Yan Li
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Publication
Journal: Nature
June/16/2004
Abstract
The molecular complexity of tissues and the inaccessibility of most cells within a tissue limit the discovery of key targets for tissue-specific delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents in vivo. Here, we describe a hypothesis-driven, systems biology approach to identifying a small subset of proteins induced at the tissue-blood interface that are inherently accessible to antibodies injected intravenously. We use subcellular fractionation, subtractive proteomics and bioinformatics to identify endothelial cell surface proteins exhibiting restricted tissue distribution and apparent tissue modulation. Expression profiling and gamma-scintigraphic imaging with antibodies establishes two of these proteins, aminopeptidase-P and annexin A1, as selective in vivo targets for antibodies in lungs and solid tumours, respectively. Radio-immunotherapy to annexin A1 destroys tumours and increases animal survival. This analytical strategy can map tissue- and disease-specific expression of endothelial cell surface proteins to uncover novel accessible targets useful for imaging and therapy.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Clinical Investigation
February/3/2013
Abstract
The proto-oncogene c-Myc paradoxically activates both proliferation and apoptosis. In the pathogenic state, c-Myc-induced apoptosis is bypassed via a critical, yet poorly understood escape mechanism that promotes cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER initiates a cellular stress program termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to support cell survival. Analysis of spontaneous mouse and human lymphomas demonstrated significantly higher levels of UPR activation compared with normal tissues. Using multiple genetic models, we demonstrated that c-Myc and N-Myc activated the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 arm of the UPR, leading to increased cell survival via the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. Inhibition of PERK significantly reduced Myc-induced autophagy, colony formation, and tumor formation. Moreover, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of autophagy resulted in increased Myc-dependent apoptosis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated an important link between Myc-dependent increases in protein synthesis and UPR activation. Specifically, by employing a mouse minute (L24+/-) mutant, which resulted in wild-type levels of protein synthesis and attenuation of Myc-induced lymphomagenesis, we showed that Myc-induced UPR activation was reversed. Our findings establish a role for UPR as an enhancer of c-Myc-induced transformation and suggest that UPR inhibition may be particularly effective against malignancies characterized by c-Myc overexpression.
Publication
Journal: Cancer Cell
April/2/2003
Abstract
beta-catenin plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Deregulated beta-catenin is involved in oncogenesis. In this study, we found that beta-catenin can physically complex with NF-kappa B, resulting in a reduction of NF-kappa B DNA binding, transactivation activity, and target gene expression. Repressed NF-kappa B activity is found in human colon cancer cells in which beta-catenin is activated. Importantly, activated beta-catenin was found to inhibit the expression of NF-kappa B target genes, including Fas and TRAF1. Furthermore, a strong inverse correlation was identified between the expression levels of beta-catenin and Fas in colon and breast tumor tissues, suggesting that beta-catenin regulates NF-kappa B and its targets in vivo. Thus, beta-catenin may play an important role in oncogenesis through the crossregulation of NF-kappa B.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Neuroscience
September/24/2007
Abstract
Seizure activity within the hippocampal circuitry not only affects pre-existing structures, but also dramatically increases the number of newborn granule cells. A retroviral strategy was used to label dividing cells and their progeny in the adult dentate gyrus and to analyze the impact of epileptic activity on adult-generated cells labeled before or after seizures. We show that epileptic activity led to dramatic changes in the neuronal polarity, migration, and integration pattern of newborn granule cells, depending on the time of birth in relation to the epileptic insult. Aberrant neurons were stably integrated into the dentate circuitry, and the consequences on hippocampal neurogenesis were long lasting. The data presented characterized the consequences of seizure-associated plasticity on adult neurogenesis leading to long-term structural changes in the hippocampal circuitry that might represent a pivotal component of the epileptic disease process.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
June/13/2013
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD), an abnormal function of the heart, brain or blood vessels, are the biggest cause of deaths worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) holds a great promise for preventing such diseases in an integrative and holistic way. However, its systems-level characterization of drug-target associations is still unknown.
