Jun Li
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Pubmed
Journal: Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
April/23/2014
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the effectiveness of anterolateral thigh and groin conjoined flap in emergent repair of ultra-long complex tissue defects in forearm and hand.
METHODS
Between February 2009 and October 2011, 6 patients with complex tissue defect of dorsal forearm and hand were in adminsion. There were 5 male and 1 female with an average age of 38.5 years (range, 32-47 years). Injury reasons included machine injury in 5 cases and traffic accident injury in 1 case. Injury to admission time was from 3 to 16 hours (mean, 6 hours). All case were single limb injury, including right forearm and hand injury in 4 cases and left forearm and hand injury in 2 cases. The wound area was from 36 cm x 9 cm to 48 cm x 12 cm. The type of associated injury included elbow dislocation associated with open injury in 2 cases; fractures of the radial, ulnar, and metacarpal bone in 4 cases; defects of wrist dorsal skin and extensor tendons of fingers and wrist in 5 cases; and defects of ulnar artery and ulnar nerve in 1 case. The anterolateral thigh and groin conjoined free flaps were used to repair defects in the forearm and hand in emergency. The area of flap was from 36 cm x 9 cm to 48 cm x 12 cm. Meanwhile the partial functional reconstruction was performed. The donor site was repaired by skin grafts.
RESULTS
The anastomotic embolization of vascular pedicle and arteria interossea dorsalis occurred in 1 case, purulent secretion under the flap in 1 case, which were cured after symptomatic treatment; the skin flaps completely survived, and primary healing of the wounds were obtained in the other cases. The donor skin grafts survived in 2 cases, and partial necrosis of the skin graft of lower abdominal occurred in 4 cases, and healed after changing dressing. All of the 6 patients were followed up 3 to 18 months (mean, 10 months). The appearance and texture of the flaps were good. The protective sensation was recovered in 2 cases followed up for more than 14 months; no sensory recovery was observed in the other cases. At last follow-up, according to the upper extremity functional evaluation standard by Hand Surgery Branch of Chinese Medical Association, the results were excellent in 1 case, good in 4 cases, and poor in 1 case, and the excellent and good rate was 83.3%.
CONCLUSIONS
It could get a good short-term effectiveness to use the anterolateral thigh and groin conjoined flap for emergent repair of the ultra-long and complex tissue defects in forearm and hand.
Pubmed
Journal: Vaccine
December/4/2008
Abstract
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection remains a major worldwide infectious disease with serious long-term morbidity and mortality. The limited selections of drug treatment are not able to control the progress of disease in people with active and persistent HBV infection. Immunotherapy to control the degree of viral infection is one possible alternative solution to this challenge. HBV DNA vaccines, with their strong ability to induce cell-mediated immune responses, offer an attractive option. HBV surface protein is important in viral immunity. Re-establishing anti-S immunity in chronic HBV infected patients will bring significant benefit to the patients. Previous studies have shown that HBV S DNA vaccines are immunogenic in a number of animal studies. In the current study, we further investigated the effect of glycosylation to the expression and immunogenicity of S DNA vaccines. Our results demonstrate that deglycosylation at the two potential N-linked glycosylation sites in S protein resulted in a significant decrease of S-specific cell-mediated immune responses, but did not affect anti-S antibody responses. This finding provides important direction to the development of S DNA vaccines to elicit the optimal and balanced antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to treat people with HBV chronic infections.
