Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and exhibits a high propensity to metastasize to bone. Currently, bone metastasis remains incurable, and therapies are limited. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in PCa bone metastasis is needed to develop more effective therapeutics for this disease. Herein, we reported that among the FZD family, FZD8 was robustly upregulated in bone-metastastic PCa cell lines and tissues. High levels of FZD8 expression were significantly positively associated with clinical tumor progression and bone metastasis. Furthermore, we found that overexpressing FZD8 promoted, whereas silencing FZD8 suppressed, PCa cell migration, invasion and stem cell-like phenotypes in vitro, through the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Importantly, downregulation of FZD8 greatly suppressed the incidence of PCa bone metastasis in vivo. Moreover, wild-type p53 transcriptionally repressed FZD8 by directly interacting with the FZD8 promoter. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel mechanism for PCa bone metastasis, and indicate that FZD8 might represent a potential therapeutic target for PCa bone metastasis.Read more
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a leading cause of acute liver failure worldwide, in which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released by damaged hepatocytes activates neutrophils through binding of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), further aggravating liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that mtDNA/TLR9 also activates a negative feedback pathway through induction of microRNA-223 (miR-223) to limit neutrophil overactivation and liver injury. After injection of APAP in mice, levels of miR-223, the most abundant miRNAs in neutrophils, were highly elevated in neutrophils. Disruption of the miR-223 gene exacerbated APAP-induced hepatic neutrophil infiltration, oxidative stress, and injury and enhanced TLR9 ligand-mediated activation of proinflammatory mediators in neutrophils. An additional deletion of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) gene ameliorated APAP-induced neutrophil infiltration and liver injury in miR-223 knockout mice. In vitro experiments revealed that miR-223-deficient neutrophils were more susceptible to TLR9 agonist-mediated induction of proinflammatory mediators and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, whereas overexpression of miR-223 attenuated these effects in neutrophils. Moreover, inhibition of TLR9 signaling by either treatment with a TLR9 inhibitor or by disruption of TLR9 gene partially, but significantly, suppressed miR-223 expression in neutrophils post-APAP injection. In contrast, activation of TLR9 up-regulated miR-223 expression in neutrophils in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, activation of TLR9 up-regulated miR-223 by enhancing NF-κB binding on miR-223 promoter, whereas miR-223 attenuated TLR9/NF-κB-mediated inflammation by targeting IκB kinase α expression. Collectively, up-regulation of miR-223 plays a key role in terminating the acute neutrophilic response and is a therapeutic target for treatment of APAP-induced liver failure. (Hepatology 2017;66:220-234).Read more
The efficient gene transfection, cellular uptake and targeted delivery in vivo are key issues for non-viral gene delivery vectors in cancer therapy. To solve these issues, we designed a new targeted gene delivery system based on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting strategy. An anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody h-R3 was introduced to dendriplexes of PAMAM and DNA via electrostatic interactions to form self-assembled h-R3-PAMAM-DNA complexes (h-R3-dendriplexes). Dendriplexes h-R3-dendriplexes represented excellent DNA encapsulation ability and formed unique nanostructures. Compared to dendriplexes, h-R3-dendriplexes presented lower cytotoxicity, higher gene transfection efficiency, excellent endosome escape ability and high nuclear accumulation in the EGFR-overexpressing HepG2 cells. Both ex vivo fluorescence imaging and confocal results of frozen section revealed that h-R3-dendriplexes showed higher targeted delivery and much better gene expression in the tumors than dendriplexes at the same N/P ratio, and h-R3-dendriplexes had accumulation primarily in the tumor and kidney. Moreover, h-R3-dendriplexes for p53 delivery indicated efficient cell growth inhibition and potentiated paclitaxel-induced cell death. These results indicate that the h-R3-dendriplexes represent a great potential to be used as efficient targeted gene delivery carriers in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells.Read more
To investigate the chemopreventive effects of pioglitazone (exogenous PPAR gamma ligand) on rat colon aberrant crypt foci, a rat carcinogenesis model induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH), and to compare pioglitazone with sulindac (a NSAID).
Thirty-two, 8-week-old, female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 each). Group 1 rats were injected with DMH alone (120 mg.kg-1, single subcutaneous injection). Group 2 rats were injected with saline alone. Group 3 rats were pre-treated with sulindac (320 mg.kg-1) for 7 days before DMH initiation. Group 4 rats were treated with pioglitazone (100 mg.kg-1). The animals were killed at the end of the experiment (week 5) and the colons were stained with methylene blue. The aberrant crypt foci (ACF) of the colonic mucosa were assessed.