METHODS
Here, we have constructed a computational approach by combining chemical predictors based on chemical structure, chemogenomics data linking compounds with pharmacological information, and a system biology functional data analysis and network reconstruction method.
RESULTS
The pharmacological system generated 58 bioactive ingredients from the Chinese herbal Radix Curcumae formula, and predicted 32 potential targets related to the CCVD. The results indicates that Radix Curcumae share the most common targets with Fructus Gardeniae (15), while less common targets with Moschus and Borneolum (8 and 1, respectively). Further integrated network shows that Radix Curcumae represents the principal component for the prevention of CCVD, and other three medicines serve as adjuvant ones to assist the effects of the principal component, which together probably display synergistic actions.
CONCLUSIONS
Our work successfully explains the mechanism of efficiency of Radix Curcumae formula for the prevention of CCVD, and meanwhile, predicts the potential targets of the Chinese medicines, which facilitates to elucidate the compatible mechanism of the complex prescription, i.e., "jun-chen-zuo-shi", and provides basis for an alternative approach to investigate novel TCM formula on the network pharmacology level.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Infectious Diseases
July/8/2002
Abstract
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was recently identified in The Netherlands and was linked to acute respiratory tract illness. In this study, 11 isolates from 10 patients with respiratory disease from Quebec, Canada, were tested by a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on the fusion protein gene. Identified sequences were consistent with HMPV. The patients were 2 months to 87 years of age (median age, 58 years) and presented with acute respiratory tract illness during the winter season. Sequence studies of the nucleocapsid, fusion, and polymerase genes identified 2 main lineages of HMPV and cocirculation of both lineages during the same year. These findings support a previous finding that HMPV is a human respiratory pathogen that merits further study.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
January/30/2011
Abstract
Flowering time (FT) is the developmental transition coupling an internal genetic program with external local and seasonal climate cues. The genetic loci sensitive to predictable environmental signals underlie local adaptation. We dissected natural variation in FT across a new global diversity set of 473 unique accessions, with >12,000 plants across two seasonal plantings in each of two simulated local climates, Spain and Sweden. Genome-wide association mapping was carried out with 213,497 SNPs. A total of 12 FT candidate quantitative trait loci (QTL) were fine-mapped in two independent studies, including 4 located within ±10 kb of previously cloned FT alleles and 8 novel loci. All QTL show sensitivity to planting season and/or simulated location in a multi-QTL mixed model. Alleles at four QTL were significantly correlated with latitude of origin, implying past selection for faster flowering in southern locations. Finally, maximum seed yield was observed at an optimal FT unique to each season and location, with four FT QTL directly controlling yield. Our results suggest that these major, environmentally sensitive FT QTL play an important role in spatial and temporal adaptation.
Publication
Journal: Nature Biotechnology
March/4/2012
Abstract
The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus macaque. Comparison with the previously sequenced Indian rhesus macaque reveals that all three macaques maintain abundant genetic heterogeneity, including millions of single-nucleotide substitutions and many insertions, deletions and gross chromosomal rearrangements. By assessing genetic regions with reduced variability, we identify genes in each macaque species that may have experienced positive selection. Genetic divergence patterns suggest that the cynomolgus macaque genome has been shaped by introgression after hybridization with the Chinese rhesus macaque. Macaque genes display a high degree of sequence similarity with human disease gene orthologs and drug targets. However, we identify several putatively dysfunctional genetic differences between the three macaque species, which may explain functional differences between them previously observed in clinical studies.
Publication
Journal: PLoS Medicine
July/21/2010
Abstract
BACKGROUND
In late spring 2009, concern was raised in Canada that prior vaccination with the 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) was associated with increased risk of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) illness. Several epidemiologic investigations were conducted through the summer to assess this putative association.
