Yang Liu
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Pubmed
Journal: Medical hypotheses
August/4/2009
Abstract
Crowns are cemented onto abutments with adhesives; and zinc phosphate cement is a routine permanent luting agent, which is believed to secure crowns to abutments by non-adhesive micro-mechanical interlocking. Because it has been proven, and the public widely accepts, that zinc phosphate cement forms no chemical bonds with either the crown or the tooth tissue; it is impossible for the cement to attain adequate retention force if it contracts in volume. Assuming that the cement contracts in volume after setting, the prosthesis tends to loose and is doomed to be hampered by fretting damage when it functions during the masticatory cycle; thus the prognosis for the prosthesis is questionable. However, zinc phosphate is popular because of its brilliant clinical record. This paradox between theory and practice indicates that something might be wrong with the standing theory. The most possible problem with previous studies is that their samples' dimensions differ from those that are used clinically, which causes the studies' results, which claim that the cement shrinks, to deviate from clinical results. The real rationale must be that the zinc phosphate cement tends to expand in volume, and thus mechanically fasten the crown to the abutment.
Pubmed
Journal: Organic & biomolecular chemistry
March/21/2013
Abstract
We synthesized a diosgenyl saponin bearing a unique disaccharide from the natural product β-hederin, together with twelve glycosylated derivatives and determined their cytotoxicity against five different human cancer cell lines. Most of them showed weak cytotoxicity, with the exception of compound , diosgenyl α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside, which exhibited strong cytotoxicity against A549 cells. The cytotoxicity of was associated with apoptotic cell death, which was characterized by morphological changes, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. Compound 20 induced apoptosis of A549 cells through a caspase-8-mediated extrinsic pathway and a caspase-9-mediated intrinsic pathway. In addition, phosphorylation of JNK increased but the phosphorylation of ERK decreased after treatment with 20. These results provide a basic mechanism for the anticancer activity of 20.
Pubmed
Journal: Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)
September/29/2013
Abstract
Novel hollow mesoporous @M/CeO(2) (M = Au, Pd, and Au-Pd) nanospheres are created. The nanospheres can be used as effective nanoreactors with superior catalytic activity and stability for reduction of 4-nitrophenol due to their hollow mesoporous structural features.
Pubmed
Journal: Organic letters
June/26/2018
Abstract
A metal-free ring opening/halogenation of cycloalkanols, which combines both PPO/TBAX oxidant system and blue LEDs irradiation, is presented. This method produces diverse γ, δ, and even more remotely halogenated ketones in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions. Interestingly, experimental and computational studies demonstrate the novel ring size-dependent concerted/stepwise (four-/five- to eight-membered rings) hydrogen atom transfer-electron transfer induced by Brønsted base-tethered acyloxy radical, which indicates distinct advantages brought by the cyclic structure of diacyl peroxides.
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Pubmed
Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry
March/9/2015
Abstract
Analogues of the natural product gallinamide A were prepared to elucidate novel inhibitors of the falcipain cysteine proteases. Analogues exhibited potent inhibition of falcipain-2 (FP-2) and falcipain-3 (FP-3) and of the development of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Several compounds were equipotent to chloroquine as inhibitors of the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum and maintained potent activity against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 parasite. These compounds serve as promising leads for the development of novel antimalarial agents.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of chromatographic science
April/14/2015
Abstract
A liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous target analysis of a wide range of pesticides in tobacco has been developed. Gradient elution has been used in conjunction with positive mode electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to detect up to 118 pesticides in tobacco. The recoveries obtained for each pesticide ranged between 70 and 118% at two spiked concentration levels. Good linear relationships were observed with correlation coefficients r(2) > 0.992 for all analytes. The established method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in real tobacco samples in order to validate the suitability for routine analysis.
Pubmed
Journal: Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)
September/19/2017
Abstract
Palladium-catalyzed activation of remote meta-C-H bonds in arenes containing tethered alcohols was achieved with high regioselectivity by using a nitrile template. Computational studies on the macrocyclic transition state of the regioselectivity-determining C-H activation steps revealed that both the C-N-Ag angles and gauche comformations of phenyl ether play an extremely important role in the meta selectivity.
