Recent studies have reported that chemically synthesized small activating RNA (saRNA) targeting the promoter regions of a gene can activate its expression in different cell lines. This technique can be a powerful therapeutic method for diseases caused by complete inactivation or reduced expression of specific genes. E-cadherin is a typical tumor suppressor gene. Loss of E-cadherin mediates the transition from benign lesions to invasive, metastatic cancer. In this study, several 21-nt small double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting the promoter regions of human E-cadherin were designed and synthesized and the features of their function were investigated to study the regulatory role of dsRNA on E-cadherin expression. A new saRNA (dsEcad‑661) that can enhance E-cadherin expression by targeting non-coding regulatory regions in gene promoters was identified. Using dsRNA with modified base quantity and cholesterol-conjugated dsRNA, we found the antisense strand may be the guide strand of saRNA in the upregulation of E-cadherin. These findings provide several important pieces of evidence that may improve understanding of the function of saRNA and may promote its development for clinical application.Read more
Forsythiae Fructus is an important Chinese medicine which shows a significant effect against inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the preventive anti-inflammation mechanism of Forsythiae Fructus by serum metabolomics strategy and compare the difference of the metabolism pathways between Forsythia extract and Forsythia oil in rat. Four groups (control group, model group, Forsythia extract group and Forsythia oil group) were orally administered 10mL/kg 0.5% Tween 80 solution, 10mL/kg 0.5% Tween 80 solution, 5g/kg Forsythia extract and 0.48mL/kg Forsythia oil respectively. 30min after drug administration, rat acute inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan in the right paw in model group, Forsythia extract group and Forsythia oil group. After being administered Forsythia extract and Forsythia oil, the percentage of rat paw edema was significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with model group. Metabolomics based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was used to analyze the collected serum sample. Multivariate analysis was established for metabolomics analysis. According to Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) results, four groups were clearly separated. And thirteen alterative biomarkers were identified in the serum, namely PC (19:0/0:0), LysoPC (20:0), LysoPC (20:1), LysoPC (17:0), Sphingosine, Linoleic acid, 3R-hydroxy-butanoic acid (3-HB), 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, Lactic acid, L-Threonine, L-Leucine, Maleic acid, Adipic acid. The change of biomarkers suggested that Forsythia extract affected Linoleic acid metabolism, Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, Sphingolipid metabolism and Glycerophospholipid metabolism. Forsythia oil affected Sphingolipid metabolism and Glycerophospholipid metabolism. It indicated that Forsythia extract and Forsythia oil both showed significant preventive anti-inflammatory effect through acting on different metabolism pathways. Moreover, efficacy mechanism of Forsythiae Fructus could recover metabolites disturb in the body through affecting particular drug targets associated with the inflammatory pathway.Read more
Tussilagone (TSL) and its allied sesquiterpenoids were considered as the main active principles of the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, which has been widely used in China as an antitussive herbal medicine. Six new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, tussfararins A-F (1-6), along with 12 known sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from the flower buds of T. farfara. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The biological analysis showed that compounds 1, 3, 6, and 7 inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 13.6-24.4 µM.Read more
The ground and excited states, charge injection/transport, and phosphorescence properties of eleven carbazole- and triphenylamine-functionalized Ir(III) complexes were investigated by using the DFT method. By analyzing the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) matrix elements, radiative decay rate constants k(r), and the electronic structures and energies at the S₀(opt) and T₁(opt) states, it was possible to rationalize the order of the experimental phosphorescence quantum yields of a series of Ir(III) complexes and to predict that [Ir(Nph-2-Cz-tz)3] has a higher phosphorescence quantum yield than [Ir(TPA-tz)3] (TPA=triphenylamine, tz=thiazolyl, Cz=carbazole, Nph=N-phenyl). Carbazole-functionalized Ir(III) complexes were shown to be efficient phosphorescent materials that have not only fast but also balanced electron/hole-transport performance as well as high phosphorescence quantum yields. The phosphorescence emission spectra can be modulated by modifying or replacing a pyridyl substituent.Read more