RESULTS
METHODS
(1) test-negative case-control design based on Canada's sentinel vaccine effectiveness monitoring system in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec; (2) conventional case-control design using population controls in Quebec; (3) test-negative case-control design in Ontario; and (4) prospective household transmission (cohort) study in Quebec. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for TIV effect on community- or hospital-based laboratory-confirmed seasonal or pH1N1 influenza cases compared to controls with restriction, stratification, and adjustment for covariates including combinations of age, sex, comorbidity, timeliness of medical visit, prior physician visits, and/or health care worker (HCW) status. For the prospective study risk ratios were computed. Based on the sentinel study of 672 cases and 857 controls, 2008-09 TIV was associated with statistically significant protection against seasonal influenza (odds ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.33-0.59). In contrast, estimates from the sentinel and three other observational studies, involving a total of 1,226 laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 cases and 1,505 controls, indicated that prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV was associated with increased risk of medically attended pH1N1 illness during the spring-summer 2009, with estimated risk or odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 2.5. Risk of pH1N1 hospitalization was not further increased among vaccinated people when comparing hospitalized to community cases.
CONCLUSIONS
Prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV was associated with increased risk of medically attended pH1N1 illness during the spring-summer 2009 in Canada. The occurrence of bias (selection, information) or confounding cannot be ruled out. Further experimental and epidemiological assessment is warranted. Possible biological mechanisms and immunoepidemiologic implications are considered.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
June/15/2009
Abstract
Scoring functions are widely applied to the evaluation of protein-ligand binding in structure-based drug design. We have conducted a comparative assessment of 16 popular scoring functions implemented in main-stream commercial software or released by academic research groups. A set of 195 diverse protein-ligand complexes with high-resolution crystal structures and reliable binding constants were selected through a systematic nonredundant sampling of the PDBbind database and used as the primary test set in our study. All scoring functions were evaluated in three aspects, that is, "docking power", "ranking power", and "scoring power", and all evaluations were independent from the context of molecular docking or virtual screening. As for "docking power", six scoring functions, including GOLD::ASP, DS::PLP1, DrugScore(PDB), GlideScore-SP, DS::LigScore, and GOLD::ChemScore, achieved success rates over 70% when the acceptance cutoff was root-mean-square deviation < 2.0 A. Combining these scoring functions into consensus scoring schemes improved the success rates to 80% or even higher. As for "ranking power" and "scoring power", the top four scoring functions on the primary test set were X-Score, DrugScore(CSD), DS::PLP, and SYBYL::ChemScore. They were able to correctly rank the protein-ligand complexes containing the same type of protein with success rates around 50%. Correlation coefficients between the experimental binding constants and the binding scores computed by these scoring functions ranged from 0.545 to 0.644. Besides the primary test set, each scoring function was also tested on four additional test sets, each consisting of a certain number of protein-ligand complexes containing one particular type of protein. Our study serves as an updated benchmark for evaluating the general performance of today's scoring functions. Our results indicate that no single scoring function consistently outperforms others in all three aspects. Thus, it is important in practice to choose the appropriate scoring functions for different purposes.
Publication
Journal: PLoS Genetics
February/27/2011
Abstract
The genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, like many plant species, experiences a range of edaphic conditions across its natural habitat. Such heterogeneity may drive local adaptation, though the molecular genetic basis remains elusive. Here, we describe a study in which we used genome-wide association mapping, genetic complementation, and gene expression studies to identify cis-regulatory expression level polymorphisms at the AtHKT1;1 locus, encoding a known sodium (Na(+)) transporter, as being a major factor controlling natural variation in leaf Na(+) accumulation capacity across the global A. thaliana population. A weak allele of AtHKT1;1 that drives elevated leaf Na(+) in this population has been previously linked to elevated salinity tolerance. Inspection of the geographical distribution of this allele revealed its significant enrichment in populations associated with the coast and saline soils in Europe. The fixation of this weak AtHKT1;1 allele in these populations is genetic evidence supporting local adaptation to these potentially saline impacted environments.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
January/19/2015
Abstract
The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.