Pubmed
Journal: AAPS PharmSciTech
July/17/2011
Abstract
Liquid mixing scale-up in pharmaceutical industry has often been based on empirical approach in spite of tremendous understanding of liquid mixing scale-up in engineering fields. In this work, we attempt to provide a model-based approach to scale-up dissolution process from a 2 l lab-scale vessel to a 4,000 l scale vessel used in manufacturing. Propylparaben was used as a model compound to verify the model predictions for operating conditions at commercial scale that would result in similar dissolution profile as observed in lab scale. Geometric similarity was maintained between both of the scales to ensure similar mixing characteristics. We utilized computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to ensure that the operating conditions at laboratory and commercial scale will result in similar power per unit volume (P/V). Utilizing this simple scale-up criterion of similar P/V across different scales, results obtained indicate fairly good reproducibility of the dissolution profiles between the two scales. Utilization of concepts of design of experiments enabled summarizing scale-up results in statistically meaningful parameters, for example -90% dissolution in lab scale at a given time under certain operating conditions will result in 75-88% at commercial scale with 95% confidence interval when P/V is maintained constant across the two scales. In this work, we have successfully demonstrated that scale-up of solid dissolution can be done using a systematic process of lab-scale experiments followed by simple CFD modeling to predict commercial-scale experimental conditions.
Pubmed
Journal: The Analyst
February/17/2014
Abstract
Real-time image guidance in the operating room is needed to improve instantaneous surgical decisions. Toward this goal, we utilized a new fluorescence goggle system and a near-infrared fluorescent dye approved for human use, indocyanine green, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting liver tumors intraoperatively. The fluorescence goggle provided successful imaging of multifocal breast cancer metastases in mouse liver. Diffused tumor deposits as small as 0.8 mm in diameter were detected, which were not obvious without the fluorescence goggle. A combination of surface-weighted fluorescence imaging and deep tissue-sensitive ultrasound imaging allowed comprehensive image guidance with the fluorescence goggle system for tumor resection in a rabbit VX2 liver metastasis model. This multimodal detection and guided surgical intervention strategy using ultrasonic imaging and real-time intraoperative fluorescence guidance is a promising and innovative technology platform for improving surgical outcome of human patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
October/15/2017
Abstract
In this work, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Schizothorax nukiangensis Tsao for the first time. The complete mtDNA genome sequence of S. nukiangensis Tsao was 16 585 bp in length, which contains 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, an origin of light-strand replication (OL) and a control region (D-Loop). The overall base composition of the mitogenome was calculated to be 29.6% for A, 27.0% for C, 17.9% for G and 25.5% for T. The complete mitogenome of the S. nukiangensis Tsao can provide an important data set for further studies on population history, molecular systematics, phylogeography and stock assessment.
Pubmed
Journal: Artificial organs
August/6/2017
Abstract
Clinically, the percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) has been reported to be deformed in a noncircular configuration after its implant. The deformation is universal and various, and it leads to serious leakage and durability problems. Even in the same deformation, the leaflets made in different tissue thicknesses may cause different hydrodynamic performances. Simulating the left heart cardiac conditions by a pulse duplicator system, the present study investigated the effects of the aortic annulus deformation and the leaflet tissue thickness on the hydrodynamics of the TAV. Three 22 mm self-expanding TAV samples were fabricated with three different leaflet thicknesses (0.25, 0.4, 0.55 mm). Every sample was successively deformed to be elliptical, triangular, and undersized circular shapes. The hydrodynamics of the TAV were assessed through a quasi-physiological artery pulsatile flow duplicator system. The transvalvular pressure difference, effective orifice area, and regurgitation flow were determined. High-speed video recordings were taken to investigate the leaflet kinematics. The results showed that the triangular deformation produced the poorest valve function while the elliptical deformation led to the slightest difference from the nominal. With increasing leaflet thickness, the effect of configuration deformation on the regurgitation increased. The thinner leaflets were better than the thicker ones in adapting to the deformation but had a higher risk of deterioration.
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Pubmed
Journal: Journal of microencapsulation
February/4/2014
Abstract
Microencapsulation is one of the promising strategies to develop a three-dimensional in vivo tumour-mimic model in cancer research. Although previous studies have shown that tumour cells grow well during the microencapsulated culture, it is still not clear whether the electrostatic encapsulation process has an important effect on cellular characteristics. In this study, we investigated cellular response against non-physiological stress factors existing in the electrostatic microencapsulation process, such as the high-voltage electrostatic field, suspension and nutrition-free status. Our results showed that these non-physiological stress factors did not significantly induce cellular apoptosis, and did not affect cellular adhesion and viability. Furthermore, no change was found about invasion and drug resistance of the tumour cells. The normal endoplasmic reticulum function might play a role in maintaining biological properties during the electrostatic microencapsulation process.