Mitotic arrest deficiency protein 1 (Mad1) is associated with microtubule-unattached kinetochores in mitotic cells and is a component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Here, we have studied the phosphorylation of Mad1 and mapped using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry several phosphorylated amino acids in this protein. One phosphorylated residue, Thr680, was characterized to be important for the kinetochore localization of Mad1 and its SAC function. We also found that in mitotic cells Mad1 co-immunoprecipitated with Plk1. Depletion of cellular Plk1 using small interfering RNAs and inhibition of the kinase activity of Plk1 using a kinase-dead mutant or a small molecule inhibitor attenuated Mad1 phosphorylation and its association with kinetochores. Collectively, these findings indicate mechanistic roles contributed by protein phosphorylation and Plk1 to the SAC activity of Mad1.Read more
Overexpression of the melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (MDA-7)/IL-24 in vitro generally results in the growth suppression and induction of apoptosis of diverse human tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpression of the MDA-7/IL-24 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of MDA-7 facilitated the MDA-7/IL-24-induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest in HCC cells, but not in the normal liver cell line L02, and the effect was independent of the p53 status. Inhibition of metastasis and angiogenesis was correlated with decreasing expression of STAT3, P-STAT3, MMP-2, VEGF, and TGF-beta genes, regulated by STAT3 in MHCCLM6 cells. We also showed that Ad.mda-7 combined with doxorubicin (ADM) had significantly enhanced antitumor and antimetastatic effects in vivo, accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF, MMP-2, and TGF-beta genes and the upregulation of E-cadherin genes. These data suggested that MDA-7/IL-24 induces its selective antitumor properties in HCC cells by promoting apoptosis independent of p53 status, inhibiting subcutaneous tumor growth and metastasis, and increasing the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. MDA-7/IL-24 represents a new class of cancer suppressor genes that may be useful in the targeted therapy of HCC.Read more
LIF promotes self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), and in its absence, the cells differentiate. LIF binds to the LIF receptor (LIFR) and activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway, but it remains unknown how the receptor complex triggers differentiation or self-renewal. Here, we report that the LIFR cytoplasmic domain contains a self-renewal domain within the juxtamembrane region and a differentiation domain within the C-terminal region. The differentiation domain contains four SPXX repeats that are phosphorylated by MAPK to restrict STAT3 activation; the self-renewal domain is characterized by a 3K motif that is acetylated by p300. In mESCs, acetyl-LIFR undergoes homodimerization, leading to STAT3 hypo- or hyper-activation depending on the presence or absence of gp130. LIFR-activated STAT3 restricts differentiation via cytokine induction. Thus, LIFR acetylation and serine phosphorylation differentially promote stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.Read more
To investigate the possible association of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) Tyr113His polymorphism with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a population of North China.
The mEH Tyr113His genotypes were determined by polymerase-chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in 257 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 252 healthy subjects as a control group.
The frequencies for Tyr and His alleles were 44.2%, 55.8% in ESCC patients, and 44.0% and 56.0% in healthy subjects, respectively. No statistic difference in allele distribution was observed between ESCC patients and controls (chi2=0.008, P=0.929). The overall genotype distribution difference was not observed between cancer cases and controls (chi2=2.116, P=0.347). Compared with Tyr/Tyr genotype, neither His/His genotype nor in combination with Tyr/His genotype significantly modified the risk of the development of ESCC, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.076 (95% CI=0.850-1.361) and 0.756 (95% CI=0.493-1.157), respectively. When stratified for sex, age, smoking status and family history of upper gastrointestinal cancer, His/His genotype alone or in combination with Tyr/His genotype also did not show any significant influence on the risk of developing ESCC.
MEH Tyr113His polymorphism may not be used as a stratification marker in screening individuals at a high risk of ESCC.Read more