Pubmed
Journal: Journal of separation science
April/3/2016
Abstract
Stilbenoids are the main components of leaves and stems of Pholidota chinensis. In the present investigation, high-speed counter-current chromatography was used for the separation and purification of two classes of stilbenoids, namely, bibenzyls and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes, on a preparative scale from whole plants of P. chinensis with different solvent systems after silica gel column chromatography fractionation. n-Hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1.2:1:1:0.8, v/v/v/v) was selected as the optimum solvent system to purify 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1',2'-ethanediol (1), coelonin (2), 3,4'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxybibenzyl (3), and 2,​7-​dihydroxy-​3,​4,​6-​trimethoxy-​9,​10-​dihydrophenanthrene (4). While 2,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxy-​9,​10-​dihydrophenanthrene (5), batatasin III (6), orchinol (7), and 3'-O-methylbatatasin III (8) were purified by n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1.6:0.8:1.2:0.4, v/v/v/v). After the high-speed counter-current chromatography isolation procedure, the purity of all compounds was over 94% assayed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. The chemical structure identification of all compounds was carried out by mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, the current investigation is the first study for the separation and purification of bibenzyls and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes by high-speed counter-current chromatography from natural resources.
Pubmed
Journal: Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
June/8/2004
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To study the cost of the hypertensive outpatients.
METHODS
The study randomly selected 460 insured patients with hypertension and investigated their cost on each case in the out-patient department through 2002, based on the electronic system of medical insurance.
RESULTS
As a whole, the distribution of hypertensive outpatient expenditure takes on the positively skewed, with the median of 1 567.9 Yuan RMB. With the increase of age, the average expenses in each age group increased accordingly. In the study, the average number of outpatient attendances per patient was 19.5, the average expenses per visit was 115.4 Yuan RMB. In age groups 40 - 49 and 50 - 59, expenses of outpatient in male and female groups are obviously different in 2002 (Wilcoxon W(40 - 49) = 36, P(40 - 49) = 0.037; Wilcoxon W(50 - 59) = 374, P(50 - 59) = 0.023), as well as the number of out-patients (Wilcoxon W(40 - 49) = 52.5, P(40 - 49) = 0.007; Wilcoxon W(50 - 59) = 379, P(50 - 59) = 0.028). When considering the factors of gender and age at one time, the outpatient expenditures in the male group were significantly different between the different age groups (chi(2) = 22.3, P < 0.001), as well as the number of outpatients (chi(2) = 25.4, P < 0.001). In addition, the expenditure of drugs, which took a large proportion of the total expenditure of hypertensive outpatients (about 83.6 percent), was divided into three parts according to the degree of correlation with hypertension: direct expenses related to the with disease, the indirect expenses and the irrespective. The proportions of each part were 19.9 percent, 32.3 percent and 47.8 percent respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
When economic evaluation of community prevention is carried out, the cost and cost-benefit analysis based on the analysis of outpatient expenditure and the proportion of expenses on hypertension should be taken into account. Additionally, to provide appropriate mode of medicare, to impact the behaviors and expenditure of patients, and to provide low-cost but good effective drug are also essential and important factors.
Pubmed
Journal: Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
June/8/2004
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the quality of life of arthritis patients in China.
METHODS
Patients (n = 1 344) were selected by stratified random sampling according to the economic conditions and the ranking of hospitals, and asked to complete the arthritic self-reported questionnaire of quality of life.
RESULTS
The scores of quality of life were not different between male arthritis and female arthritis in different age groups (P > 0.05). The lower scores of quality of life were reported more often among the women older than 65 years. Those of lower educational level and lower income got fewer scores. Compared to the married and unmarried patients, the divorcees and those who were bereft of their spouses gained low scores (t = 9.310, P = 0.001). Among different occupation groups, the labors and farmers also got lower scores than others (P < 0.05). On the other hand, if the arthritis with better physical conditions, it was more possible that the scores were higher, but to pressed pain index, there were no different scores shown between the second and third grade (mean difference = 4.910, P = 0.765), and to joint swell index, there are no different scores between either the 0 and 1 grade (mean difference = 16.308, P = 0.079) or the 2 and 3 grade (mean difference = 6.643, P = 0.533).
CONCLUSIONS
To improve the quality of life of all arthritis patients, enhancing the quality of medical technology and enriching the medical knowledge are evidently necessary. However, it is also important to prefect social security system, to improve the country education and pay attention to life of elderly in order to improve the quality of life of all arthritis patients.
