Multifunctional nanocarriers are increasingly promising for disease treatment aimed to regulate multiple pathological dysfunctions and overcome barriers in drug delivery. Here we develop a multifunctional nanocarrier for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment by achieving therapeutic gene and peptide co-delivery to brain based on PEGylated dendrigraft poly-l-lysines (DGLs) via systemic administration. The dendritic amine-rich structure of DGLs provides plenty reaction sites and positive charge for drug loading. Successful co-delivery of drugs overcoming the blood-brain barrier by brain-targeted ligand modification was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The pharmacodynamics study of the system following multiple-dosing treatment was verified in transgenic AD mice. Down-regulation of the key enzyme in amyloid-β formation was achieved by delivering non-coding RNA plasmid. Simultaneous delivery of the therapeutic peptide into brain leads to reduction of neurofibrillary tangles. Meanwhile, memory loss rescue in AD mice was also observed. Taken together, the multifunctional nanocarrier provides an excellent drug co-delivery platform for brain diseases.Read more
To compare the treatment outcomes between retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) for the management of stones larger than 2 cm in patients with solitary kidney.
Between December 2012 and March 2014, 53 patients with a solitary kidney suffering from urinary stones larger than 2 cm were treated with RIRS. The outcomes of these patients were compared to a cohort of similar solitary kidney stone patients who underwent MPCNL using a matched-pair analysis (1:1 scenario). Cases were matched sequentially using the following criteria: size, number and location of stones, age, BMI, gender and previous ipsilateral open surgery.
A stone-free rate (SFR) of 43.4 % was achieved after a single procedure in patients treated with RIRS and a SFR of 71.70 % in patients treated with MPCNL (p = 0.003). The operative time for RIRS was longer (p = 0.002), but the median hospital stay was shorter (p < 0.001). Average drop in hemoglobin level was comparable in both groups (9.30 vs. 10.85 g/L, p = 0.35). The transfusion rate as well as the incidence of postoperative complications such as fever and urosepsis was not statistically different between these two groups. Major complications (Clavien score 3a-4a) occurred in 3.77 and 1.89 %, RIRS and MPCNL, respectively (p = 1.000).
Patients with a solitary kidney suffering from stones larger than 2 cm in size who undergo MPCNL had a higher SFR than RIRS. The complications were comparable in both groups. Even though RIRS patients spent less time in hospital, this procedure might not be an effective treatment as MPCNL in solitary kidneys with larger and multiple stones.Read more
DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) plays a critical role in non-homologous end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Little is known, however, regarding the relationship between DNA-PKcs and IR-induced angiogenesis; thus, in this study we aimed to further elucidate this relationship. Our findings revealed that lack of DNA-PKcs expression or activity sensitized glioma cells to radiation due to the defective DNA DSB repairs and inhibition of phosphorylated Akt(Ser473) . Moreover, DNA-PKcs deficiency apparently mitigated IR-induced migration, invasion and tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) in conditioned media derived from irradiated DNA-PKcs mutant M059J glioma cells or M059K glioma cells that have inhibited DNA-PKcs kinase activity due to the specific inhibitor NU7026 or siRNA knockdown. Moreover, IR-elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was abrogated by DNA-PKcs suppression. Supplemental VEGF antibody to irradiated-conditioned media was negated enhanced cell motility with a concomitant decrease in phosphorylation of the FAK(Try925) and Src(Try416) . Furthermore, DNA-PKcs suppression was markedly abrogated in IR-induced transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) accumulation, which is related to activation of VEGF transcription. These findings, taken together, demonstrate that depletion of DNA-PKcs in glioblastoma cells at least partly suppressed IR-inflicted migration, invasion, and tube formation of HMEC-1 cells, which may be associated with the reduced HIF-1α level and VEGF secretion. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs may be a promising therapeutic approach to enhance radio-therapeutic efficacy for glioblastoma by hindering its angiogenesis.Read more
p185(her2/neu) belongs to the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family, which has been associated with human breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. Targeted therapies employing ectodomain-specific p185(her2/neu) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated clinical efficacy for breast cancer. Our previous studies have shown that p185(her2/neu) mAbs are able to disable the kinase activity of homomeric and heteromeric kinase complexes and induce the conversion of the malignant to normal phenotype. We previously developed a chimeric antibody chA21 that specifically inhibits the growth of p185(her2/neu)-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the single-chain Fv of chA21 in complex with an N-terminal fragment of p185(her2/neu), which reveals that chA21 binds a region opposite to the dimerization interface, indicating that chA21 does not directly disrupt the dimerization. In contrast, the bivalent chA21 leads to internalization and down-regulation of p185(her2/neu). We propose a structure-based model in which chA21 cross-links two p185(her2/neu) molecules on separate homo- or heterodimers to form a large oligomer in the cell membrane. This model reveals a mechanism for mAbs to drive the receptors into the internalization/degradation path from the inactive hypophosphorylated tetramers formed dynamically by active dimers during a "physiologic process."Read more