In Group 1 rats (DMH only), the average numbers of ACF/colon and AC/colon were (182 +/- 93) and (263 +/- 198), respectively. In Group 2 (saline group) rats, no ACF were found. In Group 3 (sulindac group) rats, the average numbers of ACF/colon and AC/colon were (91 +/- 49) and (140 +/- 69), respectively. Both of them were decreased significantly compared with the values in Group 1 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). In Group 4 (pioglitazone group) rats, the average numbers of ACF/colon and AC/colon were (97 +/- 23) and (148 +/- 31), respectively. Both of them were decreased significantly compared with the values in Group 1 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). No difference was found in the values of Group 3 and Group 4.
These results suggest that pioglitazone have chemopreventive effects against rat colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH, whose effect is similar to that of sulindac.Read more
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major energy sources for ruminants and are known to regulate various physiological functions in other species. However, their roles in ruminant milk fat metabolism are still unclear. In this study, goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs) were treated with 3 mmol/L acetate, propionate or butyrate for 24 h to assess their effects on lipogenesis. Data revealed that the content of triacylglycerol (TAG) and lipid droplet formation were significantly stimulated by propionate and butyrate. The expression of FABP3, SCD1, PPARG, SREBP1, DGAT1, AGPAT6 and ADRP were upregulated by propionate and butyrate treatment. In contrast, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of FASN and LXRα was not affected by propionate, but reduced by butyrate. Acetate had no obvious effect on the content of TAG and lipid droplets but increased the mRNA expression of SCD1 and FABP3 in GMECs. Additionally, it was observed that propionate significantly increased the relative content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1 and C16:1) at the expense of decreased saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0). Butyrate and acetate had no significant effect on fatty acid composition. Overall, the results from this work help enhance our understanding of the regulatory role of SCFAs on goat mammary cell lipid metabolism.Read more
The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effect of tanshinone IIA on the brain and its therapeutic time window in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion was established by suture occlusion. In an initial experiment, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model, tanshinone IIA1 (TSA1), tanshinone IIA4 (TSA4), tanshinone IIA6 (TSA6) and tanshinone IIA12 (TSA12) groups (n=8 per group). The rats in the control group were given 4 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally following suture occlusion. The other groups were respectively treated with 25 mg/kg tanshinone IIA intraperitoneally at 1, 4, 6 and 12 h following the initiation of reperfusion and once a day for a total of three days. The grades of neurologic impairment and volume of cerebral infarction of each group were measured 72 h after suture occlusion. In another experiment, 16 male SD rats were randomly divided into a 6 h reperfusion group and a 24 h reperfusion group following drug administration. The rats in each group were further divided into a control subgroup (4 ml PBS) and a tanshinone IIA subgroup (25 mg/kg). The rats were immediately administered their respective treatments following the establishment of the model. The rats were decapitated 6 and 24 h after the initiation of reperfusion. The expression levels of cytoplasmic thioredoxin (Trx-1) and mitochondrial thioredoxin (Trx-2) in the ischemic penumbra were determined by western blot analysis. The nitric oxide (NO) levels, and total NO synthase (tNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activities in the rat blood were measured using a reagent kit. The changes in cerebral blood flow were evaluated by Doppler imaging. The grade of neurological impairment of the TSA1 group was statistically lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05). The cerebral infarction volume results showed that the volumes of infarction in the TSA1 and TSA4 groups were lower than those in the other groups (P<0.05). Tanshinone IIA significantly increased cerebral blood flow compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, tanshinone IIA significantly increased the expression levels of Trx-1 and Trx-2 compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). Tanshinone IIA significantly decreased the NO levels and iNOS and tNOS activities compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). However, the iNOS activity in the rats in the 6 h reperfusion group was not statistically significantly different from that of the respective control group (P>0.05). Tanshinone IIA has a protective effect on the cranial nerves when administered during the initial stages of cerebral ischemia. This protective effect is associated with an improvement of cerebral blood flow as well as an increase in anti-oxygen radical and anti-inflammatory activities.Read more
To observe the therapeutic effect of Yishen Qingre Huashi Recipe (YQHR) in treating proteinuria of chronic glomerular disease patients with Pi-Shen deficiency complicated damp-heat syndrome (PSDCDHS).