Pubmed
Journal: Gene
July/26/2017
Abstract
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein 2 (StAR2) is a key protein in transporting cholesterol from the outer mitochondria membrane to the inner mitochondria membrane for sex steroid synthesis. In this study, two StAR2 gene isoforms, StAR2a and StAR2b, were isolated from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus gonads. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that their expression levels were higher in testis than those in ovary. StAR2a was mainly expressed in the thecal cells and ooplasm of ovary, and Leydig cells and spermatid of testis according to the results of in situ hybridization. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the expressions of StAR2a and StAR2b were high in undifferentiation gonads and differentiating testis, and then decreased in differentiated testis in the high temperature (28°C) and exogenous testosterone treatment groups. While, in the exogenous 17β-estradiol treatment group, both genes' expression levels were high in differentiating ovary, and then significantly decreased in differentiated ovary (P<0.05). StAR2a and StAR2b expression levels were significantly down-regulated in the cultured testis cells treated with the 75 and 150μM cAMP, but significantly up-regulated in the cultured testis cells treated with the 300μM cAMP (P<0.05). Moreover, their expression levels were significantly up-regulated by transfecting the cultured testis cells with pcDNA3.1-NR5a2 and pcDNA3.1-NR0b1 (P<0.05). Above study showed that expression of StAR2 was regulated by cAMP and the transcription factors, NR5a2 and NR0b1, indicating that StAR2 may have functions in flounder gonadal differentiation and maintenance.
Pubmed
Journal: Fitoterapia
October/9/2017
Abstract
A flavonoid hesperetin is reported to have a variety of biological activities, including anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Thirty-one novel hesperetin derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using RAW264.7 cells and CCl4-induced acute liver injury model. Among these compounds, 5b displayed the excellent anti-inflammatory activity on decreasing NO, IL-6 and TNF-α both in vitro and vivo. In addition, 5b could also reduce the release of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α production by LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cell through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in a concentration dependent manner. From in vivo study, it was also observed that 5b attenuated liver histopathologic changes in mouse models.
Pubmed
Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology
August/26/2018
Abstract
Hemocyanins (HMC): the copper-containing respiratory proteins present in invertebrate hemolymph, which plays many essential roles in the immune system. Currently, little is known about the HMC domains of Procambarus clarkii (P. clarkii) and their function in antimicrobial immune response. In this present study, we comparatively studied the expression pattern of native PcHMC with the three recombinant proteins of variable domains of crayfish hemocyanin (PcHMC-N, N-terminal domain of hemocyanin; PcHMC-T, tyrosinase domain of hemocyanin; PcHMC-C, C-terminal domain of hemocyanin). The results showed that three purified recombinant proteins had a strong binding to various bacteria and lipopolysaccharides that further highly agglutinated. The HMCs recombinant proteins showed strong antibacterial activity against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus by bacterial growth inhibition, phenoloxidase (PO) and phagocytosis assays. Specifically, rPcHMC1-T and rPcHMC1-C inhibited both the bacteria efficiently, rPcHMC1-T was highly upregulated the PO activity than the other recombinant proteins. Whereas, recombinant proteins pretreated crayfish hemocytes participated in phagocytosis activity, rPcHMC1-N and rPcHMC1-C proteins had a profound effect than the rPcHMC1-T on S. aureus and V. parahaemolyticus phagocytosis. The crayfish hemocyanin domains clearly exhibited antibacterial and phagocytic activities against both the bacteria, suggesting that its variable domains of hemocyanin have the different function on specific pathogen during the assault of pathogens.
Pubmed
Journal: Diabetologia
December/6/2018
Abstract
Prolactin, a multifunctional hormone, is involved in regulating insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in experimental studies. However, whether circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes remains uncertain.
