Jun Li
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Pubmed
Journal: The Science of the total environment
November/6/2018
Abstract

Past studies have reported several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in different environmental matrices from a tropical coastal site, Parangipettai (PI), located along the bank of the Vellar River in Tamil Nadu, south India. Hence to fill the data gap after the strict ban on several POPs, high volume air sampling was conducted in PI to study the variability of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during summer, pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Emission source regions were tracked by using five days back trajectory analysis. Range of air concentrations in pg/m3 were: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), 13 - 1976; hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), 260-1135, hexachlorocyclobenzene (HCB), 52-135, chlordanes, 36-135 and endosulfans, 66-1013. Six PBDE congeners ranged between 25 and 155 pg/m3 with the highest concentration in summer followed by pre-monsoon and monsoon. Atmospheric DDT and HCH in PI have drastically reduced from the past report thereby showing the strict ban on agricultural use of these compounds. During monsoon, fresh source of o,p'-DDT, trans-chlordane and α-endosulfan was evident. Higher level of endosulphan sulfate in PI seems to be likely affected by the air mass, originating from a neighbouring state Kerela, where endosulfan has been extensively used for cashew plantations. Similarly in summer, the day recorded with the highest level of PBDEs, the sample was concurrently impacted by air parcel comprised of two major clusters, 1 (25%) and 2 (49%) that traversed through the metropolitan cities like Bangalore and Chennai. Dominance of BDE-99 over BDE-47 in PI is in line with the PBDE profile reported from Chennai city during similar time frame. Average concentration of tetra and penta BDE congeners in summer samples were nearly 2-3 folds higher than pre-monsoon or monsoon. Given the fact that strong localised sources for heavier BDE congeners are lacking in PI, regional atmospheric transport from the strong emission source regions in Chennai might have impacted PBDE concentration in PI.

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Journal: Ultramicroscopy
November/25/2018
Abstract

Geometric phase analysis (GPA) is a useful method to map strain distribution in atomically resolved scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) images. Nevertheless, the inevitable periodic jitter of electron probe in STEM along the scanning direction due to the interference of electric power supply, including grounding, can give rise to major artifacts, as evidenced by the appearance of satellite spots surrounding all main peaks in the power spectrum of the images. Here we reveal the origin of the image artifacts related to the probe jitter by mapping the image distortion component εxx using the GPA algorithm. The effect is verified by introducing a periodic displacement field to a STEM image simulated from a perfect crystal structure, and the calculated εxx maps show very good agreement with the experimental observations. Based on the quantitative analysis of the images distortion, we propose and test a feasible strategy to eliminate the effect of probe jitter from STEM images. Successful examples illustrate that the approach can help improve the accuracy in quantification of STEM images.

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Journal: Fertility and sterility
October/13/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the levels of NLRC5 and autophagy in women with leiomyoma and endometriosis and the correlation between NLRC5 level and autophagy level.

METHODS

Case-control study.

METHODS

Clinics.

METHODS

Sixty-five patients were recruited: 30 women with endometriosis were compared with 35 women with leiomyoma.

METHODS

Endometriosis was definitively diagnosed during surgery by laparoscopy or laparotomy and was confirmed by histopathological evaluation (n=30). Secretory phase ectopic endometrium tissues and eutopic endometrium tissues were obtained from 30 women with endometriosis. Control endometrium tissues were collected at hysterectomy from 35 women with leiomyoma. Immunohistochemical staining of NLRC5, LC3, Beclin1 and P62 were performed.

METHODS

A semiquantitative analysis was performed. Correlations between NLRC5 level and LC3, Beclin1, P62 levels were compared.

RESULTS

The expressions of NLRC5 and P62 in the ectopic and eutopic endometrium of endometriosis groups were significantly higher than that in the endometrium of leiomyoma group. And their expressions in ectopic endometrium were significantly up-regulated compared to the eutopic endometrium. The expressions of LC3 and Beclin1 were down-regulated in the ectopic and eutopic endometrium of endometriosis groups compared to the leiomyoma group. LC3 and Beclin1 levels were lower in ectopic endometrium than in the eutopic endometrium. There is a negative correlation between NLRC5 level and LC3, Beclin1 levels. There is a positive correlation between NLRC5 level and P62 level.

