Electronic skin (e-skin) mimicking functionalities and mechanical properties of natural skin can find broad applications. We report the first dynamic covalent thermoset-based e-skin, which is connected through robust covalent bonds, rendering the resulting devices good chemical and thermal stability at service condition. By doping the dynamic covalent thermoset with conductive silver nanoparticles, we demonstrate a robust yet rehealable, fully recyclable, and malleable e-skin. Tactile, temperature, flow, and humidity sensing capabilities are realized. The e-skin can be rehealed when it is damaged and can be fully recycled at room temperature, which has rarely, if at all, been demonstrated for e-skin. After rehealing or recycling, the e-skin regains mechanical and electrical properties comparable to the original e-skin. In addition, malleability enables the e-skin to permanently conform to complex, curved surfaces without introducing excessive interfacial stresses. These properties of the e-skin yield an economical and eco-friendly technology that can find broad applications in robotics, prosthetics, health care, and human-computer interface.
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy that is unresponsive to conventional radiation and chemotherapy. Therefore, development of novel immune therapeutic strategies is urgently needed. L-4F, an Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) mimetic peptide, is engineered to mimic the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative functionalities of ApoA-I. In this work, H7 cells were orthotopically implanted in C57BL/6 mice and treated with L-4F. Then, pancreatic cancer progression and the inflammatory microenvironment were investigated in vivo. The cytotoxicity of L-4F toward H7 cells was assessed in vitro. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of L-4F on macrophage polarization by analyzing the polarization and genes of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. The results show that L-4F substantially reduced the tumorigenicity of H7 cells. L-4F inhibited inflammation by reducing the accumulation of inflammatory cells, such as IL-17A-, IL-4-, GM-CSF-, IL-1β-, and IL-6-producing cells and Th1 and Th17. Notably, L-4F also decreased the percentage of macrophages in tumor tissues, especially M2 macrophages (CD11b+F4/80+CD206+), which was also confirmed in vitro. Additionally, the expression of the M2 marker genes Arg1, MRC1, and CCL22 and the inflammatory genes IL-6, iNOS, and IL-12 was decreased by L-4F, indicating that L-4F prevents M2 type macrophage polarization. However, L-4F could not directly attenuate H7 cell invasion or proliferation and did not induce apoptosis. In addition, L-4F potently down-regulated STAT3, JNK and ERK signaling pathways but not affects the phosphorylation of p38 in RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that L-4F exhibits an effective therapeutic effect on pancreatic cancer progression by inhibiting tumor-associated macrophages and inflammation.
Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) boosts pattern-triggered immunity leading to enhanced resistance to different pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we report that XAP5 CIRCADIAN TIMEKEEPER (XCT, At2g21150) positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance. Forward genetic screen identified the b3-17 mutant that exhibited less cell death and susceptibility to powdery mildew and bacterial pathogens. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation at the 3' splice site of the 8th intron, which resulted in splice shift to 8-bp down-stream of the original splice site of XCT in b3-17, and introduced into a stop codon after two codons leading to a truncated XCT. XCT has previously been identified as a circadian clock gene required for small RNA biogenesis and acting down-stream of ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) in the ethylene-signaling pathway. Here we further showed that mutation or down-regulation of XCT by artificial microRNA reduced RPW8.1-mediated immunity in R1Y4, a transgenic line expressing RPW8.1-YFP from the RPW8.1 native promoter. On the contrary, overexpression of XCT in R1Y4 background enhanced RPW8.1-mediated cell death, H2O2 production and resistance against powdery mildew. Consistently, the expression of RPW8.1 was down- and up-regulated in xct mutant and XCT overexpression lines, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that XCT positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance, and provide new insight into the regulatory mechanism of RPW8.1-mediated immunity.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important cytokine and has been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. TNF-α gene is located on a region that has been found to be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We performed this meta-analysis to assess the relationship between susceptibility to OCD and the TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism.
An extensive search of the available literature on the association between the susceptibility to OCD and the TNF gene polymorphism was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP database. The database was searched up to December 2016 and includes language of English and/or Chinese with the keywords of "obsessive-compulsive disorder" or "OCD," polymorphism or variant or mutation, "tumor necrosis factor" or "TNF" or "cytokine." The association between TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism and the susceptibility of OCD was anticipated by odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI).
Four studies including 435 cases and 1073 controls were incorporated in our meta-analysis. In general, TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism might lead to a decreased risk of OCD susceptibility (G vs A genotype model: OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.37-2.77, P = .981; GG vs AA+AG model: OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.37-2.36, P = .879; GG+AG vs AA model: OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.06-0.73, P = .014; GG vs AA model: OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.71, P = .012; AG vs AA model: OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.07-1.16, P = .081; GG+AA vs AG model: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.55-2.51, P = .683).
TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism might lead to a decreased risk of OCD susceptibility.