We analysed the prospective relationship between circulating prolactin concentrations and type 2 diabetes risk in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII with up to 22 years of follow-up. Total plasma prolactin was measured using immunoassay in 8615 women free of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at baseline blood collection (NHS 1989-1990; NHSII 1996-1999) and a subset of 998 NHS women providing a second blood sample during 2000-2002. Baseline bioactive prolactin was measured in a subset of 2478 women using the Nb2 bioassay. HRs were estimated using Cox regression.
A total of 699 incident type 2 diabetes cases were documented during 156,140 person-years of follow-up. Total plasma prolactin levels were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk; the multivariable HR comparing the highest with the lowest quartile was 0.73 (95% CI 0.55, 0.95; ptrend = 0.02). The associations were similar by menopausal status and other risk factors (pinteraction > 0.70). Additional adjustment for sex and growth hormones, adiponectin, and inflammatory and insulin markers did not significantly alter the results. The association of plasma bioactive prolactin with type 2 diabetes risk was non-significantly stronger than that of total prolactin (HR comparing extreme quartiles, 0.53 vs 0.81 among the subset of 2478 women, pdifference = 0.11). The inverse association of total prolactin with type 2 diabetes was significant during the first 9 years after blood draw but waned linearly with time, whereas for bioactive prolactin, the inverse relationship persisted for a longer follow-up time after blood draw.
A normally high circulating total prolactin concentration was associated with a lower type 2 diabetes risk within 9-10 years of follow-up since blood draw in US women. Our findings are consistent with experimental evidence, suggesting that among healthy women, prolactin within the biologically normal range may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
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Pubmed
Journal: Archives of medical research
November/1/2015
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Intramyocardial autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells injection (IM-BMCs) has been used in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) who are ineligible for revascularization; however, the procedure has yielded mixed results. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety and therapeutic benefits of this treatment on a relatively large scale.
METHODS
PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases through September 2014 were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of IM-BMCs to treat IHD. Outcome measures were defined as mortality after treatment, change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV). Weighted mean differences for the changes were estimated with a random-effects model.
RESULTS
Nine RCTs were eligible for inclusion. IM-BMCs significantly reduced the risk of mortality (RR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.17-0.65; p = 0.001). IM-BMCs significantly improved LVEF by 2.57% (95% CI, 0.34-4.80%; p = 0.02) and reduced LVESV by 9.67 mL (95% CI, -16.43 mL to -2.91 mL; p = 0.005). No significant improvement in LVEDV (WMD = 4.73 mL; 95% CI, -7.22 mL to 16.68 mL; p = 0.44) was detected in patients who received IM-BMC therapy.
CONCLUSIONS
IM-BMC therapy showed clinical safety while being used as stand-alone treatment in IHD with no option of revascularization. The therapeutic efficacy requires further confirmation in large well-powered trials with long-term follow-up.
Pubmed
Journal: Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue
July/1/2018
Abstract
The objective of the study was to investigate the change of biofilm characteristics when implementing the procedure of partial nitrification. A ratio control strategy (DO/NH4+-N) was taken to achieve partial nitrification, and biofilm samples were obtained at 10.27%, 52.12%, and 93.54% of the nitrite accumulation rate. The amount and spatial distribution of total bacteria, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and nitrite oxidative bacteria (NOB) were observed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) through a three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) to observe the secretion and composition changes of extracellular polymer substances. Ratio control successfully enriched AOB and achieved partial nitrification under conditions when NOB was not completely washed. Heterotrophic bacteria and nitrifying bacteria coexist in the biofilm. The heterotrophic bacteria were in the outer layer, but nitrifying bacteria were distributed in the biofilm surface at 6-25 μm. During the process of short-range nitrification, the AOB/NOB value gradually increased, and the stable operation period was as high as 15.56. During the operation of the reactor, EPS and microbial flora changes are closely related. When microbial activity decreased, EPS secretion decreased. During the stable operation period of partial nitrification, NOB and other bacteria that are non-resistant to high nitrite nitrous acid declined, and the fluorescence intensity of aromatic protein-like bacteria decreased. However, the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the chemical composition of EPS was not obvious during the process of partial nitrification.