Engineering peptide-based targeting agents with residues for site-specific and stable complexation of radionuclides is a highly desirable strategy for producing diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancer and other diseases. In this report, a model N-S-N(Py) ligand (3) and a cysteine-derived α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide (6) were used as novel demonstrations of a widely applicable chelation strategy for incorporation of the [M(I)(CO)(3)](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) core into peptide-based molecules for radiopharmaceutical applications. The structural details of the core ligand-metal complexes as model systems were demonstrated by full chemical characterization of fac-[Re(I)(CO)(3)(N,S,N(Py)-3)](+) (4) and comparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis between 4 and [(99m)Tc(I)(CO)(3)(N,S,N(Py)-3)](+) (4a). The α-MSH analogue bearing the N-S-N(Py) chelate on a modified cysteine residue (6) was generated and complexed with [M(I)(CO)(3)](+) to confirm the chelation strategy's utility when applied in a peptide-based targeting agent. Characterization of the Re(I)(CO)(3)-6 peptide conjugate (7) confirmed the efficient incorporation of the metal center, and the (99m)Tc(I)(CO)(3)-6 analogue (7a) was explored as a potential single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compound for imaging the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in melanoma. Peptide 7a showed excellent radiolabeling yields and in vitro stability during amino acid challenge and serum stability assays. In vitro B16F10 melanoma cell uptake of 7a reached a modest value of 2.3 ± 0.08% of applied activity at 2 h at 37 °C, while this uptake was significantly reduced by coincubation with a nonlabeled α-MSH analogue, NAPamide (3.2 μM) (P < 0.05). In vivo SPECT/X-ray computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging and biodistribution of 7a were evaluated in a B16F10 melanoma xenografted mouse model. SPECT/CT imaging clearly visualized the tumor at 1 h post injection (p.i.) with high tumor-to-background contrast. Blocking studies with coinjected NAPamide (10 mg per kg of mouse body weight) confirmed the in vivo specificity of 7a for MC1R-positive tumors. Biodistribution results with 7a yielded a moderate tumor uptake of 1.20 ± 0.09 percentage of the injected radioactive dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) at 1 h p.i. Relatively high uptake of 7a was also seen in the kidneys and liver at 1 h p.i. (6.55 ± 0.36% ID/g and 4.44 ± 0.17% ID/g, respectively), although reduced kidney uptake was seen at 4 h p.i. (3.20 ± 0.48% ID/g). These results demonstrate the utility of the novel [M(I)(CO)(3)](+) chelation strategy when applied in a targeting peptide.Read more
The fine structure and primary sensory projections of sensilla located in the labial-palp pit organ of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Insecta, Lepidoptera) are investigated by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The pit organ located on the third segment of the labial palp is about 300 μm deep with a 60-μm-wide opening, each structure containing about 1200 sensilla. Two sensillum types have been found, namely hair-shaped and club-shaped sensilla, located on the upper and lower half of the pit, respectively. Most sensilla possess a single dendrite. The dendrite housed by the club-shaped sensilla is often split into several branches or becomes lamellated in the outer segment. As reported previously, the sensory axons of the sensilla in the labial pit organ form a bundle entering the ipsilateral side of the subesophageal ganglion via the labial palp nerve and project to three distinct areas: the labial pit organ glomerulus in each antennal lobe, the subesophageal ganglion and the ventral nerve cord. In the antennal lobe, the labial pit organ glomerulus is innervated by sensory axons from the labial pit organ only; no antennal afferents target this unit. One neuron has been found extending fine processes into the subesophageal ganglion and innervating the labial palp via one branch passing at the base of the labial palp nerve. The soma of this assumed motor neuron is located in the ipsilateral cell body layer of the subesophageal ganglion. Our results provide valuable knowledge concerning the neural circuit encoding information about carbon dioxide and should stimulate further investigations directed at controlling pest species such as H. armigera.Read more
The muscle is the main portion of fish that is consumed by humans. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle. However, the effects of Cu exposure on the muscle antioxidant system and molecular patterns and preventive measures against these effects remain unclear. In this study, ROS production, enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling-related molecules, antioxidant response element (ARE) binding ability, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were analyzed in fish muscle following Cu exposure or myo-inositol (MI) pre-administration. The results indicated that contamination due to copper exposure caused an approximately three-fold increase in ROS production, induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and resulted in depletion of the glutathione (GSH) content of fish muscle. Moreover, Cu exposure caused decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) that were accompanied by decreases in CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and signaling factor protein kinase C delta mRNA levels. The decreases in the antioxidant enzyme gene mRNA levels were confirmed to be partly due to the reduced nuclear Nrf2 protein levels, poor ARE binding ability and increased caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in the fish muscle. Interestingly, MI pre-treatment prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages mainly through increasing the GSH content, and increasing the CuZnSOD and GPx activities and corresponding mRNA levels and ARE binding ability. Taken together, our results show for the first time that Cu exposure caused oxidative damage to the muscle by decreasing the antioxidant enzyme activities via the down-regulation of the expression of genes related to the disruption of the Nrf2/ARE signaling, and this down-regulation was partially caused by caspase-3-regulated DNA fragmentation. Finally, MI protects fish against Cu toxicity.Read more
To conduct serological investigation on H5N1/H9N2/H7N7 infection among people occupied in poultry fields.
