Non-union is a major clinical problem in the healing of fractures, especially in patients with osteoporosis. The systemic administration of drugs is time consuming and large doses are demanding and act slowly, whereas local release acts rapidly, increases the quality and quantity of the bone tissue. We hypothesize that local delivery demonstrates better therapeutic effects on an osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the local application of ibandronate loaded with a collagen sponge on regulating bone formation and remodeling in an osteoporotic rat model of fracture healing. We found that the local delivery of ibandronate exhibited excellent effects on improving the bone microarchitecture and suppressed effects on bone remodeling. At 4 weeks, more callus formation and improvement of mechanical character and microstructure were observed in a local delivery via μCT, mechanical test, histological research and serum analysis. The suppression of bone remodeling was compared with a systemic treatment at 12 weeks, and the structural mechanical properties and microarchitecture were also improved with local delivery. This research identifies an earlier, safer and integrated approach for local delivery of ibandronate with collagen and provides a better strategy for the treatment of osteoporotic fracture in rats.
For the industrial production of probiotics powder, various sugars have been used as cryoprotectants to preserve probiotics during freeze-drying. Some of these sugars can be metabolized by Lactobacillus with the production of acids during the mix. In this study, we investigated the effect of acids on ATPase, β-galactosidase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), integrity and fluidity of cell membrane and the survival rate of Lactobacillus during freeze-drying. In the presence of Lactobacillus, acids were produced from cryoprotectants containing fermentable sugars before freezing, resulting in a decrease in the pH of the bacterial suspension to below 5.0. During freeze-drying, the acids caused a loss of viability of Lactobacillus due to aggravated damage to ATPase, β-galactosidase and cell membrane fluidity, but not LDH and cell membrane integrity. This finding implied that cryoprotectants that do not lead to the production of acids are effective in improving the survival rate of freeze-dried Lactobacillus. Here, a new formula was proposed for a protectant containing whey protein isolate (WPI) and rhamnose, which were not metabolized. In addition, linear-regression analyses were performed on the proportion of cryoprotectants (M) against cell paste (m), total cell count (N), total surface area (St) and total volume (Vt) of bacteria for 100% survival rate. The total surface areas of bacteria were found to be highly correlated with the amount of proposed cryoprotectant. The following prediction equation was established for the optimal initial cell concentration for a 100% survival rate of freeze-dried Lactobacillus: N (4πr2+2πl)=(0.66±0.03)M.
A method is proposed to suppress spontaneous modulation instability (MI) and phase noise with a coherent seed in the interferometric fiber sensing systems. By generating coherent seeds with phase modulation, induced MI is excited in an optical fiber. The preferential gain of the coherent seeds compared to the amplified spontaneous emission noise suppresses spontaneous MI. As a result, the induced MI dominates in the optical fiber. The coherence of the output light is enhanced, and the phase noise is suppressed significantly. The maximum input power can be increased significantly, and the sensing range can be extended.
The main nuclear factor kappa B transcription factor family members RelA-p50 heterodimer and RelA homodimer have different biological functions and show different transcriptional activation profiles. To investigate whether the two family members adopt a similar conformation in their free states, we performed hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, and stopped-flow binding kinetics experiments. Surprisingly, the N-terminal DNA-binding domains adopt an open conformation in RelA-p50 but a closed conformation in RelA homodimer. Both hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics simulations indicate the formation of an interface between the N-terminal DNA-binding domains only in the RelA homodimer. Such an interface would be expected to impede DNA binding, and stopped-flow binding kinetics show that association of DNA is slower for the homodimer as compared to the heterodimer. Our results show that the DNA-binding cavity in the RelA-p50 heterodimer is open for DNA binding, whereas in the RelA homodimer, it is occluded.
To improve the quality of the oil produced from microalgae, the co-pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and Nannochloropsis sp. (NS) in a fixed bed reactor was investigated at different mixing ratios. Co-pyrolysis improved the gas yield, and the lower heating value of the gas products increased obviously with an increase in the LDPE amount. Furthermore, co-pyrolysis promoted the generation of CH4 and C2+, especially C2H4, with the maximum C2+ yield (84.86 mL/g) obtained with 75% LDPE. Meanwhile, the amounts of oxygenous and nitrogenous compounds in the liquid products decreased rapidly with LDPE addition. The aliphatic hydrocarbon content of the liquid products increased from 22.63% for NS pyrolysis to 77.4% with 25% LDPE. During co-pyrolysis with LDPE, O tended to evolve as H2O and CO (rather than as CO2 for NS pyrolysis) and N was more likely to be released into gas products, which enhanced the quality of the pyrolysis oil.
Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP) is a thiolase that catalyzes the addition of glutathione (GSH) to receptive cysteines in target proteins, producing an S-glutathionylated residue. Accordingly, previous studies have reported that S-glutathionylation is constitutively decreased in cells from mice lacking GSTP (Gstp1/p2-/-). Here, we found that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDDCs) from Gstp1/p2-/- mice have proliferation rates that are greater than those in their WT counterparts (Gstp1/p2+/+). Moreover, Gstp1/p2-/- BMDDCs had increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and decreased GSH:glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratios. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is linked to myeloproliferation and differentiation, and we observed that its steady-state levels are elevated in Gstp1/p2-/- BMDDCs, indicating a link between GSTP and ERα activities. BMDDCs differentiated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor had elevated ERα levels, which were more pronounced in Gstp1/p2-/- than WT mice. When stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for maturation, Gstp1/p2-/- BMDDCs exhibited augmented endocytosis, maturation rate, cytokine secretion, and T-cell activation; heightened glucose uptake and glycolysis; increased Akt signaling (in the mTOR pathway); and decreased AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of proteins. Of note, GSTP formed a complex with ERα, stimulating ERα S-glutathionylation at cysteines 221, 245, 417, and 447; altering ERα's binding affinity for estradiol; and reducing overall binding potential (receptor density and affinity) 3-fold. Moreover, in Gstp1/p2-/- BMDDCs, ERα S-glutathionylation was constitutively decreased. Taken together, these findings suggest that GSTP-mediated S-glutathionylation of ERα controls BMDDC differentiation and affects metabolic function in dendritic cells.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively novel type of tumor therapy method with low toxicity and limited side‑effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanism and potential microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the treatment of glioma by PDT with hematoporphyrin, a clinical photosensitizer. The photodynamic activity of hematoporphyrin on the cell viability and apoptosis of gliomas was investigated by MTT, and flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Alterations in singlet oxygen and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected. The differentially expressed miRNAs and proteins were evaluated by miRNA gene chip and apoptosis‑associated protein chip, respectively. The results demonstrated that cell viability significantly decreased with hematoporphyrin concentration. PDT with hematoporphyrin significantly increased cell apoptosis at a later stage, induced the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that PDT with hematoporphyrin inhibited cell growth via induction of radical oxygen, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced apoptosis. The upregulated miRNAs, including hsa‑miR‑7641, hsa‑miR‑9500, hsa‑miR‑4459, hsa‑miR‑21‑5p, hsa‑miR‑663a and hsa‑miR‑205‑5p may be important in PDT‑induced cell apoptosis in glioma. Transporter 1, ATP binding cassette subfamily B member‑ and nuclear factor‑κB‑mediated apoptosis signaling pathways were the most significant pathways. Thus, the current study presents PDT as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant glioma, and identified miRNAs for the molecular design and development of a third‑generation photosensitizer (PS).
Family- and population-based genetic studies have successfully identified multiple disease-susceptibility loci for Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the first batch and most successful examples of genome-wide association study. However, most genetic studies to date have focused on case-control studies of late AMD (choroidal neovascularization or geographic atrophy). The genetic influences on disease progression are largely unexplored. We assembled unique resources to perform a genome-wide bivariate time-to-event analysis to test for association of time-to-late-AMD with ∼9 million variants on 2721 Caucasians from a large multi-center randomized clinical trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study of disease progression (bivariate survival outcome) in AMD genetic studies, thus providing novel insights to AMD genetics. We used a robust Cox proportional hazards model to appropriately account for between-eye correlation when analyzing the progression time in the two eyes of each participant. We identified four previously reported susceptibility loci showing genome-wide significant association with AMD progression: ARMS2-HTRA1 (P = 8.1 × 10-43), CFH (P = 3.5 × 10-37), C2-CFB-SKIV2L (P = 8.1 × 10-10) and C3 (P = 1.2 × 10-9). Furthermore, we detected association of rs58978565 near TNR (P = 2.3 × 10-8), rs28368872 near ATF7IP2 (P = 2.9 × 10-8) and rs142450006 near MMP9 (P = 0.0006) with progression to choroidal neovascularization but not geographic atrophy. Secondary analysis limited to 34 reported risk variants revealed that LIPC and CTRB2-CTRB1 were also associated with AMD progression (P < 0.0015). Our genome-wide analysis thus expands the genetics in both development and progression of AMD and should assist in early identification of high risk individuals.
Low birth weight is associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adulthood. However, information is limited regarding its impact on heart rate (HR), an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the hypothesis that birth weight is associated with HR at rest at different ages. The study sample consisted of 6,282 black and white participants enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study, aged 4 to 52 years with a mean age of 19.4 years. HR data at rest were available in 2,344 children (4 to 11 years old), 1,622 adolescents (12 to 19 years old), and 2,316 adults (20 to 52 years old). Birth certificate records, including information on birth weight and gestational age, were obtained from the Louisiana State Office of Public Health. HR showed a significant decreasing trend with increasing age, with blacks having a lower slope than whites. In multivariable linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, and gestational age, the association between lower birth weight (kg) and increased HR (beats/min) was significant in adults (regression coefficient, β = -1.21, p = 0.006) but not significant in children (β = -0.31, p = 0.461) and adolescents (β = -0.72, p = 0.157). The association did not differ significantly between races. The birth weight-HR association did not change markedly in the models without adjustment for body mass index. In conclusion, these results suggest that the association of prenatal growth retardation with increased cardiovascular disease risk in later life might be partly through its relation with HR at rest.
G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) gene C825T and endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) gene G894T polymorphisms both influence arterial structure and function. However, information is scant regarding the interaction of these genes on arterial wall thickness.
This aspect was examined in 654 white and black subjects, aged 25-43 years (72.9% white, 39.3% male). Arterial wall thickness was assessed in terms of the average intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid, internal carotid, and carotid bulb segments by B-mode ultrasonography.
Frequencies of T allele of the GNB3 C825T polymorphism (0.718 vs. 0.304, P < 0.0001) and G allele of the eNOS G894T polymorphism (0.868 vs. 0.661, P < 0.0001) were higher in blacks compared to whites. In a multivariate model including gender, age, mean arterial pressure, body mass index, triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance index, smoking, and/or race, there was no significant genotypic effect on carotid IMT with respect to GNB3 C825T or eNOS G894T polymorphisms among whites, blacks, and total sample. However, the carriers of TT genotype of the GNB3 C825T and T allele of the eNOS G894T had a significantly lower carotid IMT among blacks (P = 0.003) and the total sample (P = 0.006).
These results indicate that the genetic variations of the eNOS gene in combination with the GNB3 gene jointly influence carotid artery wall thickening process in young adults, especially in blacks.