Publication
Journal: PLoS ONE
June/14/2017
Abstract
FASTA and FASTQ are basic and ubiquitous formats for storing nucleotide and protein sequences. Common manipulations of FASTA/Q file include converting, searching, filtering, deduplication, splitting, shuffling, and sampling. Existing tools only implement some of these manipulations, and not particularly efficiently, and some are only available for certain operating systems. Furthermore, the complicated installation process of required packages and running environments can render these programs less user friendly. This paper describes a cross-platform ultrafast comprehensive toolkit for FASTA/Q processing. SeqKit provides executable binary files for all major operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX, and can be directly used without any dependencies or pre-configurations. SeqKit demonstrates competitive performance in execution time and memory usage compared to similar tools. The efficiency and usability of SeqKit enable researchers to rapidly accomplish common FASTA/Q file manipulations. SeqKit is open source and available on Github at https://github.com/shenwei356/seqkit.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
December/21/2009
Abstract
The NSD (nuclear receptor SET domain-containing) family of histone lysine methyltransferases is a critical participant in chromatin integrity as evidenced by the number of human diseases associated with the aberrant expression of its family members. Yet, the specific targets of these enzymes are not clear, with marked discrepancies being reported in the literature. We demonstrate that NSD2 can exhibit disparate target preferences based on the nature of the substrate provided. The NSD2 complex purified from human cells and recombinant NSD2 both exhibit specific targeting of histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) when provided with nucleosome substrates, but histone H4 lysine 44 is the primary target in the case of octamer substrates, irrespective of the histones being native or recombinant. This disparity is negated when NSD2 is presented with octamer targets in conjunction with short single- or double-stranded DNA. Although the octamers cannot form nucleosomes, the target is nonetheless nucleosome-specific as is the product, dimethylated H3K36. This study clarifies in part the previous discrepancies reported with respect to NSD targets. We propose that DNA acts as an allosteric effector of NSD2 such that H3K36 becomes the preferred target.
Publication
Journal: Hypertension
January/10/2011
Abstract
Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies to prospective outcomes, and lack of comprehensive adjustments for confounders make interpretation of the literature difficult. We reviewed prospective studies with total mortality or a composite cardiovascular end point as an outcome in relation to the level and the circadian profile of systolic BP. We analyzed studies in hypertensive patients (n = 23 856) separately from those in individuals randomly recruited from populations (n = 9641). We pooled summary statistics and individual subject data, respectively. In both patients and populations, in analyses in which nighttime BP was additionally adjusted for daytime BP and vice versa, nighttime BP was a stronger predictor than daytime BP. With adjustment for the 24-hour BP, both the night-to-day BP ratio and dipping status remained significant predictors of outcome but added little prognostic value over and beyond the 24-hour BP level. In the absence of conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation of ambulatory BP recording need to be updated.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
May/20/2013
Abstract
Bamboo represents the only major lineage of grasses that is native to forests and is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the world. However, no species in the Bambusoideae subfamily has been sequenced. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of moso bamboo (P. heterocycla var. pubescens). The 2.05-Gb assembly covers 95% of the genomic region. Gene prediction modeling identified 31,987 genes, most of which are supported by cDNA and deep RNA sequencing data. Analyses of clustered gene families and gene collinearity show that bamboo underwent whole-genome duplication 7-12 million years ago. Identification of gene families that are key in cell wall biosynthesis suggests that the whole-genome duplication event generated more gene duplicates involved in bamboo shoot development. RNA sequencing analysis of bamboo flowering tissues suggests a potential connection between drought-responsive and flowering genes.
Publication
Journal: Nature Biotechnology
March/20/2005
Abstract
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.
