Jun Li
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Publication
Journal: Technology in cancer research & treatment
November/13/2018
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The study was aimed to compare hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy treatment plans for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of brain tumors.
METHODS
Treatment plans of 22 patients were studied. Hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans were generated using Brainlab iPlanDose and Varian Eclipse treatment planning systems, respectively, with 6 MV photon beams on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (Palo Alto, CA). Prescription dose was 54 Gy. The fractionation was 1.8 Gy per fraction and 30 fractions in total, or 2 Gy per fraction and 27 fractions in total. Planning target volume ranged from 2.4 to 28.6 cm3. Dose conformity index, gradient index, homogeneity index, and maximum doses in organs at risk were compared. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine statistical significance in paired comparison.
RESULTS
Conformity indexes of hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans are 1.10 ± 0.10 and 1.14 ± 0.07, respectively ( P = .4); gradient indexes are 5.02 ± 1.20 and 5.64 ± 1.28, respectively ( P = .0001); homogeneity indexes are 1.02 ± 0.01 and 1.05 ± 0.01, respectively ( P = .0001); brainstem maximum doses are 53.87 ± 1.63 Gy and 54.06 ± 3.17 Gy, respectively ( P = .1); and optic chiasm maximum doses are 53.86 ± 1.28 Gy and 53.95 ± 1.81, respectively ( P = .4). The monitor unit efficiencies of hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans are 2.57 ± 0.25 MU/cGy and 2.68 ± 0.24 MU/cGy, respectively ( P = .2). The differences of conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans are small: 0.08 ± 0.05, 0.65 ± 0.46, and 0.02 ± 0.01, respectively. The maximum doses in organs at risks are similar between hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans. Hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans, which have similar monitor unit efficiencies, present similar dosimetric results in the fractionated intracranial radiotherapy.
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Publication
Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international
November/13/2018
Abstract
Air samples were collected from 26 air-monitoring stations located in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and two in Shaoguan, South China, to investigate the spatial distribution and temporal changes in polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) after the production and use of PBDE commercial formulations was restricted in China and the "dual transfer strategy" implemented by Guangdong Province. The spatial distribution of PBDEs was inhomogeneous in the PRD region, with concentrations ranging from 26.3 to 634 pg/m3 and a mean value of 105 pg/m3. The PBDE levels in the five western cities (Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing, Zhongshan, and Jiangmen) were markedly higher than those in the four eastern cities (Dongguan, Huizhou, Shenzhen, and Zhuhai). BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 57.3-89.8% of the total measured PBDEs in this study. The proportion of penta- and nona-BDE congeners in the four eastern cities was markedly higher than those in five western cities. Principal component analysis showed that this elevation might be related to the debromination of BDE-209 during the thermal treatment process of products when PBDEs are used as flame retardants. Although the PBDE levels found in this study were markedly lower than those reported in previous studies, further efforts are still needed to clarify if there was a decreasing trend for PBDEs in the atmosphere of the PRD, in view of the increasing trends of PBDEs found by other researchers in mangrove sediments from Hong Kong and the Pearl River estuary in 2014 and 2015.
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Publication
Journal: Immunology
December/5/2018
Abstract
B7 family members and their receptors play a central role in the regulation of T-cell responses through T-cell co-stimulation and co-inhibition pathways that constitute attractive targets for the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we report that VSIG-3/IGSF11 is a ligand of B7 family member VISTA/PD-1H and inhibits human T-cell functions through a novel VSIG-3/VISTA pathway. An extensive functional ELISA binding screening assay reveals that VSIG-3 binds to the new B7 family member VISTA but does not interact with other known members of the B7 family. Under the same experimental conditions, we did not observe any significant interaction between VSIG-8 and VISTA. In addition, VSIG-3 inhibits human T-cell proliferation in the presence of T-cell receptor signaling. Furthermore, VSIG-3 significantly reduces cytokine and chemokine production by human T cells including IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, CCL5/Rantes, CCL3/MIP-1α, and CXCL11/I-TAC. Anti-VISTA neutralization antibodies attenuate the binding of VSIG-3 and VISTA, as well as VSIG-3-induced T-cell inhibition. Hence, we have identified a novel ligand for VISTA that is able to inhibit human T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. This unique VSIG-3/VISTA co-inhibitory pathway may provide new strategies for the treatment of human cancers, autoimmune disorders, infection, and transplant rejection and may aid in the design of better vaccines.