Pubmed
Journal: Marine genomics
December/2/2015
Abstract
Shewanella sp. YQH10 isolated from mangrove sediment, was a novel species of Shewanella, which has the ability to degrade acetaldehyde. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. YQH10, which contains 4,215,794 bp with a G + C content of 48.1%. This information regarding the genetic basis of this bacterium can greatly advance our understanding of the physiology of this species.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
October/24/2010
Abstract
Nociceptors in peripheral ganglia display a remarkable functional heterogeneity. They can be divided into the following two major classes: peptidergic and nonpeptidergic neurons. Although RUNX1 has been shown to play a pivotal role in the specification of nonpeptidergic neurons, the mechanisms driving peptidergic differentiation remain elusive. Here, we show that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-Met signaling acts synergistically with nerve growth factor-tyrosine kinase receptor A to promote peptidergic identity in a subset of prospective nociceptors. We provide in vivo evidence that a population of peptidergic neurons, derived from the RUNX1 lineage, require Met activity for the proper extinction of Runx1 and optimal activation of CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide). Moreover, we show that RUNX1 in turn represses Met expression in nonpeptidergic neurons, revealing a bidirectional cross talk between Met and RUNX1. Together, our novel findings support a model in which peptidergic versus nonpeptidergic specification depends on a balance between HGF-Met signaling and Runx1 extinction/maintenance.
Pubmed
Journal: Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
May/29/2013
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the prognosis and influencing factors of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
METHODS
Thirty-five patients (20 males and 15 females) with biopsy-diagnosed adrenocortical carcinoma were followed retrospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify factors that influenced the prognosis of the patients.
RESULTS
Three patients were classified as stage I, 15 as stage II, 12 as stage III, and 5 as stage IV. Fourteen patients were still alive and 21 died at the end of the follow-up. The patients had a median survival time of 33 months, with a survival rate of 77.1%, 62.5%, and 38.3% for the first year, second year, and fifth year respectively. The univariate analysis found no significant differences in survival rates with gender, tumor location (left or right adrenal), diameter (> or = 10 cm or <10 cm) of tumor, functionality of tumor, smoking, hypertension and hypokalemia (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis revealed that being male, younger than 50 years, non-smoking and early-stage of tumor were significant protective factors for the survival of patients with adrenocarcinoma. Patients at stage III and stage II had 52 and 3 times higher mortality than those at stage I, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Clinical stage and age are the main factors that influence the survival of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Patients younger than 50 years and those with an earlier stage of tumor would have a better prognosis.
Pubmed
Journal: Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
June/6/2015
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the arthroscopic treatment effectiveness of popliteal cyst excision in combination with debridement of the knee under local anesthesia by comparing with continuous epidural anesthesia.
METHODS
Between June 2002 and January 2013, 145 patients with popliteal cyst underwent arthroscopic popliteal cyst excision in combination with debridement of the knee under local anesthesia (local anesthesia group). In addition, 51 patients with popliteal cyst were treated with the same surgery under continuous epidural anesthesia between February 2000 and August 2005 served as control group. No significant difference was found in gender, age, side, disease duration, or cyst size between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Then, anesthesia time, analgesia effect, anesthesia satisfaction, operation time, bleeding volume, and anesthesia complication were compared between 2 groups. The guidelines of Rauschning and Lindgren were used to assess the effectiveness, and recurrence rate was recorded. Results All incisions healed primarily, no neurological or vascular injury was found. The patients were followed up 1 year and 1 month to 8 years (mean, 3.7 years) in local anesthesia group, and 8 years to 13 years and 7 months (mean, 10.8 years) in control group. Local anesthesia group had shorter anesthesia time, higher visual analogue scale (VAS) score, shorter operation time, and lower bleeding volume (P < 0.05) than control group. Anesthesia satisfaction was reduced in local anesthesia group, but there was no significant difference (χ2 = 0.071, P = 1.000). The anesthesia complication incidence of control group (15.7%, 8/51) was significantly higher than that of local anesthesia group (0) (P = 0.000). Recurrence was found in 12 patients of local anesthesia group (curative ratio 9.7%) and in 5 patients of control group (curative ratio 90.2%), showing no significant difference (χ2 = 0.111, P = 0.774). According to the guidelines of Rauschning and Lindgren, there were 131 cases of grade 0, 13 cases of grade I, and 1 case of grade II in local anesthesia group, and 37 cases of grade 0, 12 cases of grade I, and 2 cases of grade II in control group; significant differences in grading were shown between at pre- and post-operation in 2 groups (Z = -10.683, P = 0.000; Z = -6.385, P = 0.000), and between 2 groups at post-operation (Z = -3.145, P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS
Compared with under continuous epidural anesthesia, arthroscopic treatment of popliteal cyst excision under local anesthesia can obtain better results. Under local anesthesia, the condition of nerve and vessel can be timely and dynamically observed. Arthroscopic treatment of popliteal cyst excision in combination with debridement of the knee has the advantages of less trauma, lower recurrence rate, and satisfactory results.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of chemical physics
November/26/2012
Abstract
LaO(2) was produced in a pulsed laser-vaporization molecular beam source and studied by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy and ab initio electronic structure calculations. The calculations included density functional theory, second-order perturbation theory, coupled cluster theory, and complete active space self-consistent field methods. The adiabatic ionization energy of the molecule and vibrational frequencies of the molecule and its cation were measured accurately for the first time from the MATI spectrum. Numerous ionization processes of lanthanum dioxide, peroxide, and superoxide were considered; the (3)B(2) ← (4)B(2) electronic transition of the dioxide was assigned upon comparison with the observed spectrum. The ionization energy and O-La-O bending frequency of the (4)B(2) neutral state are 4.9760 (6) eV and 92 cm(-1), respectively. The La-O stretching and O-La-O bending frequencies of the (3)B(2) cationic state are 656 and 122 cm(-1), respectively. The (4)B(2) state is formed by two electron transfer from lanthanum to oxygen atoms, and the (3)B(2) state is produced by the further removal of a lanthanum 6s-based electron.