Totally 121 stage 1 -2 primary chronic glomerular disease patients with PSDCDHS were randomly assigned to the treated group (85 cases) and the control group (36 cases) according to 2:1. All patients received conventional and symptomatic treatment. Patients in the treated group took YQHR additionally, while those in the control group took Losartan Potassium Tablet (50 mg each time, once per day) additionally. The therapeutic course for all was 6 months. Changes of 24 h urine protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine(SCr), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were observed at different time points. And the difference in therapeutic effects were compared between the two groups.
Compared with the control group after 6 months of treatment, 24 h urine protein obviously decreased in the treated group (P <0. 05). There was no statistical difference in SCr, BUN, or eGFR between the two groups after 6 months of treatment (P >0. 05). The total effective rate after 2, 4, and 6 months of treatment in the treated group was 77. 6% (66/85 cases), 82. 4% (70/85 cases), and 89. 4% (76/85 cases), respectively. They were 47. 2% (17/36 cases), 55. 6% (20/36 cases), and 61. 1% (22/36 cases) in the control group, respectively. Compared with before treatment in the treated group, the total effective effect after 6 months of treatment was higher than that after 2 months of treatment (χ2=4. 28, P <0. 01). Compared with the control group at the same time points, the total effective rate in the treated group after 2, 4, and 6 months of treatment was higher (χ2=10. 87, 9. 53, 13.16, P <0. 01).
YQHR could significantly lower proteinuria in chronic glomerular disease patients with PSDCDHS, improve the clinical effect, thereby providing clinical evidence for treating chronic glomerular disease proteinuria from resolving dampness and clearing heat.Read more
The long-term outcomes of patients who underwent liver resection (LR) for early-stage hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are difficult to predict. This study aimed to develop two nomograms to predict postoperative disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively.
Data on a primary cohort of 1328 patients who underwent LR for HBV-related HCCs within Milan criteria at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (EHBH) from 2000 to 2006 were used to develop the nomograms by the Cox regression analyses. An internal validation cohort of 442 patients operated from 2006 to 2011 at the EHBH and an external validation cohort of 474 patients operated from 2007 to 2009 at the Zhongshan Hospital were used for validation studies. Discrimination and calibration were measured using concordance index (C-index), calibration plots and Kaplan-Meier curves.
The independent predictors of DFS or OS which included tumour stage factors, biomarker and HBV-DNA level were respectively incorporated into the two nomograms. In the primary cohort, the C-indexes of the models in predicting DFS and OS were 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.78) and 0.79 (0.77-0.81), respectively. The calibration curves fitted well. Both nomograms accurately stratify patients into four distinct incremental prognostic subgroups. The C-indexes of the nomogram for OS prediction was significantly higher than those of the six conventional staging systems (0.65-0.71, all P<0.001). These results were verified by the internal and external validations.
The proposed nomograms showed good prognostication for patients with early HBV-related HCCs after hepatectomy.Read more
Animals exploit different germ-line-encoded proteins with various domain structures to detect the signature molecules of pathogenic microbes. These molecules are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and the host proteins that react with PAMPs are called pattern recognition proteins (PRPs). Here, we present a novel type of protein domain structure capable of binding to bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and the minimal PGN motif muramyl dipeptide (MDP). This domain is designated as apextrin C-terminal domain (ApeC), and its presence was confirmed in several invertebrate phyla and subphyla. Two apextrin-like proteins (ALP1 and ALP2) were identified in a basal chordate, the Japanese amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum (bj). bjALP1 is a mucosal effector secreted into the gut lumen to agglutinate the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus via PGN binding. Neutralization of secreted bjALP1 by anti-bjALP1 monoclonal antibodies caused serious damage to the gut epithelium and rapid death of the animals after bacterial infection. bjALP2 is an intracellular PGN sensor that binds to TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and prevents TRAF6 from self-ubiquitination and hence from NF-κB activation. MDP was found to compete with TRAF6 for bjALP2, which released TRAF6 to activate the NF-κB pathway. BjALP1 and bjALP2 therefore play distinct and complementary functions in amphioxus gut mucosal immunity. In conclusion, discovery of the ApeC domain and the functional analyses of amphioxus ALP1 and ALP2 allowed us to define a previously undocumented type of PRP that is represented across different animal phyla.Read more