Publication
Journal: Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
June/4/2018
Abstract
The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in preventing cancer through interaction with DNA response elements (REs) to regulate target gene expression in cells. Due to its significance in cancer biology, relentless efforts have been directed toward understanding p53-DNA interactions for the development of cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. In this paper, we report a rapid, label-free and versatile colorimetric assay to detect wildtype p53 DNA-binding function in complex solutions. The assay design is based on a concept that alters interparticle-distances between RE-AuNPs from a crosslinking effect induced through tetramerization of wildtype p53 protein (p53-WT) upon binding to canonical DNA motifs modified on gold nanoparticles (RE-AuNPs). This leads to a visible solution color change from red to blue, which is quantifiable by the UV- visible absorption spectra with a detection limit of 5 nM. Contrastingly, no color change was observed for the binding-deficient p53 mutants and non-specific proteins due to their inability to crosslink RE-AuNPs. Based on this sensing principle, we further demonstrate its utility for fast detection of drug-induced DNA binding function to cancer-associated Y220C mutant p53 protein using well-established reactivating compounds. By exploiting the dominant-negative property of mutant p53 over p53-WT and interactions with RE-AuNPs, this assay is configurable to detect low numbers of mutant p53 expressing cells in miniscule sample fractions obtained from typical core needle biopsy-sized tissues without signal attrition, alluding to the potential for biopsy sampling in cancer diagnostics or for defining cancer margins. This nanogold enabled colorimetric assay provides a facile yet robust method for studying important parameters influencing p53-DNA interactions with great promises for clinically pertinent applications.
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Publication
Journal: Pest management science
December/4/2018
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura is an important egg parasitoid that can be used in the biological control of lepidopteran pests. The effects of storage temperature, developmental stage and storage duration on development and survival were investigated to determine the optimum storage conditions for rearing T. dendrolimi in vitro.
RESULTS
The three investigated factors significantly impacted all the biological parameters except for parental G1 and offspring G2 sex ratios. The responses of in vitro reared T. dendrolimi to low temperatures differed depending on developmental stage and storage duration. Comparison of life table parameters under different storage treatments with the control group indicated that storing prepupae at 13 °C for 2, 3 or 4 weeks positively impacted the growth capacity of the parasitoid.
CONCLUSIONS
In vitro reared T. dendrolimi can be reared following cold storage. The quality of the parasitoid was strongly affected by cold storage, likely due to the negative effects of storage on the artificial medium. Storage of the prepupal stage at 13 °C for 4 weeks is optimum for in vitro reared T. dendrolimi. Trichogramma reared in vitro were able to parasitize natural eggs after storage and, thus, have potential for use as biological control agents in the field. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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Publication
Journal: Journal of hepatology
May/18/2018
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Publication
Journal: Oncogene
December/6/2018
Abstract
Macrophages play a crucial role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis (HF). In macrophages, epigenetic mechanisms are increasingly being recognized as crucial controllers of their phenotype. However, the functions of macrophage DNA methylation in experimental models of hepatic fibrosis have not been fully addressed. Here, we analyzed isolated hepatic macrophages DNA methylation from CCL4-induced (4 weeks) mice using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). We identified and validated the methylation status of 26 gene promoter regions associated with CpG islands. We further investigated the function of PSTPIP2 in HF by hepatic-adeno-associated virus (AAV9)-PSTPIP2 overexpression. The molecular mechanisms underlying PSTPIPS2-regulated HF were further explored in mice and RAW264.7 cell line. RRBS results show hypermethylation of PSTPIP2 (chr18: 77,843,840-77,843,968) in the 5'-UTR region. PSTPIP2 expression was significantly decreased in isolated hepatic macrophages from CCL4-induced mice. PSTPIP2 hypermethylation is mediated by the methyltransferases DNMT3a and DNMT3b in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell line. Further investigation indicated that specific overexpression of PSTPIP2 in C57BL/6 mice reduced the inflammatory response and ameliorated liver fibrosis. These data indicated that hypermethylation of PSTPIP2 caused a mixed induction of hepatic classical macrophage (M1) and alternative macrophage (M2) biomarkers in CCL4-induced HF mice. Furthermore, overexpression of PSTPIP2 inhibited the expression of M1 markers by suppressing STAT1 activity, and enhanced the expression of M2 markers by promoting STAT6 activity. In contrast, knockdown of PSTPIP2 promoted M1 polarization and suppressed M2 polarization in vitro. Adding PSTPIP2 expression alleviates liver fibrosis and hepatic inflammation in mice by regulating macrophage polarization.
