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Publication
Journal: Arthritis and rheumatism
December/20/1982
Abstract
The 1971 preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were revised and updated to incorporate new immunologic knowledge and improve disease classification. The 1982 revised criteria include fluorescence antinuclear antibody and antibody to native DNA and Sm antigen. Some criteria involving the same organ systems were aggregated into single criteria. Raynaud's phenomenon and alopecia were not included in the 1982 revised criteria because of low sensitivity and specificity. The new criteria were 96% sensitive and 96% specific when tested with SLE and control patient data gathered from 18 participating clinics. When compared with the 1971 criteria, the 1982 revised criteria showed gains in sensitivity and specificity.
Publication
Journal: Arthritis and rheumatism
October/22/1997
Publication
Journal: Arthritis and rheumatism
July/25/1980
Abstract
A multicenter, ongoing study of early-diagnosed cases of systemic sclerosis and comparison patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon was conducted in order to develop classification criteria for systemic sclerosis. Preliminary criteria are proposed namely, the finding of either the sole major criterion, i.e., proximal scleroderma, or two or more of the minor criteria, i.e., 1) sclerodactyly, 2) digital pitting scars of fingertips or loss of substance of the distal finger pad, and 3) bilateral basilar pulmonary fibrosis. When applied to the case and comparison patients included in this study, these proposed criteria had a 97% sensitivity for definite systemic sclerosis and 98% specificity.
Publication
Journal: Arthritis and rheumatism
July/6/1992
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To standardize outcome measures in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Three indices were identified which could adequately describe outcome (disease activity, damage from disease, and health status); we describe here the development of the Disease Activity Index.
METHODS
Twenty-four variables were identified as important factors in a disease activity index. These were used to generate 574 patient profiles, which were rated on a disease activity scale of 0-10 by 14 rheumatologists. A second rating of 10 of the profiles yielded scores that were not significantly different from the first, indicating that experienced clinicians can reliably make global estimates of disease activity. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the relative importance of the 24 clinical variables in the physicians' global rating of disease activity. These were estimated on a "training set" of 75% of physicians' ratings, and then validated on a "testing set," consisting of the remaining 25% of physicians' ratings.
RESULTS
The explanatory power of the models in the training set was high (R2 = 0.93). The models' regression coefficients for the organ systems were simplified for easier use in clinical practice. This generated a "weighted" index of 9 organ systems for disease activity in SLE, the SLEDAI, as follows: 8 for central nervous system and vascular, 4 for renal and musculoskeletal, 2 for serosal, dermal, immunologic, and 1 for constitutional and hematologic. The maximum theoretical score is 105, but in practice, few patients have scores greater than 45. The SLEDAI predicted well the physicians' ratings in the testing set (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.64-0.79).
CONCLUSIONS
The SLEDAI is a validated model of experienced clinicians' global assessments of disease activity in lupus. It represents the consensus of a group of experts in the field of lupus research.
Publication
Journal: Archives of neurology
November/8/1989
Abstract
Fatigue is a prominent disabling symptom in a variety of medical and neurologic disorders. To facilitate research in this area, we developed a fatigue severity scale, subjected it to tests of internal consistency and validity, and used it to compare fatigue in two chronic conditions: systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Administration of the fatigue severity scale to 25 patients with multiple sclerosis, 29 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 20 healthy adults revealed that the fatigue severity scale was internally consistent, correlated well with visual analogue measures, clearly differentiated controls from patients, and could detect clinically predicted changes in fatigue over time. Fatigue had a greater deleterious impact on daily living in patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus compared with controls. The results further showed that fatigue was largely independent of self-reported depressive symptoms and that several characteristics could differentiate fatigue that accompanies multiple sclerosis from fatigue that accompanies systemic lupus erythematosus. This study demonstrates (1) the clinical and research applications of a scale that measures fatigue severity and (2) helps to identify features that distinguish fatigue between two chronic medical disorders.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
May/12/2003
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex, inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. We used global gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to identify distinct patterns of gene expression that distinguish most SLE patients from healthy controls. Strikingly, about half of the patients studied showed dysregulated expression of genes in the IFN pathway. Furthermore, this IFN gene expression "signature" served as a marker for more severe disease involving the kidneys, hematopoetic cells, and/or the central nervous system. These results provide insights into the genetic pathways underlying SLE, and identify a subgroup of patients who may benefit from therapies targeting the IFN pathway.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Experimental Medicine
April/28/2003
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype systemic autoimmune disease characterized by flares of high morbidity. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we now show that active SLE can be distinguished by a remarkably homogeneous gene expression pattern with overexpression of granulopoiesis-related and interferon (IFN)-induced genes. Using the most stringent statistical analysis (Bonferroni correction), 15 genes were found highly up-regulated in SLE patients, 14 of which are targets of IFN and one, defensin DEFA-3, a major product of immature granulocytes. A more liberal correction (Benjamini and Hochberg correction) yielded 18 additional genes, 12 of which are IFN-regulated and 4 granulocyte-specific. Indeed immature neutrophils were identified in a large fraction of SLE patients white blood cells. High dose glucocorticoids, a standard treatment of disease flares, shuts down the interferon signature, further supporting the role of this cytokine in SLE. The expression of 10 genes correlated with disease activity according to the SLEDAI. The most striking correlation (P < 0.001, r = 0.55) was found with the formyl peptide receptor-like 1 protein that mediates chemotactic activities of defensins. Therefore, while the IFN signature confirms the central role of this cytokine in SLE, microarray analysis of blood cells reveals that immature granulocytes may be involved in SLE pathogenesis.