Publication
Journal: Nature Biotechnology
April/30/2007
Abstract
How effectively and quickly endothelial caveolae can transcytose in vivo is unknown, yet critical for understanding their function and potential clinical utility. Here we use quantitative proteomics to identify aminopeptidase P (APP) concentrated in caveolae of lung endothelium. Electron microscopy confirms this and shows that APP antibody targets nanoparticles to caveolae. Dynamic intravital fluorescence microscopy reveals that targeted caveolae operate effectively as pumps, moving antibody within seconds from blood across endothelium into lung tissue, even against a concentration gradient. This active transcytosis requires normal caveolin-1 expression. Whole body gamma-scintigraphic imaging shows rapid, specific delivery into lung well beyond that achieved by standard vascular targeting. This caveolar trafficking in vivo may underscore a key physiological mechanism for selective transvascular exchange and may provide an enhanced delivery system for imaging agents, drugs, gene-therapy vectors and nanomedicines. 'In vivo proteomic imaging' as described here integrates organellar proteomics with multiple imaging techniques to identify an accessible target space that includes the transvascular pumping space of the caveola.
Publication
Journal: Nature
December/6/2018
Abstract
Although serum from patients with Parkinson's disease contains elevated levels of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF, IL-1β, and IFNγ, whether inflammation contributes to or is a consequence of neuronal loss remains unknown1. Mutations in parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and PINK1, a ubiquitin kinase, cause early onset Parkinson's disease2,3. Both PINK1 and parkin function within the same biochemical pathway and remove damaged mitochondria from cells in culture and in animal models via mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy4. The in vivo role of mitophagy, however, is unclear, partly because mice that lack either PINK1 or parkin have no substantial Parkinson's-disease-relevant phenotypes5-7. Mitochondrial stress can lead to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that can activate innate immunity8-12, suggesting that mitophagy may mitigate inflammation. Here we report a strong inflammatory phenotype in both Prkn-/- and Pink1-/- mice following exhaustive exercise and in Prkn-/-;mutator mice, which accumulate mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)13,14. Inflammation resulting from either exhaustive exercise or mtDNA mutation is completely rescued by concurrent loss of STING, a central regulator of the type I interferon response to cytosolic DNA15,16. The loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta and the motor defect observed in aged Prkn-/-;mutator mice are also rescued by loss of STING, suggesting that inflammation facilitates this phenotype. Humans with mono- and biallelic PRKN mutations also display elevated cytokines. These results support a role for PINK1- and parkin-mediated mitophagy in restraining innate immunity.
Publication
Journal: Hypertension
April/8/2010
Abstract
In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we assessed BP variability from the SD and average real variability in 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. We computed standardized hazard ratios (HRs) while stratifying by cohort and adjusting for 24-hour BP and other risk factors. Over 11.3 years (median), 1242 deaths (487 cardiovascular) occurred, and 1049, 577, 421, and 457 participants experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary event or a stroke. Higher diastolic average real variability in 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings predicted (P<or=0.03) total (HR: 1.14) and cardiovascular (HR: 1.21) mortality and all types of fatal combined with nonfatal end points (HR:>>or=1.07) with the exception of cardiac and coronary events (HR: <or=1.02; P>or=0.58). Higher systolic average real variability in 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings predicted (P<0.05) total (HR: 1.11) and cardiovascular (HR: 1.16) mortality and all fatal combined with nonfatal end points (HR:>>or=1.07), with the exception of cardiac and coronary events (HR: <or=1.03; P>or=0.54). SD predicted only total and cardiovascular mortality. While accounting for the 24-hour BP level, average real variability in 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings added <1% to the prediction of a cardiovascular event. Sensitivity analyses considering ethnicity, sex, age, previous cardiovascular disease, antihypertensive treatment, number of BP readings per recording, or the night:day BP ratio were confirmatory. In conclusion, in a large population cohort, which provided sufficient statistical power, BP variability assessed from 24-hour ambulatory recordings did not contribute much to risk stratification over and beyond 24-hour BP.
Publication
Journal: Gut
January/29/2012
Abstract
BACKGROUND
To understand the involvement of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the development and progression of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), miRNA profiles were compared between tumour and corresponding non-tumour tissues.