CONCLUSIONS

There is a negative correlation between NLRC5 level and autophagy level. NLRC5 and autophagy combined may as promising predictors in patients with endometriosis.

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Pubmed
Journal: Insect biochemistry and molecular biology
April/30/2012
Abstract

Laccase-2 is a highly conserved multicopper oxidase that functions in insect cuticle pigmentation and tanning. In many species, alternative splicing gives rise to two laccase-2 isoforms. A comparison of laccase-2 sequences from three orders of insects revealed eleven positions at which there are conserved differences between the A and B isoforms. Homology modeling suggested that these eleven residues are not part of the substrate binding pocket. To determine whether the isoforms have different kinetic properties, we compared the activity of laccase-2 isoforms from Tribolium castaneum and Anopheles gambiae. We partially purified the four laccases as recombinant enzymes and analyzed their ability to oxidize a range of laccase substrates. The predicted endogenous substrates tested were dopamine, N-acetyldopamine (NADA), N-β-alanyldopamine (NBAD) and dopa, which were detected in T. castaneum previously and in A. gambiae as part of this study. Two additional diphenols (catechol and hydroquinone) and one non-phenolic substrate (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) were also tested. We observed no major differences in substrate specificity between the A and B isoforms. Dopamine, NADA and NBAD were oxidized with catalytic efficiencies ranging from 51 to 550 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹. These results support the hypothesis that dopamine, NADA and NBAD are endogenous substrates for both isoforms of laccase-2. Catalytic efficiencies associated with dopa oxidation were low, ranging from 8 to 30 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹; in comparison, insect tyrosinase oxidized dopa with a catalytic efficiency of 201 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹. We found that dopa had the highest redox potential of the four endogenous substrates, and this property of dopa may explain its poor oxidation by laccase-2. We conclude that laccase-2 splice isoforms are likely to oxidize the same substrates in vivo, and additional experiments will be required to discover any isoform-specific functions.

Pubmed
Journal: Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue
July/1/2018
Abstract

Four mini experiments were conducted at different conditions. The heterotrophic microorganisms on the aerobic granular sludge surface consumed organic compounds at the initial stage of aeration. The denitrification rate and the efficiency of NO2--N and NO3--N removal were relatively low. Therefore, under the normal temperature conditions (20-23℃), aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated in the two-stage aeration mode(first in low aeration then in high aeration mode). The low aeration time were carried out at 1, 2 and 3 hours stages respectively, and the characteristics of the granular sludge and its effects on microorganisms were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. The results show that the increase in the aerobic granular sludge (AGS) particle size improved the denitrification capacity; the denitrification rate of NO2--N was the highest at low aeration mode with 2 h and reached 9.66 mg·(g·h)-1. The accumulation rate of nitrite increased to 77.84% and the total nitrogen removal rate to 70%. The bacterial count inside the granular sludge increased and they were mainly cocci, bacillus, and ellipsoidal bacteria. Moreover, the proportion of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in total bacterial count increased from 13.70% to 15.40%. Therefore, the two-stage aeration process achieved shortened simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes and showed a good denitrification performance.

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Pubmed
Journal: International journal of cardiology
April/16/2018
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry
November/13/2018
Abstract

We previously demonstrated that p15RS, a newly discovered tumor suppressor, inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling by interrupting the formation of β-catenin·TCF4 complex. However, it remains unclear how p15RS helps exert such an inhibitory effect on Wnt signaling based on its molecular structure. In this study, we reported that dimerization of p15RS is required for its inhibition on the transcription regulation of Wnt-targeted genes. We found that p15RS forms a dimer through a highly conserved leucine zipper-like motif in the coiled-coil terminus domain. In particular, residues Leu-248 and Leu-255 were identified as being responsible for p15RS dimerization, as mutation of these two leucines into prolines disrupted the homodimer formation of p15RS and weakened its suppression of Wnt signaling. Functional studies further confirmed that mutations of p15RS at these residues results in diminishment of its inhibition on cell proliferation and tumor formation. We therefore concluded that dimerization of p15RS governed by the leucine zipper-like motif is critical for its inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and tumorigenesis.