Publication
Journal: Nature
April/21/1992
Abstract
Fas antigen is a cell-surface protein that mediates apoptosis. It is expressed in various tissues including the thymus and has structural homology with a number of cell-surface receptors, including tumour necrosis factor receptor and nerve growth factor receptor. Mice carrying the lymphoproliferation (lpr) mutation have defects in the Fas antigen gene. The lpr mice develop lymphadenopathy and suffer from a systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disease, indicating an important role for Fas antigen in the negative selection of autoreactive T cells in the thymus.
Publication
Journal: Arthritis and rheumatism
May/31/1998
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To provide a single source for the best available estimates of the national prevalence of arthritis in general and of selected musculoskeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, the spondylarthropathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyalgia rheumatica/giant cell arteritis, gout, fibromyalgia, and low back pain).
METHODS
The National Arthritis Data Workgroup reviewed data from available surveys, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey series. For overall national estimates, we used surveys based on representative samples. Because data based on national population samples are unavailable for most specific musculoskeletal conditions, we derived data from various smaller survey samples from defined populations. Prevalence estimates from these surveys were linked to 1990 US Bureau of the Census population data to calculate national estimates. We also estimated the expected frequency of arthritis in the year 2020.
RESULTS
Current national estimates are provided, with important caveats regarding their interpretation, for self-reported arthritis and selected conditions. An estimated 15% (40 million) of Americans had some form of arthritis in 1995. By the year 2020, an estimated 18.2% (59.4 million) will be affected.
CONCLUSIONS
Given the limitations of the data on which they are based, this report provides the best available prevalence estimates for arthritis and other rheumatic conditions overall, and for selected musculoskeletal disorders, in the US population.
Publication
Journal: Nature
October/7/2010
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Efforts to control it are hampered by difficulties with diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Most people infected with M. tuberculosis remain asymptomatic, termed latent TB, with a 10% lifetime risk of developing active TB disease. Current tests, however, cannot identify which individuals will develop disease. The immune response to M. tuberculosis is complex and incompletely characterized, hindering development of new diagnostics, therapies and vaccines. Here we identify a whole-blood 393 transcript signature for active TB in intermediate and high-burden settings, correlating with radiological extent of disease and reverting to that of healthy controls after treatment. A subset of patients with latent TB had signatures similar to those in patients with active TB. We also identify a specific 86-transcript signature that discriminates active TB from other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Modular and pathway analysis revealed that the TB signature was dominated by a neutrophil-driven interferon (IFN)-inducible gene profile, consisting of both IFN-gamma and type I IFN-alphabeta signalling. Comparison with transcriptional signatures in purified cells and flow cytometric analysis suggest that this TB signature reflects changes in cellular composition and altered gene expression. Although an IFN-inducible signature was also observed in whole blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), their complete modular signature differed from TB, with increased abundance of plasma cell transcripts. Our studies demonstrate a hitherto underappreciated role of type I IFN-alphabeta signalling in the pathogenesis of TB, which has implications for vaccine and therapeutic development. Our study also provides a broad range of transcriptional biomarkers with potential as diagnostic and prognostic tools to combat the TB epidemic.