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Pubmed
Journal: Pesticide biochemistry and physiology
May/1/2016
Abstract
Japanese foxtail is one of the most common and troublesome weeds infesting cereal and oilseed rape fields in China. Repeated use during the last three decades of the ACCase-inhibiting herbicide fenoxaprop-P-ethyl to control this weed has resulted in the occurrence of resistance. Dose-response tests established that a population (AHFD-1) from eastern China had evolved high-level resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. Based on the resistance index, this resistant population of A. japonicus is 60.31-fold resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. Subsequently, only a tryptophan to cysteine substitution was identified to confer resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in this resistant population. ACCase activity tests further confirmed this substitution was linked to resistance. This is the first report of the occurrence of Trp-2027-Cys substitution of ACCase in A. japonicus. From whole-plant pot dose-response tests, we confirmed that this population conferred resistance to other APP herbicides, including clodinafop-propargyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, cyhalofop-butyl, metamifop, DEN herbicide pinoxaden, but not to CHD herbicides clethodim, sethoxydim. There was also no resistance observed to ALS-inhibiting herbicides sulfosulfuron, mesosulfuron-methyl, flucarbazone-sodium, pyroxsulam, Triazine herbicide prometryne and glyphosate. However, this resistant population was likely to confer slightly (or no) resistant to Urea herbicides chlortoluron and isoproturon.
Pubmed
Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international
May/6/2015
Abstract
The first study aimed to investigate the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration level, spatial distribution pattern, and ecological risk assessment of water and sediment samples from two tributaries (Nullah Aik and Palkhu) of the River Chenab, Punjab Province, Pakistan. A total of 32 PCB congeners were analyzed, and PCB concentration in sediment and water samples ranged between 0.80 and 60 ng/g and 0.20 and 28 ng/L, respectively, where tetra-CBs and tri-CBs dominated over other studied PCB homologs. Dioxin toxicity equivalency (TEQ) was calculated and PCB-126 and PCB-169 showed the higher TEQ values compared with the WHO guidelines, and sediment samples were more toxic than the water samples. The results of the present study should be considered seriously by government authorities to take a proper action against unchecked discharge of contaminants in ecological integrities; otherwise, there may be drastic results in the near future.
Pubmed
Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
July/31/2017
Abstract
Leymus Hochst. (Triticeae: Poaceae), a group of allopolyploid species with the NsXm genomes, is a perennial genus with diversity in morphology, cytology, ecology, and distribution in the Triticeae. To investigate the genome origin and evolutionary history of Leymus, three unlinked low-copy nuclear genes (Acc1, Pgk1, and GBSSI) and three chloroplast regions (trnL-F, matK, and rbcL) of 32 Leymus species were analyzed with those of 36 diploid species representing 18 basic genomes in the Triticeae. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using Bayesian inference, Maximum parsimony, and NeighborNet methods. A time-calibrated phylogeny was generated to estimate the evolutionary history of Leymus. The results suggest that reticulate evolution has occurred in Leymus species, with several distinct progenitors contributing to the Leymus. The molecular data in resolution of the Xm-genome lineage resulted in two apparently contradictory results, with one placing the Xm-genome lineage as closely related to the P/F genome and the other splitting the Xm-genome lineage as sister to the Ns-genome donor. Our results suggested that (1) the Ns genome of Leymus was donated by Psathyrostachys, and additional Ns-containing alleles may be introgressed into some Leymus polyploids by recurrent hybridization; (2) The phylogenetic incongruence regarding the resolution of the Xm-genome lineage suggested that the Xm genome of Leymus was closely related to the P genome of Agropyron; (3) Both Ns- and Xm-genome lineages served as the maternal donor during the speciation of Leymus species; (4) The Pseudoroegneria, Lophopyrum and Australopyrum genomes contributed to some Leymus species.