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Journal: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
October/1/2018
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an abrupt loss of kidney function. MicroRNA-30b (miR-30b) has been reported to be involved in the inflammatory reaction of a variety of diseases. However, the role of miR-30b in AKI remains unknown. In this research, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-30b in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kindey inflammatory injury in vitro and in vivo.

METHODS

In vitro, after miR-30b mimic/inhibitor transfection and/or LPS treatment, the viability, apoptosis, autophagy and inflammatory cytokines releases, as well as activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot, respectively. In vivo, after LPS treatment and/or anti-miR-30b administration, the levels of creatinine, the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and histologic scores, as well as concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were assessed by creatinine assay kit, ALT assay kit and ELISA, respectively.

RESULTS

LPS inhibited HK-2 cell viability and induced HK-2 cell apoptosis, autophagy and the releases of inflammatory cytokines. Overexpression of miR-30b promoted LPS-induced HK-2 cell viability inhibition, cell inflammatory cytokines releases, cell apoptosis induction and activation of JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways, but inhibited LPS-induced HK-2 cell autophagy. Suppression of miR-30b had opposite effects. Moreover, suppression of miR-30b alleviated the LPS-induced kidney injury in mice model by decreasing creatinine level, ALT activity and histologic scores, as well as concentrations of inflammatory cytokines.

CONCLUSIONS

miR-30b participated in the LPS-induced kindey inflammatory injury in vitro and in vivo.

Pubmed
Journal: JAMA
June/8/2017
Pubmed
Journal: Trends in cardiovascular medicine
January/16/2017
Abstract

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. AF is a complex disease that results from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that epigenetic mechanisms significantly participate in AF pathogenesis. Even though a poor understanding of the molecular and electrophysiologic mechanisms of AF, accumulated evidence has suggested that the relevance of epigenetic changes in the development of AF. The aim of this review is to describe the present knowledge about the epigenetic regulatory features significantly participates in AF, and look ahead on new perspectives of epigenetic mechanisms research. Epigenetic regulatory features such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA influence gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms and by directly binding to various factor response elements in the target gene promoters. Given the role of epigenetic alterations in regulating genes, there is potential for the integration of factors-induced epigenetic alterations as informative factors in the risk assessment process. In this review, new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms in AF pathogenesis is discussed, with special emphasis on DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA. Further studies are needed to reveal the potential targets of epigenetic mechanisms, and it can be developed as a therapeutic target for AF.

Pubmed
Journal: Neuron
November/16/2017
Abstract

In the brain, many types of interneurons make functionally diverse inhibitory synapses onto principal neurons. Although numerous molecules have been identified to function in inhibitory synapse development, it remains unknown whether there is a unifying mechanism for development of diverse inhibitory synapses. Here we report a general molecular mechanism underlying hippocampal inhibitory synapse development. In developing neurons, the establishment of GABAergic transmission depends on Neuroligin 2 (NL2), a synaptic cell adhesion molecule (CAM). During maturation, inhibitory synapse development requires both NL2 and Slitrk3 (ST3), another CAM. Importantly, NL2 and ST3 interact with nanomolar affinity through their extracellular domains to synergistically promote synapse development. Selective perturbation of the NL2-ST3 interaction impairs inhibitory synapse development with consequent disruptions in hippocampal network activity and increased seizure susceptibility. Our findings reveal how unique postsynaptic CAMs work in concert to control synaptogenesis and establish a general framework for GABAergic synapse development.

Pubmed
Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology
September/10/2018
Abstract

Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) plays a crucial role in the interferon (IFN) signaling in mammals, in which it is activated by the TBK1/IKKε complex during host antiviral innate immune response. There are few reports about the relation between IRF7 and IKKε in teleost fishes. In this study, the IRF7 homologue (bcIRF7) of black carp (Mylopharyngodon Piceus) has been cloned and characterized. The transcription of bcIRF7 gene increased in host cells in response to the stimulation of LPS, poly (I:C) and viral infection. bcIRF7 migrated around 56 KDa in immunoblot assay and was identified as a predominantly cytosolic protein by immunofluorescent staining. bcIRF7 showed IFN-inducing ability in reporter assay and EPC cells expressing bcIRF7 showed enhanced antiviral ability against both grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). IKKε of black carp (bcIKKε) was found to be recruited into host innate immune response initiated by SVCV and GCRV in the previous work; in this paper, the kinase dead mutant of bcIKKε, bcIKKε-K39A was constructed and showed no IFN-inducing activity. The data of reporter assay and plaque assay demonstrated that bcIKKε but not bcIKKε-K39A obviously enhanced bcIRF7-mediated IFN production and antiviral activity. Our data support the conclusion that bcIKKε upregulates bcIRF7-mediated antiviral signaling, which most likely depends on its kinase activity.