Both melanoma cells and tissues were allowed to interact with an identical pool of billions of human-safe phage nanofiber clones with each genetically displaying a unique 12-mer peptide at the tips, respectively, resulting in the discovery of bionanofibers displaying a melanoma cell/tissue dual-homing peptide for personalized targeted melanoma therapy.
An unprecedented asymmetric-electrolyte electrolyzer is proposed using an acidic cathode for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and an alkaline anode for the urea oxidation reaction (UOR), which significantly decreases the electrical energy required for electrolytic hydrogen production.
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the key cells of postnatal neovascularization, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess pluripotent differentiation capacity and contribute to tissue regeneration and wound healing. Both EPCs and MSCs are critical to the wound repair process, which is hindered in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes has been shown to decrease the function of these progenitor cells, whereas estrogen has beneficial wound healing effects. However, the role of estrogen in modulating EPC and MSC biology in diabetes is unknown. We investigated the effect of estrogen on improving bone marrow (BM)-derived EPC and MSC function using a murine diabetic wound healing model.
Female diabetic db+/db+ and nondiabetic control mice were wounded cutaneously and treated with topical estrogen or placebo cream. On day 5 after wounding, BM cells were harvested to quantify EPC number and colony-forming units of EPCs and MSCs. Wound healing rate was concurrently studied. Vessel density and scar density were then quantified using whole body perfusion and laser confocal microscopy. EPC recruitment was documented by immunohistochemistry to identify CD34- and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive cells in the vessel wall. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance.
Topical estrogen significantly increased colony-forming units of both EPCs and MSCs compared with placebo treatment, indicating improved viability and proliferative ability of these cells. Consistently, increased recruitment of EPCs to diabetic wounds and higher vessel density were observed in estrogen-treated compared with placebo-treated mice. Consequently, topical estrogen significantly accelerated wound healing as early as day 6 after wounding. In addition, scar density resulting from collagen deposition was increased in the estrogen-treated group, reflecting increased MSC activity and differentiation.
Estrogen treatment increases wound healing and wound neovascularization in diabetic mice. Our data implicate that these beneficial effects may be mediated through improving the function of BM-derived EPCs and MSCs.
Rationale: Radioresistance is considered the main cause of local relapse in lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of radioresistance remain poorly understood. This study investigates the role of CDK16 in radioresistance of human lung cancer cells. Methods: The expression levels of CDK16 were determined by immunohistochemistry in lung cancer tissues and adjacent normal lung tissues. Immunoprecipitation assay and GST pulldown were utilized to detect the protein-protein interaction. The phosphorylation of p53 was evaluated by in vitro kinase assay. Poly-ubiquitination of p53 was examined by in vivo ubiquitination assay. Cell growth and apoptosis, ROS levels and DNA damage response were measured for functional analyses. Results: We showed that CDK16 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and tissues, and high levels of CDK16 are correlated with lymph node stage and poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Furthermore, we provided evidence that CDK16 binds to and phosphorylates p53 at Ser315 site to inhibit transcriptional activity of p53. Moreover, we uncovered that this phosphorylation modification accelerates p53 degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Importantly, we demonstrated that CDK16 promotes radioresistance by suppressing apoptosis and ROS production as well as inhibiting DNA damage response in lung cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CDK16 negatively modulates p53 signaling pathway to promote radioresistance, and therefore represents a promising therapeutic target for lung cancer radiotherapy.
A phytochemical investigation of twigs of Podocarpus nagi resulted in the identification of eight new type B nagilactones (1-8), all bearing a 7α,8α-epoxy-9(11)-enolide substructure, along with two known analogs (9-10). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HRESIMS, IR and NMR experiments, and X-ray crystallographic analysis. In vitro cytotoxic assay exhibited that compounds 1, 2, 9 and 10 could induce antiproliferation against three different types of human cancer cells while compounds 3 and 5 were inactive. Notably, the IC50 value of compound 1 is 0.208μM for A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, reaching the same level as the positive control combretastatin A-4 (0.104μM). Furthermore, compound 1 performed a strong inhibition of cancer cells by triggering apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase. These results unfold potential anticancer therapeutic applications of type B nagilactones.
How to read Uyghur text from biomedical graphic images is a challenge problem due to the complex layout and cursive writing of Uyghur. In this paper, we propose a system that extracts text from Uyghur biomedical images, and matches the text in a specific lexicon for semantic analysis. The proposed system possesses following distinctive properties: first, it is an integrated system which firstly detects and crops the Uyghur text lines using a single fully convolutional neural network, and then keywords in the lexicon are matched by a well-designed matching network. Second, to train the matching network effectively an online sampling method is applied, which generates synthetic data continually. Finally, we propose a GPU acceleration scheme for matching network to match a complete Uyghur text line directly rather than a single window. Experimental results on benchmark dataset show our method achieves a good performance of F-measure 74.5%. Besides, our system keeps high efficiency with 0.5s running time for each image due to the GPU acceleration scheme.