Congenital eye illnesses are caused by congenital ocular malformations and are a primary cause of poor visual acuity and blindness in infants. Early diagnosis and treatment of congenital eye illnesses are of great significance for affected infants, their families, and even society as a whole. This study describes the current situation for prenatal and infant screening for congenital eye diseases and briefly summarizes novel progress in the treatment of the five most common eye diseases (congenital dacryocystitis, congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity, congenital glaucoma and retinoblastoma). Current programs are now aimed at improvements in the prevention and treatment of congenital eye diseases in China.Read more
Two C₂₁- and C₂₂-terpenoids, salviprzols A (1) and B (2), together with 24 known compounds including 17 diterpenoids (3-19), a triterpenoid (20), and 6 phenolic derivatives (21-26), were isolated from the roots of Salvia przewalskii Maxim. Salviprzols A and B represented a new subtype of C₂₃-terpenoids featured by an additional 2-oxopropyl moiety at C-12 and a rare γ-hydroxyl-α-methyl-α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone ring system. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, and the structure of 2 was confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography. The cytotoxic activities of the new isolates were tested. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was also proposed.Read more
Climate change scenarios that include precipitation shifts and nitrogen (N) deposition are impacting carbon (C) budgets in arid ecosystems. Roots constitute an important part of the C cycle, but it is still unclear which factors control root mass loss and nutrient release in arid lands.
Litterbags were used to investigate the decomposition rate and nutrient dynamics in root litter with water and N-addition treatments in the Gurbantunggut Desert in China. Water and N addition had no significant effect on root mass loss and the N and phosphorus content of litter residue. The loss of root litter and nutrient releases were strongly controlled by the initial lignin content and the lignin:N ratio, as evidenced by the negative correlations between decomposition rate and litter lignin content and the lignin:N ratio. Fine roots of Seriphidium santolinum (with higher initial lignin content) had a slower decomposition rate in comparison to coarse roots.
Results from this study indicate that small and temporary changes in rainfall and N deposition do not affect root decomposition patterns in the Gurbantunggut Desert. Root decomposition rates were significantly different between species, and also between fine and coarse roots, and were determined by carbon components, especially lignin content, suggesting that root litter quality may be the primary driver of belowground carbon turnover.Read more
Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the southern Gurbantongute Desert, China, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. SDIC storage accounted for more than 20% of SIC storage, indicating that more than 1/5 of the inorganic carbon in both saline and alkaline soil is not in non-leachable forms. Deep layer soil contains considerable inorganic carbon, with more than 80% of the soil carbon stored below 1 m, whether for SDIC or SIC. More importantly, SDIC ages were much younger than SIC in both saline soil and alkaline soil. The input rate of SDIC and SIC ranged from 7.58 to 29.54 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 1.34 to 5.33 g C m(-2) yr(-1) respectively for saline soil, and from 1.43 to 4.9 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.79 to 1.27 g C m(-2) yr(-1)respectively for alkaline soil. The comparison of SDIC and SIC residence time showed that using soil inorganic carbon to estimate soil carbon turnover would obscure an important fraction that contributes to the modern carbon cycle: namely the shorter residence and higher input rate of SDIC. This is especially true for SDIC in deep layers of the soil profile.Read more
To isolate and culture cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in vitro and evaluate their potential of differentiation into functional cardiac myocytes.
Myocardial tissues obtained from neonatal SD rats were cut into pieces of 0.5-1.0 mm(3), and digested twice for 5 min at 37 degrees C; with 0.2% trypsin and 0.1% collagenase II. The remaining tissues were cultured in complete explant culture medium (CEM) at 37 degrees C; in the presence of 5% CO(2). About a week later, a layer of fibroblast-like cells was generated from the adherent explants. These cells were passaged and seeded at about 1x10(6) cells/ml in poly-D-lysine-coated multi-well plates in cardiosphere-growing medium. When beating of the cultured cells was observed (at week 2), flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed for identification of the primary and passaged cells.
The primary cells were successfully cultured from the digested myocardial tissue, and flow cytometry demonstrated the phenotype of c-kit(+)CD31(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CTnT(-). After cell passage for about two weeks, single beating cells and cell clusters with synchronized contraction were seen microscopically, and their phenotype was converted to c-kit(+)CD31(-)CD34(-)CD45(-) CTnT(+). Immunohistochemistry staining identified CTnT expression in the passaged cells but not in the primary cells.
A cell population with the phenotype c-kit(+)CD31(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CTnT(-) has been obtained from neonatal SD rat heart, which possesses the potential to differentiate in vitro into beating cardiac myocytes and express CTnT protein.Read more
A series of novel 1-((indol-3-yl)methyl)-1H-imidazolium salts were prepared and evaluated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. The results suggest that the 5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazole ring, and substitution of the imidazolyl-3-position with a naphthylacyl or 4-bromophenacyl group, were vital for modulating inhibitory activity of cell growth. In particular, 1-((N-Boc-indol-3-yl)methyl)-3-(2-naphthylacyl)-1H-5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazolium bromide was found to be the most potent derivative and more selective against myeloid liver carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung carcinoma (A549) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7), with IC50 values 1.9-fold, 1.7-fold and 4.8-fold lower than DDP. This compound can induce significant cell apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells.Read more
Two compounds belonging to a new group of diterpene alkaloids, kaurines A and B (1 and 2), and an alkaloid bearing a succinimide moiety (3) were obtained from Isodon rubescens. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopy and quantum-chemical computational (13)C NMR and ECD data analysis. These alkaloids differ from known diterpene alkaloids and diterpenoids and are presumably biosynthesized from ent-kaurane diterpenoids.Read more
PXR, CAR and PPAR, widely distributed in the body, are important members of the nuclear receptors (NRs) family. The activities and gene expressions of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters can be regulated by the activation of NRs, which effect the drug disposition. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the leading cause of failure in cancer therapy. NRs, including PXR, CAR and PPAR, were shown to regulate the expressions of DMEs and transporters involved in the drug metabolism and clearance, suggesting that the modulation of NRs can be considered as a new target to overcome MDR. This review described the research progress of NR family members PXR, CAR, PPAR and their transcriptional activation mechanism, the regulation of DMEs and transporters by NRs, which may provide a valuable reference for clinical medication and overcome of MDR.Read more
FB2 is a promising Abl/Src dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor which is designed to overcome imatinib resistance. The present study aims to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in intestinal absorption of FB2 with an in vitro Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cell model, single-pass intestinal perfusion model and in vivo pharmacokinetics with a selective inhibitor in rats. The results from Caco-2 cells indicated that P(appB-A) of FB2 and its metabolites (FB7 and FB10) were much higher than P(appA-B), and the efflux ratio (P(appB-A)/P(appA-B)) of FB2, FB7 and FB10 were decreased with P-gp inhibitor LSN335984; FB2 was further confirmed to be the substrate of P-gp in MDCK-MDR1 cells. In addition, P(blood) of FB2 and the cumulative amount of metabolites in mesenteric blood were elevated in a concentration-dependent manner in rat intestinal perfusion, while both of them were remarkably increased when P-gp inhibitor was added. The F(oral) of FB2 was increased to 24.52% when orally coadministrated with verapamil (25 mg/kg), which was significantly higher than that (5.7%) by FB2 (18 mg/kg) alone in rats. The AUC and Cmax of FB2 metabolites (FB7 and FB10) were also increased in the presence of verapamil. In conclusion, the low bioavailability of FB2 is believed to be partially due to the P-gp mediated active efflux and first-pass metabolism in the rat intestine.Read more