Pubmed
Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
July/13/2003
Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood-onset behavioral disorder. Boys are more often affected than girls. Family, twin, and adoption studies have supported a strong genetic basis. Some studies show that a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism affecting enzyme activity was associated with personality characteristics and diseases, such as novelty-seeking personality, substance abuse, and heroin addiction, whose features are similar to ADHD or are associated with ADHD. These findings suggest that the COMT gene may be a candidate gene for ADHD. TDT, HHRR, and case-control association studies were conducted within a sample of 202 nuclear ADHD families, 340 ADHD cases, and 226 controls in the Han Chinese population. Diagnoses and ADHD subtypes were ascertained according to DSM-IV criteria using American Clinical Diagnostic Interviewing Scales. The HHRR analysis suggested that the low enzyme-activity COMT Met allele was preferentially transmitted to ADHD boys (160 trios, chi(2) = 3.858, P = 0.05, df = 1) but not girls. This association is particularly pronounced among male ADHD probands without any comorbidity (50 trios, HHRR: chi(2) = 5.128, P = 0.024, df = 1; TDT: chi(2) = 4.558, P = 0.033, df = 1), especially the ADHD-I subtype (32 trios, HHRR: chi(2) = 5.792, P = 0.016, df = 1; TDT: chi(2) = 5.333, P = 0.021, df = 1). The case-control study revealed that the Val allele was more frequent in females meeting ICD-10 or DSM-IV criteria for ADHD than in female controls (86 and 79.5%, respectively, chi(2) = 4.059, P = 0.044, df = 1). Although these results suggest the COMT gene exerts some influence on the risk for ADHD in the Han Chinese population, given the potential for Type I error, these findings require replication before drawing definitive conclusions.

Pubmed
Journal: Brain : a journal of neurology
February/23/2004
Abstract

Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily with single extracellular, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Homotypic interactions between extracellular domains of MPZ adhere adjacent myelin wraps to each other. MPZ is also necessary for myelin compaction since mice which lack MPZ develop severe dysmyelinating neuropathies in which compaction is dramatically disrupted. MPZ mutations in humans cause the inherited demyelinating neuropathy CMT1B. Some mutations cause the severe neuropathies of infancy designated as Dejerine-Sottas disease, while others cause a 'classical' Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease Type 1B (CMT1B) phenotype with normal early milestones but development of disability during the first two decades of life. Still other mutations cause a neuropathy that presents in adults, with normal nerve conduction velocities, designated as a 'CMT2' form of CMT1B. To correlate the phenotype of patients with MPZ mutations with their genotype, we identified and evaluated 13 patients from 12 different families with eight different MPZ mutations. In addition, we re-analysed the clinical data from 64 cases of CMT1B from the literature. Contrary to our expectations, we found that most patients presented with either an early onset neuropathy with signs and symptoms prior to the onset of walking or a late onset neuropathy with signs and symptoms at around age 40 years. Only occasional patients presented with a 'classical' CMT phenotype. Correlation of specific MPZ mutations with their phenotypes demonstrated that addition of either a charged amino acid or altering a cysteine residue in the extracellular domain caused a severe early onset neuropathy. Severe neuropathy was also caused by truncation of the cytoplasmic domain or alteration of an evolutionarily conserved amino acid. Taken together, these data suggest that early onset neuropathy is caused by MPZ mutations that significantly disrupt the tertiary structure of MPZ and thus interfere with MPZ-mediated adhesion and myelin compaction. In contrast, late onset neuropathy is caused by mutations that more subtly alter myelin structure and which probably disrupt Schwann cell-axonal interactions.