Pubmed
Journal: Chinese medical journal
November/18/2013
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The recurrence of pterygium after surgery is high. A variety of adjunctive treatment approaches have been developed to improve the clinical efficacy and many related articles have been published. This study aimed to determine the risk for postoperative pterygium recurrence comparing autologous conjunctival transplantation (ACT) versus mitomycin C (MMC).
METHODS
Relevant literature published until December 2010 in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Cochrane library, Science Citation Index, and Google Scholar were searched. Qualified random clinical trial (RCT) studies on the comparison of recurrence rate of pterygium after ACT and MMC treatment were included in this study.
RESULTS
Eight RCTs with 663 eyes entered the final analysis. The recurrent rate of pterygium was 8.7% (30/343) for ACT and 18.75% (60/320) for MMC. Using fixed-effect meta analysis, we found that the recurrence was significantly lower after ACT than MMC treatment (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, 95% confidence index (CI), 0.25 - 0.63, P < 0.0001). In sensitivity analyses, we employed random-effects model and excluded studies of low quality or studies in which MMC was administrated after the operation. All the sensitivity analyses confirmed that ACT led to lower recurrence rates than MMC. Sub-group analysis revealed that the recurrence rate was 20.2% (20/99) and 27.65% (26/94) for conjunctival autograft (CA) and MMC respectively, and no significant difference in the recurrence rate was detected (OR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.33 - 1.28, P = 0.22). However, we found that conjunctival limbal autograft (CLA) had lower recurrence rate than MMC (OR = 0.26, 95%CI 0.14 - 0.48, P = 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS
CLA has better therapy efficacy against the recurrence of pterygium than MMC.
Pubmed
Journal: The Journal of chemical physics
January/24/2017
Abstract
The applicability and accuracy of the Behler-Parrinello atomistic neural network method for fitting reactive potential energy surfaces is critically examined in three systems, H + H2 → H2 + H, H + H2O → H2 + OH, and H + CH4 → H2 + CH3. A pragmatic Monte Carlo method is proposed to make efficient choice of the atom-centered mapping functions. The accuracy of the potential energy surfaces is not only tested by fitting errors but also validated by direct comparison in dynamically important regions and by quantum scattering calculations. Our results suggest this method is both accurate and efficient in representing multidimensional potential energy surfaces even when dissociation continua are involved.
Pubmed
Journal: Bioresource technology
November/5/2017
Abstract
A self-recirculation electrolyte system driven by air bubble buoyancy force is proposed for unbuffered microbial fuel cells (MFC) in this study. It was demonstrated that the electrolyte recirculation rate increased with the aeration rate in a certain range. Compared with buffer condition, buffer-less condition resulted in a 10%∼20% lower voltage (14.2% lower maximum power density) but a 9.1% higher Coulombic efficiency (CE) at an aeration rate of 92.0ml/min. Under buffer-less condition, increasing the aeration rate resulted in a higher voltage output, a higher COD removal, and a higher CE due to the enhanced proton transfer and increased oxygen for cathode reaction. However, an extra high aeration rate induced a rapid deterioration of anode performance due to the excessive oxygen transfer into anode. This study demonstrates that the self-recirculation electrolyte system could be helpful for future unbuffered MFC designs.