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Publication
Journal: Oncotarget
November/13/2018
Abstract
Pigment epithelial derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted glycoprotein that is a non-inhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family. PEDF exhibits multiple biological properties including neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, and immune-modulating. Interestingly, PEDF exerts the inhibitory effects in cancers derived from certain tissues, including prostatic, ovarian, and pancreatic carcinomas. The current study aimed to elucidate its role in colorectal cancer development. PEDF expression in human colorectal cancer tissue was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The effect of treatment with recombinant PEDF on cellular function was examined using in vitro functional assays. PEDF expression was downregulated in colorectal cancer cell tissue. Treatment with recombinant PEDF resulted in significant decreases in the rate of colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion and an increase in cellular adhesion in colorectal cancer cell lines examined. These results indicate that upregulation of PEDF expression may serve as a new strategy for further investigation of therapeutic relevance to the prevention of the metastatic spread of colorectal cancer.
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Publication
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology
November/13/2018
Abstract
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration play a critical role in the development of arterial remodeling during various vascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and related diseases. Luteolin is a food-derived flavonoid that exerts protective effects on cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated whether transforming growth factor-β receptor 1 (TGFBR1) signaling underlies the inhibitory effects of luteolin on VSMC proliferation and migration. We found that luteolin reduced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, specifically A7r5 and HASMC cells, in a dose-dependent manner, based on MTS and EdU, and Transwell and wound healing assays, respectively. We also demonstrated that it inhibited the expression of proliferation-related proteins including PCNA and Cyclin D1, as well as the migration-related proteins MMP2 and MMP9, in a dose-dependent manner by western blotting. In addition, luteolin dose-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of TGFBR1, Smad2, and Smad3. Notably, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of TGFBR1 enhanced TGFBR1, Smad2, and Smad3 activation in VSMCs and partially blocked the inhibitory effect of luteolin on TGFBR1, Smad2, and Smad3. Moreover, overexpression of TGFBR1 rescued the inhibitory effects of luteolin on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Additionally, molecular docking showed that this compound could dock onto an agonist binding site of TGFBR1, and that the binding energy between luteolin and TGFBR1 was -10.194 kcal/mol. Simulations of molecular dynamics showed that TGFBR1-luteolin binding was stable. Collectively, these data demonstrated that luteolin might inhibit VSMC proliferation and migration by suppressing TGFBR1 signaling.
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Publication
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology
November/13/2018
Abstract
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a complex process that includes a wide range of hepatic lesions, from steatosis to cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulating evidence shows that the cytotoxic effects of ethanol metabolism lead to cell apoptosis and necrosis in ALD. Recently, several studies revealed that multifunctional protein β-arrestin 2 (Arrb2) modulated cell apoptosis in liver fibrosis and HCC, but its role in ALD has not been fully understood. The aim of this study is to explore the function and underlying mechanism of Arrb2 in hepatocyte survival and apoptosis in ALD. In our study, the primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of C57BL/6 mice fed EtOH-containing diet, it showed an increased level of Arrb2. EtOH also significantly up-regulated Arrb2 production in AML-12 cells in vitro. Furthermore, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) and FCM results demonstrated that knockdown of Arrb2 could inhibit hepatocyte apoptosis induced by EtOH in vivo and vitro while over-expression of Arrb2 induced apoptosis in ALD. In addition, western blot results revealed that Arrb2 remarkably suppressed the Akt signaling. Taken together, our data suggested that Arrb2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for ALD by promoting hepatocyte apoptosis via Akt suppression.