Pubmed
Journal: Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue = Chinese critical care medicine = Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue
February/3/2010
Pubmed
Journal: The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
January/26/2010
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Blood loss during liver resection is one of the most important factors affecting the peri-operative outcomes of patients undergoing liver resection.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the benefits and harms of cardiopulmonary interventions to decrease blood loss and to decrease allogeneic blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing liver resections.

METHODS

We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until November 2008 for identifying the randomised trials.

METHODS

We included all randomised clinical trials comparing various cardiopulmonary interventions aimed at decreasing blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion requirements in liver resection. Trials were included irrespective of whether they included major or minor liver resections, normal or cirrhotic livers, vascular occlusion was used or not, and irrespective of the reason for liver resection.

METHODS

Two authors independently identified trials for inclusion and independently extracted data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan Analysis. For each outcome we calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis or available case-analysis. For dichotomous outcomes with only one trial included under the outcome, we performed the Fisher's exact test.

RESULTS

Nine trials involving 587 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The interventions included low central venous pressure (CVP), autologous blood donation, haemodilution, haemodilution with controlled hypotension, and hypoventilation. Only one or two trials were included under most comparisons. All trials had a high risk of bias. There was no significant difference in the peri-operative mortality or other peri-operative morbidity. None of the trials reported long-term survival or liver failure.The risk ratio of requiring allogeneic blood transfusion was significantly lower in the haemodilution and haemodilution with controlled hypotension groups than the respective control groups. Other interventions did not show significant decreases of allogeneic transfusion requirements.

CONCLUSIONS

None of the interventions seem to decrease peri-operative morbidity or offer any long-term survival benefit. Haemodilution shows promise in the reduction of blood transfusion requirements in liver resection surgery. However, there is a high risk of type I (erroneously concluding that an intervention is beneficial when it is actually not beneficial) and type II errors (erroneously concluding that an intervention is not beneficial when it is actually beneficial) because of the few trials included, the small sample size in each trial, and the high risk of bias. Further randomised clinical trials with low risk of bias and random errors assessing clinically important outcomes such as peri-operative mortality are necessary to assess any cardiopulmonary interventions aimed at decreasing blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in liver resections. Trials need to be designed to assess the effect of a combination of different interventions in liver resections.

Pubmed
Journal: The journal of physical chemistry. B
June/27/2007
Abstract

The self-aggregation behavior of two amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PHB-PEO) triblock copolymer samples with nearly identical PHB block lengths but different PEO block lengths, PEO-PHB-PEO(2000-810-2000) and PEO-PHB-PEO(5000-780-5000), was studied with dynamic and static light scattering (DLS and SLS), in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The formation of polymeric micelles by the two PEO-PHB-PEO triblock copolymers was confirmed with fluorescence technique and TEM. DLS analysis showed that the hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) of the monodistributed polymeric micelles increased with an increase in PEO block length. The relative thermostability of the triblock copolymer micelles was studied by SLS and DLS at different temperatures. The aggregation number and the ratio of the radius of gyration over hydrodynamic radius were found to be independent of temperature, probably due to the strong hydrophobicity of the PHB block. The combination of DLS and SLS studies indicated that the polymeric micelles were composed of a densely packed core of hydrophobic PHB blocks and a corona shell formed by hydrophilic PEO blocks. The aggregation numbers were found to be approximately 53 for PEO-PHB-PEO(2000-810-2000) micelles and approximately 37 for PEO-PHB-PEO(5000-780-5000) micelles. The morphology of PEO-PHB-PEO spherical micelles determined by DLS and SLS measurements was further confirmed by TEM.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of fish diseases
October/1/2018
Abstract

Growth, skeletal structure and muscle composition of cold-shock-induced triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were investigated. The average values of total length and total weight of triploids were higher than those of diploids from 5 to 11 months posthatch (mph). The growth difference disappeared after 11 mph. The skeletal structure of flounder at 11 mph was observed by X-ray imaging method. There are four kinds of vertebral deformity including vertebrae fusion, one-sided compression, two-sided compression and vertically shifted. The trunk region (V8-18) and tailing end of the vertebral column were the predominant locations of deformity. In general, the frequencies of vertebral deformities in triploids (60.0%) were higher than those in diploids (33.3%, p < 0.05). Both the number of fish with deformed vertebrae and the average frequencies of deformed vertebrae in triploids were significantly higher than those in diploids (p < 0.05). The muscle tissues of diploid and triploid flounder at 11 mph contain the same types of fatty acid and free amino acid profiles. The number of fatty acids with significant higher contents in diploids and triploids was one and ten, respectively (p < 0.05). The contents of free amino acids showed no difference between triploid and diploid fish.