Pubmed
Journal: Fish & shellfish immunology
August/3/2015
Abstract
The Akirin protein is a nuclear factor in the innate immune system that is highly conserved from insects to mammals and plays key roles in diverse biological processes, including immunity, myogenesis, development and the cellular stress response. However, the function of Akirins in mollusk, the second most diverse group of animals, is still poorly understood. In this study, we report the discovery of an Akirin2 gene homolog (ChAkirin2) and its biological functions in the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. ChAkirin2 is 189 amino acids in length and shares significant homology with invertebrate homologs. Phylogenetic analysis results revealed that ChAkirin2 is clustered with invertebrate Akirin2s. A sequence analysis of the 5' flanking regions of ChAkirin2 indicated that it harbors several potential PAMP-activated transcription factor binding sites (TFB), including sites for NF-κB, C/EBPα, AP-1, SRF, Oct-1 and GATA-1. An RT-PCR analysis showed that ChAkirin2 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and at different embryonic and larval stages. Additionally, upon infection by pathogens (Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs: LPS, PGN and polyI:C), the expression of ChAkirin2 was significantly up-regulated. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy observations show that ChAkirin2 is located in the nuclei of HeLa cells, and the overexpression of ChAkirin2 activated the transcriptional activities of the NF-κB reporter gene in HEK293T cells. Altogether, this report provided the first experimental demonstration that mollusks possess a functional Akirin2 that is involved in the innate defense and embryogenesis processes of the oyster.
Pubmed
Journal: Biosensors & bioelectronics
August/7/2018
Abstract
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) induced charge separation were concentrated on the metal nanoparticles surface, which made it sensitive to the surface refractive index changes during optical sensing. Similarly, electrochemical detection was based on the electron transformation on the electrode surface. Herein, we fabricated a nanochip by decorating a nanocone-array substrate with gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles for dynamic electro-optical spectroscopy. Mercaptophenyl boronic acid (MPBA) was immobilized firmly on the nanochip by the metal-S bond for sensitive sialic acid sensing. Owing to the high stability of gold nanoparticles and the high sensitivity of silver nanoparticles, the nanochip showed good performance in LSPR detection with rich and high responses. Besides, the nanochip also showed sensitive electrical signals during electrochemical detection due to the excitation of the energetic charges from the nanoparticles surface to the reaction system. The dynamic electro-optical spectroscopy was based on a unique combination of LSPR and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). On the one hand, electrochemical signals activated the electrons on the nanochip to promote the propagation and resonance of surface plasmon. On the other hand, LSPR concentrated the electrons on the nanochip surface, which made the electrons easily driven to enhance the current in electrochemical detection. Results showed that mutual promotion of electrochemical-LSPR on nanochip covered a linear dynamic range from 0.05 mM to 5 mM on selective sialic acid detection with a low detection limit of 17 μM. The synchronous amplification of the electro-optical response during electrochemical-LSPR, opened up a new perspective for efficient and sensitive biochemical detection.
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Pubmed
Journal: Optics express
May/29/2014
Abstract
We propose a novel Optical Network Units (ONU) migration mechanism within the Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexed PON (TWDM-PON) framework by rearranging the working ONUs to a minimum number of wavelengths and turning off the rest to save power. We show through simulation that the number of working wavelengths can be minimized up to a theoretical lower bound, e.g. 23%, under the typical ONU online profiles. We further investigate how the migration interval and delay influence the user Service Level Agreement (SLA). We find that under the example ONU online profiles, 99.99% ONU SLA can be realized with the migration delay of 1000 milli-seconds. However to realize 99.999% ONU SLA, the migration delay must be 100 milli-seconds or lower.
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Pubmed
Journal: Oncotarget
July/21/2016
Abstract
The efficient gene transfection, cellular uptake and targeted delivery in vivo are key issues for non-viral gene delivery vectors in cancer therapy. To solve these issues, we designed a new targeted gene delivery system based on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting strategy. An anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody h-R3 was introduced to dendriplexes of PAMAM and DNA via electrostatic interactions to form self-assembled h-R3-PAMAM-DNA complexes (h-R3-dendriplexes). Dendriplexes h-R3-dendriplexes represented excellent DNA encapsulation ability and formed unique nanostructures. Compared to dendriplexes, h-R3-dendriplexes presented lower cytotoxicity, higher gene transfection efficiency, excellent endosome escape ability and high nuclear accumulation in the EGFR-overexpressing HepG2 cells. Both ex vivo fluorescence imaging and confocal results of frozen section revealed that h-R3-dendriplexes showed higher targeted delivery and much better gene expression in the tumors than dendriplexes at the same N/P ratio, and h-R3-dendriplexes had accumulation primarily in the tumor and kidney. Moreover, h-R3-dendriplexes for p53 delivery indicated efficient cell growth inhibition and potentiated paclitaxel-induced cell death. These results indicate that the h-R3-dendriplexes represent a great potential to be used as efficient targeted gene delivery carriers in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells.