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Publication
Journal: OncoTargets and therapy
November/13/2018
Abstract
UNASSIGNED
Melanoma, which is initiated from melanocytes, is the most fatal type of skin cancer. Melanoma-initiating cells significantly contribute to the initiation, metastasis, and recurrence of melanoma, and CD20 is a marker of melanoma-initiating cells. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been demonstrated to induce differentiation, inhibit proliferation, and promote the apoptosis of cancer cells and cancer-initiating cells (CICs). However, there has been no report on ATRA activity against melanoma-initiating cells. In this study, we examined the activity of ATRA against melanoma-initiating cells and developed ATRA-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, which were conjugated with a CD20 antibody (ATRA-PNP-CD20) for targeted delivery of ATRA to CD20+ melanoma-initiating cells.
UNASSIGNED
The effects of ATRA and ATRA-PNP-CD20 against melanoma-initiating cells were investigated using a cytotoxicity assay, tumorsphere formation assay, and flow cytometry.
UNASSIGNED
ATRA-PNP-CD20 had a size of 126.9 nm and a negative zeta potential. The drug-loading capacity of ATRA-PNP-CD20 was 8.7%, and ATRA-PNP-CD20 displayed a sustained release of ATRA for 144 hours. The results showed that ATRA-PNP-CD20 could effectively and specifically deliver ATRA to CD20+ melanoma-initiating cells, achieving superior inhibitory effects against CD20+ melanoma-initiating cells compared with those of free ATRA and nontargeted nanoparticles. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time a potent activity of ATRA against CD20+ melanoma-initiating cells, targeted drug delivery of ATRA via nanoparticles to melanoma-initiating cells, and the achievement of a superior inhibitory effect against melanoma-initiating cells by using a CD20 antibody.
UNASSIGNED
ATRA-PNP-CD20 represents a promising tool for eliminating melanoma-initiating cells and shows a potential for the therapy of melanoma.
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Publication
Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
November/15/2018
Abstract
Cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a kind of potential tumor biomarkers originated from cancer lesion in the circulating liquids. Liquid biopsy, as a minimally invasive or noninvasive manner, is a cutting-edge technology to detect ctDNA and other circulating biomarkers in the blood or other body fluids. ctDNA is mostly used for cancer patients to select targeted drugs in clinical application. In addition, ctDNA could also be applied to monitor tumor progression and recurrence. In conclusion, ctDNA is a very promising tumor biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring, which would increasingly become a routine clinical application in recent years.
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Publication
Journal: Turkish journal of medical sciences
October/27/2019
Abstract
Hypertension is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. This study explored whether elderly patients with stage I hypertension (HPs) and normotensive patients (NPs) showed differences in the recovery of postoperative attention network function, according to attentional network test (ANT) performance.Of 110 patients screened, 25 HPs and 25 NPs completed this study. All participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination 1 day preoperatively and the ANT on postoperative days (PODs) 2 and 7.Compared with NPs, HPs had significantly lower alerting network effect scores and more difficulty resolving conflict on POD 7. However, no significant difference was observed between groups on POD 2. Orienting network performance was similar between groups at all timepoints. Significant differences in alerting and executive control network performance were observed between PODs 2 and 7 within each group.HPs showed selective cognitive impairment at different timepoints following elective hip or knee arthroplasty. Compared with NPs, HPs were more likely to experience delayed recovery of alerting and executive control network function, but not orienting network function, during the first postoperative week.
Publication
Journal: Surgical innovation
June/2/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the effect of ultrasonic coagulator for thyroidectomy.
METHODS
randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCI, Chinese Biomedical Database, China Academic Journals Full-Text Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Database, and China Online Journals. The authors evaluated the quality of included studies by Handbook 5.0.0, and analyzed data by Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.0.
RESULTS
A total of 11 RCTs with 1420 patients met the criteria. Between ultrasonic coagulator and conventional technique, there were significant differences in operative time of total thyroidectomy (P < .00001) and amount of intraoperative bleeding (P = .02). There were no significant differences in operative time of part thyroidectomy (P = .07), amount of postoperative drainage (P = .18), cases of transient hypocalcemia (P = .41), cases of transient recurrent nerve paresis (P = .21), and total cost in hospital (P = .08).