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Journal: Journal of infection in developing countries
October/6/2014
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Benzathine penicillin G is the treatment of choice for syphilis, but doxycycline and tetracycline are effective second-line treatments. The objective of this study was to assess the serological response to treatment for early syphilis with benzathine penicillin compared with doxycycline or tetracycline.

METHODS

We examined rapid plasma regain (RPR) serological test results of all first-time early syphilis patients in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2000 and 2011, comparing treatment with two doses of penicillin to 14-day course of oral doxycycline (100 mg twice daily) or oral tetracycline (500 mg 4 times a day).

RESULTS

Of the 641 early syphilis cases with available treatment outcome data, 606 (94.5%) received penicillin and 35 (5.5%) received doxycycline/tetracycline. More than half (52.1%) had secondary syphilis, 13.4% had primary syphilis, and 34.5% had early latent syphilis. A statistically similar serological treatment success rate (p = 0.157) was observed in penicillin-treated patients 91.4% (554/606), when compared with patients treated with doxycycline/tetracycline 82.9% (29/35).

CONCLUSIONS

Doxycycline/tetracycline had a similar serological treatment success rate when compared to penicillin in the treatment of early syphilis.

Pubmed
Journal: Nature communications
July/14/2015
Abstract

Heart failure (HF) is associated with complicated molecular remodelling within cardiomyocytes; however, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we show that sorting nexin-13 (SNX13), a member of both the sorting nexin and the regulator of G protein signalling (RGS) protein families, is a potent mediator of HF. Decreased levels of SNX13 are observed in failing hearts of humans and of experimental animals. SNX13-deficient zebrafish recapitulate HF with striking cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, a reduction in SNX13 expression facilitates the degradative sorting of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), which is a multifunctional inhibitor of apoptosis. Consequently, the apoptotic pathway is activated, resulting in the loss of cardiac cells and the dampening of cardiac function. The N-terminal PXA structure of SNX13 is responsible for mediating the endosomal trafficking of ARC. Thus, this study reveals that SNX13 profoundly affects cardiac performance through the SNX13-PXA-ARC-caspase signalling pathway.

Pubmed
Journal: Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica
December/28/2006
Abstract

In order to compare the difference between young and old intervertebral disc cells and their responsiveness to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), disc cells were isolated from the anulus fibrosus (AF) and transition zones of lumbar discs from eight old and eight young New Zealand white rabbits. Compared with the cells from the young rabbits, cells from old rabbits respond less to rhBMP-2 treatment with respect to sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) synthesis and aggrecan gene expression. But in collagen I and collagen II gene expressions, there are no significant differences between the old and the young. When comparing sGAG content, aggrecan, and collagen II gene expression of the old AF cells after rhBMP-2 treatment with that of the young AF cells without rhBMP-2 treatment, the old AF cells with rhBMP-2 treatment have a greater capacity to synthesize sGAG bound in the cells and to release sGAG in the media, as well as to express aggrecan and collagen II gene. It can be concluded that old AF cells after rhBMP-2 treatment have a greater capacity to synthesize sGAG and express aggrecan and collagen II as compared to young AF cells without rhBMP-2 treatment. Thus rhBMP-2 can reverse the decline in the anabolic capacity of the disc cells with ageing. So it seems that rhBMP-2 has potential for use as an agent to retard a key component of disc degeneration and loss of disc matrix.

Pubmed
Journal: Archives of medical research
January/3/2007
Abstract

BACKGROUND

Tubulointerstitial damage (TID) is an important mediator in the progression of chronic proteinuric nephropathies. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the relationship between several clinical predictors and TID in adult-onset primary nephrotic syndrome in China.

METHODS

One hundred ninety-five adult inpatients who were diagnosed with primary nephrotic syndrome based on clinical presentation and biopsy results were enrolled in this study from March 2003 to September 2005. The degree of TID was graded by a semiquantitative method including <2 score and >or=2 score.