Pubmed
Journal: Cellular signalling
January/26/2014
Abstract
Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix accumulation that ultimately destroys tissue architecture and eventually abolishes normal function. In recent years, despite the underlying mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis are still unknown, numerous studies suggest that epigenetic modifications impact on the development of cardiac fibrosis. Epigenetic modifications control cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and so on. Epigenetic modifications contain three main processes: DNA methylation, histone modifications, and silencing by microRNAs. We here outline the recent work pertaining to epigenetic changes in cardiac fibrosis. This review focuses on the epigenetic regulation of cardiac fibrosis.
Pubmed
Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
March/21/2010
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Deregulation of the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is a hallmark for the Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative diseases polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. We tested the efficacy of a selective JAK1/2 inhibitor in cellular and in vivo models of JAK2-driven malignancy.
METHODS
A novel inhibitor of JAK1/2 was characterized using kinase assays. Cellular effects of this compound were measured in cell lines bearing the JAK2V617F or JAK1V658F mutation, and its antiproliferative activity against primary polycythemiavera patient cells was determined using clonogenic assays. Antineoplastic activity in vivo was determined using a JAK2V617F-driven xenograft model, and effects of the compound on survival, organomegaly, body weight, and disease-associated inflammatory markers were measured.
RESULTS
INCB16562 potently inhibited proliferation of cell lines and primary cells from PV patients carrying the JAK2V617F or JAK1V658F mutation by blocking JAK-STAT signaling and inducing apoptosis. In vivo, INCB16562 reduced malignant cell burden, reversed splenomegaly and normalized splenic architecture, improved body weight gains, and extended survival in a model of JAK2V617F-driven hematologic malignancy. Moreover, these mice suffered from markedly elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, similar to advanced myeloproliferative disease patients, which was reversed upon treatment.
CONCLUSIONS
These data showed that administration of the dual JAK1/2 inhibitor INCB16562 reduces malignant cell burden, normalizes spleen size and architecture, suppresses inflammatory cytokines, improves weight gain, and extends survival in a rodent model of JAK2V617F-driven hematologic malignancy. Thus, selective inhibitors of JAK1 and JAK2 represent a novel therapy for the patients with myeloproliferative diseases and other neoplasms associated with JAK dysregulation.
Pubmed
Journal: Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology
December/22/2010
Abstract
With the climate data inside and outside a plastic greenhouse as driving variables, and the greenhouse structure, insect-proof net material, and characteristic breadth and leaf area index of Brassica chinensis L. as parameters; a canopy transpiration model for greenhouse B. chinensis was established, based on Penmam-Monteith transpiration model. This established model was validated by the experimental data of independent samples in a single greenhouse. The results showed that in lower reaches of Yangtze River, the vent discharge coefficient (Cd) of greenhouse covered with 20-, 25-, and 28- mesh insect-proof nets was 0.771, 0.758 and 0.736, and the wind pressure coefficient (Cw) was 0.33, 0.37, and 0.39, respectively. The determination coefficient (R2) between the predicted and measured canopy transpiration rate for the sunny, cloudy, and overcast days in summer was 0.95, 0.91, and 0.94, root mean squared error (RMSE) was 0.018, 0.014, and 0.015 g x m(-2) x s(-1), and relative prediction error (RE) was 14.27%, 18.05%, and 15.80%, respectively, suggesting that this model could better predict the transpiration rate of B. chinensis in the plastic greenhouse covered with insect-proof nets in lower reaches of Yangtze River.
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