CONCLUSIONS
Current studies demonstrate that ultrasonic coagulator has a significant reduction on the operating time of total thyroidectomy and the amount of intraoperative bleeding in thyroidectomy, without increasing complications and total cost in hospital.
Publication
Journal: Medicine
December/21/2018
Abstract
The present study evaluated the clinical potential of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of rectal cancer.A total of 84 patients confirmed with rectal cancer were used as study subjects in the present study. All patients received conventional sequence MR T1WI, T2WI, and DWI examination as well as operative pathological examination. The differences between the MRI results and operative pathological results were analyzed.The diagnosis accordance rates of conventional sequence examination in stage T1, T2, T3, and T4 were 60.00%, 82.75%, 62.85%, and 80.00%, respectively. The diagnosis accordance rates of conventional sequence combined with DWI examination in stages T1, T2, T3, and T4 were 100.00%, 100.00%, 82.85%, and 100.00% respectively. The total diagnosis accordance rates in the T staging of rectal cancer with conventional (Routinely or generally applied) sequence examination and conventional sequence combined with DWI examination were 71.42% and 92.85%, respectively.The analysis on consistency of MR conventional sequence examination suggested that the conventional sequence combined with DWI examination is more consistent with pathological staging when compared with the convention sequence examination alone. MR DWI combined with conventional sequences reveals quite good accuracy in the T staging of rectal cancer.
Publication
Journal: International journal of legal medicine
July/5/2019
Abstract
The present study aims to evaluate the relation between chronological age and the ratio of pulp volume (PV) to enamel volume (EV) of impacted mandibular third molars (IMTMs) by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and an improved 3D image segmentation technique. A sample of CBCT images of IMTM was collected from 414 northern Chinese subjects (214 male and 200 female clinical patients) ranging in age from 20 to 65 years. The GrowCut effect image segmentation (GCEIS) module algorithm was used to calculate the PV and EV from CBCT images. The total sample was divided into a training group and validation group in a ratio of 7 to 3. The PV/EV ratio (PEr) in the training sample was used to develop a mathematical formula for age estimation as follows: age = - 5.817-21.726 × Ln PEr (p < 0.0001) (Ln, natural logarithm). The mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to determine the precision and accuracy of the mathematical formula in the validation group and all samples. The MAEs in the male, female, and pooled gender samples were 9.223, 7.722, and 8.41, respectively, and the RMSEs in the male, female, and pooled gender samples were 10.76, 9.58, and 9.986, respectively. The precise and accurate results indicate that the PEr of IMTM in CBCT images is a potential index for dental age estimation and is possible to be used in forensic medicine.
Publication
Journal: Frontiers in plant science
November/21/2019
Abstract
Plant cyclic peptides (CPs) are a large group of small molecule metabolites found in a wide variety of plants, including traditional Chinese medicinal plants. However, the majority of plant CPs have not been studied for their biosynthetic mechanisms, including heterophyllin B (HB), which is one of the characteristic chemical components of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. Here, we screened the precursor gene (prePhHB) of HB in P. heterophylla and functionally identified its correctness in vivo and in vitro. First, we developed a new method to screen the precursors of HB from 16 candidate linear peptides. According to transcriptome sequencing data, we cloned the genes that encoded the HB precursor peptides and confirmed that the prePhHB-encoded precursor peptide could enzymatically synthesize HB. Next, we generated the transgenic tobacco that expressed prePhHB, and the results showed that HB was detected in transgenic tobacco. Moreover, we revealed that prePhHB gene expression is positively correlated with HB accumulation in P. heterophylla. Mutations in the prePhHB gene may influence the accumulation of HB in P. heterophylla. These results suggest that HB is ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) derived from the precursor gene prePhHB-encoded precursor peptide, and the core peptide sequence of HB is IFGGLPPP in P. heterophylla. This study developed a new idea for the rapid identification of Caryophyllaceae-type CP precursor peptides via RNA-sequencing data mining.