Publication
Journal: Arthritis and rheumatism
March/9/2008
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To provide a single source for the best available estimates of the US prevalence of and number of individuals affected by arthritis overall, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile arthritis, the spondylarthritides, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and Sjögren's syndrome. A companion article (part II) addresses additional conditions.
METHODS
The National Arthritis Data Workgroup reviewed published analyses from available national surveys, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). For analysis of overall arthritis, we used the NHIS. Because data based on national population samples are unavailable for most specific rheumatic conditions, we derived estimates from published studies of smaller, defined populations. For specific conditions, the best available prevalence estimates were applied to the corresponding 2005 US population estimates from the Census Bureau, to estimate the number affected with each condition.
RESULTS
More than 21% of US adults (46.4 million persons) were found to have self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis. We estimated that rheumatoid arthritis affects 1.3 million adults (down from the estimate of 2.1 million for 1995), juvenile arthritis affects 294,000 children, spondylarthritides affect from 0.6 million to 2.4 million adults, systemic lupus erythematosus affects from 161,000 to 322,000 adults, systemic sclerosis affects 49,000 adults, and primary Sjögren's syndrome affects from 0.4 million to 3.1 million adults.
CONCLUSIONS
Arthritis and other rheumatic conditions continue to be a large and growing public health problem. Estimates for many specific rheumatic conditions rely on a few, small studies of uncertain generalizability to the US population. This report provides the best available prevalence estimates for the US, but for most specific conditions, more studies generalizable to the US or addressing understudied populations are needed.
Publication
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine
October/19/2003
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Although much is known about the natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the development of SLE autoantibodies before the diagnosis of the disease has not been extensively explored. We investigated the onset and progression of autoantibody development before the clinical diagnosis.
METHODS
The Department of Defense Serum Repository contains approximately 30 million specimens prospectively collected from more than 5 million U.S. Armed Forces personnel. We evaluated serum samples obtained from 130 persons before they received a diagnosis of SLE, along with samples from matched controls.
RESULTS
In 115 of the 130 patients with SLE (88 percent), at least one SLE autoantibody tested was present before the diagnosis (up to 9.4 years earlier; mean, 3.3 years). Antinuclear antibodies were present in 78 percent (at a dilution of 1:120 or more), anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in 55 percent, anti-Ro antibodies in 47 percent, anti-La antibodies in 34 percent, anti-Sm antibodies in 32 percent, anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein antibodies in 26 percent, and antiphospholipid antibodies in 18 percent. Antinuclear, antiphospholipid antibodies, anti-Ro, and anti-La antibodies were present earlier than anti-Sm and anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein antibodies (a mean of 3.4 years before the diagnosis vs. 1.2 years, P=0.005). Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, with a mean onset 2.2 years before the diagnosis, were found later than antinuclear antibodies (P=0.06) and earlier than anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein antibodies (P=0.005). For many patients, the earliest available serum sample was positive; therefore, these measures of the average time from the first positive antibody test to the diagnosis are underestimates of the time from the development of antibodies to the diagnosis. Of the 130 initial matched controls, 3.8 percent were positive for one or more autoantibodies.
CONCLUSIONS
Autoantibodies are typically present many years before the diagnosis of SLE. Furthermore, the appearance of autoantibodies in patients with SLE tends to follow a predictable course, with a progressive accumulation of specific autoantibodies before the onset of SLE, while patients are still asymptomatic.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
February/25/2008
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common systemic autoimmune disease with complex etiology but strong clustering in families (lambda(S) = approximately 30). We performed a genome-wide association scan using 317,501 SNPs in 720 women of European ancestry with SLE and in 2,337 controls, and we genotyped consistently associated SNPs in two additional independent sample sets totaling 1,846 affected women and 1,825 controls. Aside from the expected strong association between SLE and the HLA region on chromosome 6p21 and the previously confirmed non-HLA locus IRF5 on chromosome 7q32, we found evidence of association with replication (1.1 x 10(-7) < P(overall) < 1.6 x 10(-23); odds ratio = 0.82-1.62) in four regions: 16p11.2 (ITGAM), 11p15.5 (KIAA1542), 3p14.3 (PXK) and 1q25.1 (rs10798269). We also found evidence for association (P < 1 x 10(-5)) at FCGR2A, PTPN22 and STAT4, regions previously associated with SLE and other autoimmune diseases, as well as at>> or =9 other loci (P < 2 x 10(-7)). Our results show that numerous genes, some with known immune-related functions, predispose to SLE.