Pubmed
Journal: Biotechnology and bioengineering
September/24/2017
Abstract
CcmR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, represses the genes encoding components of the high-affinity carbon concentration mechanism in cyanobacteria. Unexpectedly, deletion of the ccmR gene was found to alter the expression of the terminal oxidase and fermentative genes, especially the hydrogenase operon in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Consistent with the transcriptomic data, the deletion strain exhibits flux increases (30-50%) in both aerobic O2 respiration and anaerobic H2 evolution. To understand how CcmR influences anaerobic metabolism, the kinetics of autofermentation were investigated following photoautotrophic growth. The autofermentative H2 yield increased by 50% in the CcmR deletion strain compared to the wild-type strain, and increased to 160% (within 20 h) upon continuous removal of H2 from the medium ("milking") to suppress H2 uptake. Consistent with this greater reductant flux to H2 , the mutant excreted less lactate during autofermentation (NAD(P)H consuming pathway). To enhance the rate of NADH production during anaerobic metabolism, the ccmR mutant was engineered to introduce GAPDH overexpression (more NADH production) and LDH deletion (less NADH consumption). The triple mutant (ccmR deletion + GAPDH overexpression + LDH deletion) showed 6-8-fold greater H2 yield than the WT strain, achieving conversion rates of 17 nmol 10(8) cells(-1) h(-1) and yield of 0.87 H2 per glucose equivalent (8.9% theoretical maximum). Simultaneous monitoring of the intracellular NAD(P)H concentration and H2 production rate by these mutants reveals an inverse correspondence between these variables indicating hydrogenase-dependent H2 production as a major sink for consuming NAD(P)H in preference to excretion of reduced carbon as lactate during fermentation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1448-1459. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pubmed
Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
July/23/2007
Abstract
The effects of three diosgenyl saponins isolated from Paris polyphylla on the immuno-stimulating activity in relation to phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and nitric oxide production in mouse macrophage cells RAW 264.7 have been investigated. Our results showed that all three diosgenyl saponins significantly enhanced phagocytic activity that increased with the concentration of saponins to reach a maximum, and then tended to decrease with higher concentrations. Saponins with sugar moiety directly induced respiratory burst response in RAW 264.7 cells that increased with the concentrations and reached a maximum, then decreased with higher concentrations after 2-h incubations, however, diosgenin had no PMA-triggered respiratory burst response. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with saponins with sugar moiety for 24-h caused a significant increase in the production of nitric oxide, while diosgenin had no effect at all. Consequently, relationship between molecular structures of three diosgenyl saponins and their immunomodulatory activities was discussed, and a possible mechanism of immuno-stimulating function of diosgenyl saponins was accordingly explored.
Pubmed
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
October/25/2007
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most deadly cancers and carries a dismal 5-year survival rate of <5%. Therefore, there is urgent need to develop a highly accurate and minimally invasive (e.g., without instrumentation of the pancreatic duct given high rate of complications) method of detection. Our group has developed a collection of novel light-scattering technologies that provide unprecedented quantitative assessment of the nanoscale architecture of the epithelium. We propose a novel approach to predict pancreatic cancer through the assessment of the adjacent periampullary duodenal mucosa without any interrogation of the pancreatic duct or imaging of the pancreas.
