bronchial glands, alveolar and intestinal epithelial cells, pancreatic acinar cells, and hepatocytes. These findings showed that ACAT-1 is present in a variety of human tissues examined. The immunoreactivities are particularly prominent in the macrophages, steroid hormone-producing cells, followed by hepatocytes, and intestinal epithelia. In cultured human macrophages, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ACAT-1 was located mainly in the tubular rough endoplasmic reticulum; immunoblot analysis showed that the ACAT-1 protein content did not change with or without cholesterol loading; however, on cholesterol loading, about 30 to 40% of the total immunoreactivity appeared in small-sized vesicles. These vesicles were also enriched in 78-kd glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78), a specific marker for the endoplasmic reticulum. Immunofluorescent microscopy demonstrated extensive colocalization of ACAT-1 and GRP 78 signals in both the tubular and vesicular endoplasmic reticulum before and after cholesterol loading. These results raise the possibility that foam cell formation may activate an endoplasmic reticulum vesiculation process, producing vesicles enriched in the ACAT-1 protein.
Publication
Journal: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
September/27/1999
Publication
Journal: Sexually transmitted infections
April/19/1999
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the performance of a new improved enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal swab and endocervical swab specimens from female commercial sex workers, in comparison with a conventional EIA test and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.
METHODS
A high risk group of 163 female commercial sex workers who visited a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in order to undergo screening for major STDs, including chlamydial infection, were enrolled. A total of four swab specimens, including two vaginal and two endocervical specimens, were collected from each woman by a clinician. To identify C trachomatis, a new improved EIA kit (IDEIA PCE), a conventional EIA kit (IDEIA), and PCR assay (Amplicor) were used. Discrepancies in the results were resolved using supplementary PCR assay. A female patient was considered to be infected with C trachomatis if the IDEIA PCE test and PCR test for both sample sites (endocervical and vaginal) gave positive results. Following resolution of these discrepancies, relative sensitivity and specificity, confidence intervals, and predictive values for each type of specimen by each assay were calculated.
RESULTS
Of the 163 women tested, 35 (21.5%) were shown to be infected with C trachomatis. The relative sensitivities in vaginal swab specimens were 88.8%, 68.6%, and 91.4% using IDEIA PCE, IDEIA, and PCR, respectively. The relative specificities in vaginal swab specimens were 99.2%, 99.2%, and 100%, respectively. The relative sensitivities in endocervical swab specimens were 85.7%, 77.1%, and 91.4% with IDEIA PCE, IDEIA, and PCR, respectively. The relative specificities in endocervical swab specimens were all 100%.
CONCLUSIONS
The results obtained in this study suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of IDEIA PCE test on vaginal swab and endocervical swab specimens were similar to those of PCR assay on the two types of specimen. It is concluded that IDEIA PCE test on vaginal swab specimens is an acceptable, sensitive, and less invasive approach for the detection of C trachomatis in commercial sex workers with a high prevalence of C trachomatis infection.
Publication
Journal: Brain & development
March/14/1999
Abstract
Three cases of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) were examined by polysomnography to assess the brainstem function, and to determine the causes of the neurological manifestations and sudden death in this syndrome. In the two older cases, the amount of slow wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the REM density and the frequency of REM bursts were decreased. In the youngest case, symmetrical phasic movements of all four limbs were observed at all sleep stages other than REM sleep. Although movements other than these symmetrical body movements appeared to be normal in this case, the frequency of twitch movements showed an abnormal pattern in each sleep stage in the two older cases. These findings suggest that in the brainstems of younger cases with LNS the REM-non REM generator as well as multiple neurotransmitter systems influencing body movements during sleep remain relatively normal, but become progressively impaired in adult cases. Severe obstructive apnea was observed in one case with hypothyroidism, but there were no respiratory abnormalities in other two cases.
Publication
Journal: Transplantation proceedings
December/27/1998
Publication
Journal: Zeitschrift fur Biologie
October/31/1998
Publication
Journal: Yokufuen chosa kenkyu kiyo. Acta gerontologica Japonica
October/31/1998
Publication
Journal: Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
October/31/1998
Publication
Journal: Advances in experimental medicine and biology
June/7/1998
Publication
Journal: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
January/19/1998
Publication
Journal: [Zasshi] [Journal]. Nihon Kyobu Geka Gakkai
July/28/1997
Publication
Journal: Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
March/31/1997
Abstract
In order to characterize the phenotypes of tumor cells and to clarify from which B cell lineage the lymphomas were derived, ten cows with enzootic bovine leukosis were examined by means of immunohistologic staining and flow cytometry. The tumor cells expressed mainly major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ (10/10), BoCD11b+ (9/10), IgG1+ (8/10), B-B2+ (8/10) BoCD5+ (7/10), and lambda light chain+ (7/10). Tumor cells from only one animal expressed sIgM+ (1/10). Tumor cells from all ten animals were negative for IgG2, BoCD3, BoCD4, BoCD8, WC1-N2, and IL-2R alpha. The phenotypes of these tumor cells were all slightly different, suggesting that bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-induced lymphoma expresses phenotypic diversity. Moreover, tumor cells from seven cattle coexpressed BoCD5 and BoCD11b (B-1a cells). On the other hand, tumor cells from two of them only expressed BoCD11b (B-1b cells), and those from one were negative for both BoCD5 and BoCD11b (conventional B cells). Therefore, we concluded that BLV-induced lymphoma cells can be derived from B-1a, B-1b and conventional B cells.
Publication
Journal: The Journal of small animal practice
February/12/1997
Abstract
The two-year prognosis for malignant mammary tumours seen in 175 bitches in the Tokyo metropolitan area was assessed based on the extent of mastectomy and on whether an ovariectomy was carried out at the time of mastectomy. The prognosis for the bitches was not influenced by the excision size of the affected mammary glands. Ovariectomy had no effect on the two-year survival rate of the dogs that underwent the tumour excision. There was no significant difference in the two-year survival rate between the dogs ovariectomised prior to mastectomy and those ovariectomised at the time of mastectomy. These results suggest that ovariectomy at the time of mastectomy has no effect on the prognosis in dogs with established neoplasms of the mammary gland.
Publication
Journal: Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
November/30/1996
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