Publication
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine
December/8/2011
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
November/17/2013
Abstract
Identifying the downstream effects of disease-associated SNPs is challenging. To help overcome this problem, we performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) meta-analysis in non-transformed peripheral blood samples from 5,311 individuals with replication in 2,775 individuals. We identified and replicated trans eQTLs for 233 SNPs (reflecting 103 independent loci) that were previously associated with complex traits at genome-wide significance. Some of these SNPs affect multiple genes in trans that are known to be altered in individuals with disease: rs4917014, previously associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), altered gene expression of C1QB and five type I interferon response genes, both hallmarks of SLE. DeepSAGE RNA sequencing showed that rs4917014 strongly alters the 3' UTR levels of IKZF1 in cis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing analysis of the trans-regulated genes implicated IKZF1 as the causal gene. Variants associated with cholesterol metabolism and type 1 diabetes showed similar phenomena, indicating that large-scale eQTL mapping provides insight into the downstream effects of many trait-associated variants.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Experimental Medicine
February/22/1979
Abstract
MRL/1 and BXSB male mice have a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like disease similar to but more acute than that occurring in NZB X W mice. The common elements of lymphoid hyperplasia, B-cell hyperactivity, autoantibodies, circulating immune complex (IC), complement consumption, IC glomerulonephritis with gp70 deposition, and thymic atrophy were found in all three kinds of SLE mice. On the basis of these common elements, SLE seen in these mice can be considered a single disease in the same sense that human SLE is one disease. The differences in the SLE expressed in the different mice are no greater than those found in an unselected series of humans with SLE. However, the significant quantitative and qualitative variations in abnormal immunologic expression suggest that different constellations of factors, genetic and/or pathophysiologic, may operate in the three murine strains and that each constellation is capable of leading, via its particular abnormal immunologic consequences, to the activation of common immunopathologic effector mechanisms that cause quite similar SLE-like syndromes. From an experimental point of view, the availability of several inbred murine strains of commonplace histocompatibility types that express an SLE-like syndrome makes possible innumerable manipulations which should help to elucidate the nature and cause(s) of this disorder.
Publication
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine
March/3/2008
Publication
Journal: Arthritis and rheumatism
December/2/2012
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements, and incorporate new knowledge regarding the immunology of SLE.
METHODS
The classification criteria were derived from a set of 702 expert-rated patient scenarios. Recursive partitioning was used to derive an initial rule that was simplified and refined based on SLICC physician consensus. The SLICC group validated the classification criteria in a new validation sample of 690 new expert-rated patient scenarios.
RESULTS
Seventeen criteria were identified. In the derivation set, the SLICC classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications compared with the current ACR classification criteria (49 versus 70; P = 0.0082) and had greater sensitivity (94% versus 86%; P < 0.0001) and equal specificity (92% versus 93%; P = 0.39). In the validation set, the SLICC classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications compared with the current ACR classification criteria (62 versus 74; P = 0.24) and had greater sensitivity (97% versus 83%; P < 0.0001) but lower specificity (84% versus 96%; P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS
The new SLICC classification criteria performed well in a large set of patient scenarios rated by experts. According to the SLICC rule for the classification of SLE, the patient must satisfy at least 4 criteria, including at least one clinical criterion and one immunologic criterion OR the patient must have biopsy-proven lupus nephritis in the presence of antinuclear antibodies or anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies.
Publication
Journal: Advances in immunology
June/25/1985
Publication
Journal: Journal of Experimental Medicine
May/4/1994
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem autoimmune disease in which the autoantibody response targets a variety of autoantigens of diverse subcellular location. We show here that these autoantigens are clustered in two distinct populations of blebs at the surface of apoptotic cells. The population of smaller blebs contains fragmented endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ribosomes, as well as the ribonucleoprotein, Ro. The larger blebs (apoptotic bodies) contain nucleosomal DNA, Ro, La, and the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. These autoantigen clusters have in common their proximity to the ER and nuclear membranes, sites of increased generation of reactive oxygen species in apoptotic cells. Oxidative modification at these sites may be a mechanism that unites this diverse group of molecules together as autoantigens.