METHODS
Endoscopically and histologically normal-appearing periampullary duodenal biopsies obtained from 19 pancreatic cancer patients were compared with those obtained at endoscopy from 32 controls. Biopsies were analyzed using our newly developed optical technologies, four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprinting (4D-ELF) and low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy.
RESULTS
4D-ELF- and LEBS-derived optical markers from normal-appearing periampullary duodenal mucosa can discriminate between pancreatic cancer patients and normal controls with 95% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Moreover, the diagnostic performance of these optical markers was not compromised by confounding factors such as tumor location and stage.
CONCLUSIONS
Here, we showed, for the first time, that optical analysis of histologically normal duodenal mucosa can predict the presence of pancreatic cancer without direct visualization of the pancreas.
Pubmed
Journal: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis
October/15/2017
Abstract
The species diversity within the genus Uropsilus were underestimated: 10 species among the genus Uropsilus have been proposed. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of U. gracilis, with the topotype, was determined. It is 16,536 bp in length, comprising of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The composition and arrangement of its genes are similar to most other mammals. The total base composition of the mitogenome is A, 33.4%; T, 30.3%; C, 22.7% and G, 13.6%, with a rich content of A+T pattern. We performed the similarity comparison based on 13 PCGs of three species of Asiatic shrew-like mole, U. gracilis, U. sp. 1 and U. soricipes. Pairwise sequence alignment showed that similarity data of U. gracilis versus U. sorcipes are significantly higher than those of U. gracilis versus U. sp.1. This pointed toward a cryptic species (U. sp.1) from Jiajin Mountains rather than U. gracilis.
Pubmed
Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
March/20/2008
Abstract
Hepatic stimulating substance (HSS) was first isolated from weanling rat liver in 1975 and found to stimulate hepatic DNA synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. Since then, mammalian and human HSS have been investigated for their potential to treat hepatic diseases. However, the essential nature in composition and structure of HSS remain puzzling because HSS has not been completely purified. Heating, ethanol precipitation, and ion-exchange chromatographies had been carried out to isolate the protein with specific stimulating activity from newborn calf liver, and [(3)H]thymidine deoxyribose (TdR)/bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based proliferation assay to determine the bioactivity in vitro and in vivo. We report the purification of a novel 30-kDa protein from a crude extract of calf liver HSS. This protein is a member of the leucine-rich acidic nuclear protein family (LANP) and has been named hepatopoietin Cn (HPPCn). Studies of partially hepatectomized (PH) mice show that levels of HPPCn messenger RNA (mRNA) increase after liver injury. Furthermore, the recombinant human protein (rhHPPCn) was shown to stimulate hepatic DNA synthesis and activate signaling pathways involved in hepatocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS
HPPCn is a novel hepatic growth factor that plays a role in liver regeneration.
Pubmed
Journal: Nanotoxicology
November/7/2013
Abstract
To suppress the cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), danshensu, a naturally occurring polyphenol antioxidant isolated from Chinese herb, was used to provide a fundamental protection layer for AuNPs, to alleviate oxidative stress and as a reducing agent to react with chloroauric acid. Besides danshensu, gum arabic was chosen as an auxiliary stabilising agent to improve the stability of AuNPs against aggregation. As expected, the prepared GA-DS-AuNPs (gum arabic-danshensu-gold nanoparticle) was remarkably stable in various buffer solutions. More interestingly, the GA-DS-AuNPs not only did not show any appreciable cytotoxicity, but also could alleviate the oxidative damage induced by AuNPs. Meanwhile, the ROS/RNS scavenging activities of GA-DS-AuNPs was evaluated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), potentiometric nitric oxide (NO) sensor and cell confocal imaging. The results suggest that GA-DS-AuNPs might have effectively reduced the AuNPs-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by downregulation of ROS/NOS production. The GA-DS-AuNPs may provide potential opportunities for the application in nanomedicine and nanobiology.
Pubmed
Journal: Biotechnology letters
February/18/2015
Abstract
KGLP-1, a 31-amino acid glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, has a great therapeutic potential for anti-diabetes. In this work, a strategy for expression and purification of functional KGLP-1 peptide has been established. KGLP-1 cDNA was fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST), with an enterokinase cleavage site in the fusion junction. The recombinant fusion protein GST-KGLP-1 was affinity purified via the GST-tag, and then digested with enterokinase. The resulting GST part as well as the enzymes were eliminated by ultra-filtration followed by size exclusion chromatograph. The yield of purified KGLP-1 was approximately 12.1 mg/L, with purity of 96.18 %. The recombinant KGLP-1 was shown to have similar bioactivity as native GLP-1 when evaluated in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line expressing a GLP-1 receptor-egfp reporter gene.
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