Publication
Journal: Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
October/25/2019
Abstract
To review the development and clinical application of ankle prosthesis.The recent literature on ankle prosthesis design and clinical application was reviewed and analyzed.Compared with the hip and knee prostheses, the ankle prosthesis develops slowly and has been developed to the third generation. The ankle joint has a special structure of multi-axis movement. The design of the first and second generations of prostheses is not conformed to the biomechanics of the ankle. The third generation of prosthesis is more conform to the characteristics of ankle biomechanics, with high postoperative survival rate and satisfactory clinical outcome.At present, the survival rate of ankle prosthesis is low, and there is still much room for improvement in biomechanics, materials, and other aspects.
Publication
Journal: Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
October/23/2011
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the expression of DNMT1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its relationship with clinicopathological factors.
METHODS
Ninety-six cases of LSCC samples were detected by immunohistochemical staining to analyze the expression of DNMT1 protein, while 66 cases of them were detected by real-time PCR. And the relationship between the expression of DNMT1 mRNA and clinicopathologic factors was then analyzed.
RESULTS
The expression of DNMT1 mRNA in LSCC were up-regulated (P < 0.05). The positive rate of DNMT1 protein expression in LSCC and in peri-cancer tissue were 100% (96/96) and 36% (8/22) respectively, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). DNMT1 mRNA expression wasn't correlated with patients' age, gender, T stage and lympha node metastasis, but was associated with smoking habit (P < 0.05, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
DNMT1 may initiate the oncogenesis of LSCC by increasing expression, and smoking habit may induce the expression of DNMT1 gene.
Publication
Journal: Nature communications
March/2/2019
Abstract
Gene essentiality is a variable phenotypic trait, but to what extent and how essential genes can become dispensable for viability remain unclear. Here, we investigate 'bypass of essentiality (BOE)' - an underexplored type of digenic genetic interaction that renders essential genes dispensable. Through analyzing essential genes on one of the six chromosome arms of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we find that, remarkably, as many as 27% of them can be converted to non-essential genes by BOE interactions. Using this dataset we identify three principles of essentiality bypass: bypassable essential genes tend to have lower importance, tend to exhibit differential essentiality between species, and tend to act with other bypassable genes. In addition, we delineate mechanisms underlying bypassable essentiality, including the previously unappreciated mechanism of dormant redundancy between paralogs. The new insights gained on bypassable essentiality deepen our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships and will facilitate drug development related to essential genes.
Publication
Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
July/22/2013
Abstract
Background. Chinese herbs are potentially effective for hypertension. Qi Ju Di Huang Wan (QJDHW) is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine as a monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on the effectiveness and safety of QJDHW for EH. Methods and Findings. CENTRAL, PubMed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of QJDHW for essential hypertension up to January 2013 with no language restrictions. A total of 10 randomized trials involving 1024 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in lowering blood pressure and improving TCM syndrome for the treatment of essential hypertension than antihypertensive drugs used alone. No trials reported severe adverse events related to QJDHW. Conclusions. Our review suggests that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs might be an effective treatment for lowering blood pressure and improving symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the finding should be interpreted with caution because of the poor methodological quality of included trials. There is an urgent need for well-designed, long-term studies to assess the effectiveness of QJDHW in the treatment of essential hypertension.
Publication
Journal: Vascular medicine (London, England)
September/23/2019
Publication
Journal: Nanoscale
June/21/2015
Abstract
In order to quantitatively explain the enhanced specific heat of metal nanocrystals measured from 4.2 K to 80 K, an analytical expression has been deduced to determine the surface specific heat in nanocrystals, which is proportional to T(2.5) at low temperatures. The consequently calculated specific heat and surface Debye temperature of copper nanocrystals are in good agreement with the experimental data. This explains why the experimental specific heat of copper nanocrystals is enhanced with respect to the bulk and why it exhibits a different feature as a function of temperature from that of the bulk at low temperatures. The first experimental evidence is presented that the spatial dimension of surfaces should be neither pure 2D nor 3D, but between 2D and 3D, due to the effect of atoms in the core of the nanocrystals.
Publication
Journal: Clinical imaging
November/16/2015
Abstract
Heat stroke (HS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by severe hyperthermia associated with central nervous system abnormalities. We present two interesting cases of HS with symmetric lesions in the dentate nuclei and cerebellar peduncles. Typical MRI and (1)H-MRS features including follow-up studies are illustrated.
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