RESULTS

In all patients, the rate of glomerulosclerosis was correlated with the severity of TID. Serum creatinine and uric acid (r = 0.183, p = 0.012 and r = 0.377, p = 0.00001, respectively) but not serum lipid or total 24-h urinary protein were related with TID. In 64 patients, urinary excretion of IgG (r = 0.443, p = 0.00001) but not of albumin, transferrin, retinal-binding protein, or alpha1-microglobulin were significantly associated with the extent of TID. Proteinuria selectivity index based upon IgG also correlated significantly with the extent of TID (p = 0.0001) (score 0-1 vs. score >or=2).

CONCLUSIONS

These results showed that serum creatinine and uric acid, the excretion of urinary IgG and proteinuria selectivity index based upon IgG, were highly correlated with the severity of TID in adult-onset primary nephrotic syndrome. These clinical parameters might be useful for predicting the development and progression of proteinuric nephropathy as independent risk factors.

Pubmed
Journal: Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
July/27/2018
Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aims of this study are to review our surgical experience in maxillary and midface reconstruction using free vascularized tissue and to compare the postoperative outcomes based on superficial temporal versus cervical recipient vessels.

METHODS

We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent maxillary and midface reconstruction with free vascularized tissue from March 2001 to July 2014. Two groups were analyzed: those in whom superficial temporal vessels were used as the recipient vessels and those in whom cervical vessels were used as the recipient vessels. Patient gender and age, cause and classification of the defect, flap choice for reconstruction, recipient vessels, postoperative course, and complications also were recorded and analyzed. A 2-tailed Fisher exact test was used to compare outcomes between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

On the basis of the different recipient vessels, 94 patients were divided into 2 groups: those with superficial temporal recipient vessels (n = 44) and those with cervical recipient vessels (n = 50). The overall flap survival rate was 99.0%. The overall complication rate for vascular anastomoses was 5.3%. The complication rate in patients with cervical recipient vessels was higher than the complication rate in those with superficial temporal recipient vessels (8.0% vs 2.27%, P = .37). In addition, in patients in the group with superficial temporal recipient vessels, the postoperative scar in the pre-tragal region was rated as more satisfactory than the postsurgical scar in those in the cervical recipient vessel group.

CONCLUSIONS

We recommend that the superficial temporal vessels be the first option for recipient vessels in free vascularized tissue maxillary and midface reconstruction because of proximity, superficial positioning, and suitability for anastomosis and monitoring and because these vessels are rarely compromised by prior operations or radiotherapy.

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Pubmed
Journal: PloS one
January/14/2015
Abstract

BACKGROUND

The hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition and a major clinical problem. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been identified as a prospective scar-improving compound based on preclinical trials. Our previous work showed that IL-10 has anti-fibrotic effects in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated fibroblasts, as well as potential therapeutic benefits for the prevention and reduction of scar formation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying IL-10-mediated anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement actions.

OBJECTIVE

To explore the expression of the IL-10 receptor in human HS tissue and primary HS fibroblasts (HSFs), and the molecular mechanisms contributing to the anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement capabilities of IL-10.

METHODS

Expression of the IL-10 receptor was assessed in HS tissue and HSFs by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Primary HSFs were treated with IL-10, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or a function-blocking antibody against the IL-10 receptor (IL-10RB). Next, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate changes in the phosphorylation status of AKT and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3, as well as the expression levels of fibrosis-related proteins.

RESULTS

HS tissue and primary HSFs were characterized by expression of the IL-10 receptor and by high expression of fibrotic markers relative to normal controls. Primary HSFs expressed the IL-10 receptor, while IL-10 induced AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation in these cells. In addition, LY294002 blocked AKT and STAT phosphorylation, and also up-regulated expression levels of type I and type III collagen (Col 1 and Col 3) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in IL-10-treated cells. Similarly, IL-10RB reduced STAT3/AKT phosphorylation and blocked the IL-10-mediated mitigation of fibrosis in HSFs.

CONCLUSIONS

IL-10 apparently inhibits fibrosis by activating AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation downstream of the IL-10 receptor, and by facilitating crosstalk between the PI3K/AKT and STAT3 signal transduction pathways.

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