Publication
Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
March/16/1980
Abstract
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus often possess antibodies against two nuclear antigens called Sm and RNP (ribonucleoprotein). We have established the molecular identity of these antigens by analyzing immune precipitates of nuclear extracts from mouse Ehrlich ascites cells labeled with (32)P and (35)S. Anti-Sm serum selectively precipitates six small nuclear RNA molecules (snRNAs); anti-RNP serum reacts with only two of these; and a third serum, characterized as mostly anti-RNP, precipitates a subset of three snRNA bands. Three of the six RNAs are identified by fingerprint analysis as the previously characterized and highly abundant nucleoplasmic snRNA species U1a (171 nucleotides), U1b, and U2 (196 nucleotides). The other three RNAs (U4, U5, and U6) likewise are uridine rich and contain modified nucleotides, but they are smaller, with lengths of about 145, 120, and 95 residues, respectively. Each of the six snRNAs is complexed with and apparently antigenic by virtue of association with specific proteins. All three sera precipitate an identical complement of seven different polypeptides ranging in molecular weight from 12,000 to 35,000; these proteins are abundant in nuclear extracts, but are neither histones nor the major polypeptides comprising the 30S heterogeneous nuclear RNP particles of mammalian nuclei. Our data argue that each of the six snRNAs exists in a separate small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex with a total molecular weight of about 175,000. We find that human antisera also precipitate snRNAs from a wide range of vertebrate species and from arthropods. We discuss the antigenic snRNPs in relation to the published literature on snRNAs and nuclear RNPs and consider possible functions of snRNPs in nuclear processes.
Publication
Journal: Nature Genetics
May/28/1998
Abstract
The complement system plays a paradoxical role in the development and expression of autoimmunity in humans. The activation of complement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) contributes to tissue injury. In contrast, inherited deficiency of classical pathway components, particularly C1q (ref. 1), is powerfully associated with the development of SLE. This leads to the hypothesis that a physiological action of the early part of the classical pathway protects against the development of SLE (ref. 2) and implies that C1q may play a key role in this respect. C1q-deficient (C1qa-/-) mice were generated by gene targeting and monitored for eight months. C1qa-/- mice had increased mortality and higher titres of autoantibodies, compared with strain-matched controls. Of the C1qa-/- mice, 25% had glomerulonephritis with immune deposits and multiple apoptotic cell bodies. Among mice without glomerulonephritis, there were significantly greater numbers of glomerular apoptotic bodies in C1q-deficient mice compared with controls. The phenotype associated with C1q deficiency was modified by background genes. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that C1q deficiency causes autoimmunity by impairment of the clearance of apoptotic cells.
Publication
Journal: Journal of Rheumatology
July/15/2002
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To describe the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), a modification of SLEDAI to reflect persistent, active disease in those descriptors that had previously only considered new or recurrent occurrences, and to validate SLEDAI-2K against the original SLEDAI as a predictor for mortality and as a measure of global disease activity in the clinic.
METHODS
All visits in our cohort of 960 patients were used to correlate SLEDAI-2K against the original SLEDAI, and the whole cohort was used to validate SLEDAI-2K as a predictor of mortality. A subgroup of 212 patients with SLE followed at the Lupus Clinic who had 5 regular visits, 3-6 months apart, in 1991-93 was also included. An uninvolved clinician evaluated each patient record and assigned a clinical activity level. The SLEDAI score was calculated from the database according to both the original and modified definitions.
RESULTS
SLEDAI-2K correlated highly (r = 0.97) with SLEDAI. Both methods for SLEDAI scoring predicted mortality equally (p = 0.0001), and described similarly the range of disease activity as recognized by the clinician.
CONCLUSIONS
SLEDAI-2K, which allows for persistent activity in rash, mucous membranes, alopecia, and proteinuria, is suitable for use in clinical trials and studies of prognosis in SLE.
Publication
Journal: Science
February/4/2002
Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in regulating both immunity and tolerance. Hence, we hypothesized that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease characterized by autoreactive B and T cells, may be caused by alterations in the functions of DCs. Consistent with this, monocytes from SLE patients' blood were found to function as antigen-presenting cells, in vitro. Furthermore, serum from SLE patients induced normal monocytes to differentiate into DCs. These DCs could capture antigens from dying cells and present them to CD4-positive T cells. The capacity of SLE patients' serum to induce DC differentiation correlated with disease activity and depended on the actions of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Thus, unabated induction of DCs by IFN-alpha may drive the autoimmune response in SLE.
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