METHODS
miRCURY LNA array was used to generate miRNA expressing profile. Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to detectthe expression of miR-375 in ESCC samples and its correlation with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). Methylation-specific PCR was used to study the methylation status in the promoter region of miR-375. The tumour-suppressive effect of miR-375 was determined by both in-vitro and in-vivo assays.
RESULTS
The downregulation of miR-375 was frequently detected in primary ESCC, which was significantly correlated with advanced stage (p=0.003), distant metastasis (p<0.0001), poor overall survival (p=0.048) and disease-free survival (p=0.0006). Promoter methylation of miR-375 was detected in 26 of 45 (57.8%) ESCC specimens. Functional assays demonstrated that miR-375 could inhibit clonogenicity, cell motility, cell proliferation, tumour formation and metastasis in mice. Further study showed that miR-375 could interact with the 3'-untranslated region of IGF1R and downregulate its expression. In clinical specimens, the expression of IGF1R was also negatively correlated with miR-375 expression (p=0.008).
CONCLUSIONS
This study demonstrates that miR-375 has a strong tumour-suppressive effect through inhibiting the expression of IGF1R. The downregulation of miR-375, which is mainly caused by promoter methylation, is one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of ESCC.
Publication
Journal: EMBO Journal
February/13/2011
Abstract
NF-κB is constitutively activated in most human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which is a deadly malignancy with a 5-year survival rate of about 5%. In this work, we investigate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to NF-κB activation in pancreatic cancer. We demonstrate that miR-301a down-regulates NF-κB-repressing factor (Nkrf) and elevates NF-κB activation. As NF-κB promotes the transcription of miR-301a, our results support a positive feedback loop as a mechanism for persistent NF-κB activation, in which miR-301a represses Nkrf to elevate NF-κB activity, which in turn promotes miR-301a transcription. Nkrf was found down-regulated and miR-301a up-regulated in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. Moreover, miR-301a inhibition or Nkrf up-regulation in pancreatic cancer cells led to reduced NF-κB target gene expression and attenuated xenograft tumour growth, indicating that miR-301a overexpression contributes to NF-κB activation. Revealing this novel mechanism of NF-κB activation by an miRNA offers new avenues for therapeutic interventions against pancreatic cancer.
Publication
Journal: Biochemical Journal
February/15/2012
Abstract
The population-based association between low vitamin D status and increased cancer risk can be inconsistent, but it is now generally accepted. These relationships link low serum 25OHD (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels to cancer, whereas cell-based studies show that the metabolite 1,25(OH)2D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is a biologically active metabolite that works through vitamin D receptor to regulate gene transcription. In the present review we discuss the literature relevant to the molecular events that may account for the beneficial impact of vitamin D on cancer prevention or treatment. These data show that although vitamin D-induced growth arrest and apoptosis of tumour cells or their non-neoplastic progenitors are plausible mechanisms, other chemoprotective mechanisms are also worthy of consideration. These alternative mechanisms include enhancing DNA repair, antioxidant protection and immunomodulation. In addition, other cell targets, such as the stromal cells, endothelial cells and cells of the immune system, may be regulated by 1,25(OH)2D and contribute to vitamin D-mediated cancer prevention.
Publication
Journal: Tumor Biology
June/8/2014
Abstract
It has been recognized that cancer is not merely a disease of tumor cells, but a disease of imbalance, in which stromal cells and tumor microenvironment play crucial roles. Extracellular matrix (ECM) as the most abundant component in tumor microenvironment can regulate tumor cell behaviors and tissue tension homeostasis. Collagen constitutes the scaffold of tumor microenvironment and affects tumor microenvironment such that it regulates ECM remodeling by collagen degradation and re-deposition, and promotes tumor infiltration, angiogenesis, invasion and migration. While collagen was traditionally regarded as a passive barrier to resist tumor cells, it is now evident that collagen is also actively involved in promoting tumor progression. Collagen changes in tumor microenvironment release biomechanical signals, which are sensed by both tumor cells and stromal cells, trigger a cascade of biological events. In this work, we discuss how collagen can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression, both inhibiting and promoting tumor progression at different stages of cancer development.
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