Serum samples were collected from people working in live poultry and none-poultry retailing food markets, poultry wholesaling, large-scale poultry breading factories and in small-scale farms, wide birds breeding, swine slaughtering houses and from normal population. Antibodies of H5, H9 and H7 with hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests were tested and analyzed. Logistic regression and chi(2) test were used.
Among 2881 samples, 4 were positive to H5-Ab (0.14%), 146 were positive to H9-Ab (5.07%) and the prevalence of H9 among people from live poultry retailing (14.96%) was the highest. Prevalence rates of H9 were as follows: 8.90% in people working in the large-scale poultry breading factories, 6.69% in the live poultry wholesaling business, 3.75% in the wide birds breeding, 2.40% in the swine slaughtering, 2.21% in the non-poultry retailing, 1.77% in the rural poultry farmers and 2.30% in normal population. None was positive to H7-Ab among 1926 poultry workers.
The H5 prevalence among people was much lower than expected, but the H9 prevalence was higher. None of the populations tested was found positive to H7-Ab. There was a higher risk of AIV infection in live poultry retailing, wholesaling and large-scale breading businesses, with the risk of live poultry retailing the highest. The longer the service length was, the higher the risk existed.Read more
NLRs are a large family belonging to pattern recognition receptors which could recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns. Class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator (CIITA) is a member of NLR family. It is a critical transcription factor which could regulate the expression of MHC class II. In this study, a full-length cDNA of CIITA was cloned from channel catfish according to ten sequenced ESTs. This cDNA contains a 5'-UTR of 71 bp, a 3'-UTR of 238 bp and an ORF of 3,210 bp encoding 1,069 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that catfish CIITA was conserved with other CIITAs. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted to detect the expression profiles of CIITA in normal tissues and responding to different pathogens (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and channel catfish Hemorrhage Reovirus (CCRV)). The expression profile in blood was the highest (53.879-fold) in normal tissues. E. tarda and S. iniae could induce catfish CIITA in head kidney, liver and spleen. CCRV virus could also induce CIITA in head kidney and liver but reduce it in spleen. And S. iniae could induce the expression of CIITA to the highest extent and contrarily CCRV virus to the lowest extent. The expression data showed the tissue-specific and pathogen-specific expression patterns of CIITA responding to different pathogens. These expression data indicated the immune-related functions of CIITA. The data obtained in this study provide a basis for further research aimed at explore the precise immune-related molecular mechanism of CIITA in catfish.Read more
To investigate the diagnostic value of MRI and MR arthrography in the detection of injuries of anterior labrum in shoulder and to evaluate the accuracy of MR arthrography in the classification of anterior labrum lesion.
Seventy-eight patients with arthroscopically proved anterior labrum lesions(study group) and 75 patients with arthroscopically proved intact anterior labrum (control group) from January 2007 to December 2010 were included to the study. All patients underwent MRI and MR arthrography at our institution prior to shoulder arthroscopy. All MRI and MR arthrography were analyzed by one musculoskeletal radiologists and one sports medicine surgeon who had no knowledge of the clinical histories and arthroscopic results. The same classification system of labrum lesions based on arthroscopy was used in image analysis. Imaging findings and arthroscopic findings were compared in all patients. With arthroscopy used as the standard of reference, the sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of MRI and MR arthrography in the detection of anterior labrum lesions were compared, and the sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of MR arthrography in the correct classification of anterior labrum lesions were calculated.
In arthroscopy, 78 anterior labrum lesions, 67 rotator cuff lesions and 8 SLAP lesions were diagnosed, for the detection of anterior labrum lesions, the sensitivity of MRI and MR arthrography was 80.8% and 92.3%,the specificity was 89.3% and 97.3%,the accuracy was 85.0% and 94.8% respectively. Seventy-eight patients with arthroscopically proved anterior labrum lesions included 39 Bankart lesions, 32 ALPSA lesions and 7 Perthes lesions, with MR arthrography, Bankart, ALPSA, and Perthes lesions were correctly classified in 84.6%, 84.4%, and 57.1% of cases, respectively.
MR arthrography has a higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than MRI in the detection of anterior labrum injuries. MR arthrography was useful in the classification of different variants of anterior labrum injuries before operations. It may directly influence the surgeon's strategy and is useful in preoperative planning of arthroscopic reconstructions.Read more