The increasing interest in antioxidant properties of cereal and cereal-based products has prompted the development of a simple and reliable HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of important phytochemicals like tocopherols (T), tocotrienols (T3) and carotenoids. Separation was carried out on a Nucleosil 100 C(18) column, 5 μm (250 mm × 4.6 mm) thermostated at 25 °C, using a linear gradient elution system starting with methanol and ending with a mixture of methanol-isopropanol-acetonitrile. All separated compounds including the internal standard (α-tocopherol acetate) were eluted within 16 min and detected by dual detection: fluorescence for tocopherols and tocotrienols at 290 nm excitation and 320 nm emission and UV-vis photodiode array detection for lutein and β-carotene at 450 nm. Detection limits ranged from 0.2 μg/g (β-carotene) to 1.60 μg/g (α-tocopherol). The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were calculated by using cereals with different levels of lipophilic antioxidants. The extraction method involved sample saponification and clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The extraction recoveries obtained using OASIS HLB SPE cartridges and dichloromethane as eluent were in the range of 90.2-110.1%, with RSD lower than 10%. The method was successfully applied to cereals: durum wheat, bread wheat, rice, barley, oat, rye, corn and triticale.Read more
We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.Read more
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) usually occurs with neutrophil engraftment following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but it can also occur before engraftment. We intended to analyze the effects of timing of acute GVHD on leukemia relapse and mortality.
The outcomes of pre- and postengraftment GVHD were investigated in 384 patients who underwent allogeneic HCT for acute leukemia.
Acute GVHD occurred in 100 patients, pre-engraftment in 22 and postengraftment in 78. Compared with postengraftment GVHD, pre-engraftment GVHD was more severe, as assessed by overall grade, with more frequent and more severe skin involvement and higher incidences of non-infectious fever, diarrhea, hepatic dysfunction, renal insufficiency, and weight gain. Compared with patients without acute GVHD, those with postengraftment GVHD had lower cumulative incidence of relapse [CIR; hazard ratio (HR), 0.470; P=0.006] and higher cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (CINRM; HR, 2.568; P<0.001), while those with pre-engraftment GVHD had similar CIR (HR, 0.815; P=0.059) and higher CINRM (HR, 2.872; P=0.036). Overall survival of patients with pre-engraftment GVHD was lower than that of those without acute GVHD (HR, 1.976; P=0.017), which was similar to that of those with postengraftment GVHD (HR, 0.969; P=0.878). Separate analyses of the effects of timing of acute GVHD on post-transplant outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) showed similar trends.
Pre-engraftment GVHD might be a 'cytokine storm' type syndrome rather than 'real' GVHD, indicating the need for separate analyses of pre- and postengraftment GVHD in future trials.Read more
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and the subsequent development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are a significant cause of mortality, morbidity, and cost of care in trauma patients. This study aims to: 1) validate 5 as a critical threshold for high risk; 2) validate risk factors associated with DVT/VTE development; 3) evaluate exogenous estrogen and smoking as risk factors; and 4) analyze daily risk assessment profile (RAP) score changes. We performed a retrospective chart review of trauma patients admitted from January 2001 through December 2005. Univariate odds ratios were performed to assess potential risk factors for VTE. Of the 110 charts reviewed, 31 patients had confirmed DVT/VTE. Three of 26 patients with an RAP score < 5 suffered a VTE; one resulted in death. Significant risk factors included femoral venous line insertion, operation longer than 2 hours, head abbreviated injury score > 2, and Glasgow Coma Scale score < 8. RAP fluctuations were due to a changing Glasgow Coma Scale score, and whether the patient received more than four transfusions, was in surgery for more than 2 hours, or required a femoral venous catheter or major venous repair. The RAP critical value (5) was not validated. We recommend all trauma patients be treated with prophylactic anticoagulants throughout the hospital stay unless clear contraindications exist.Read more
An efficient, highly diastereoselective method for the preparation of protected cis-2-aminocyclopropanols from N-tert-butanesulfinyl ketimines and various aryl acylsilanes is described. A tandem process for carbon-carbon bond formation via nucleophilic addition to acylsilanes, Brook rearrangement, and intramolecular Mannich reaction has been developed.Read more
The two-dimensional (2D) Co oxide monolayer phase with (9 × 2) structure on Pd(100) has been investigated experimentally by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and theoretically by density functional theory (DFT). The high-resolution STM images reveal a complex pattern which on the basis of DFT calculations is interpreted in terms of a coincidence lattice, consisting of a CoO(111)-type bilayer with significant symmetry relaxation and height modulations to reduce the polarity in the overlayer. The most stable structure displays an unusual zig-zag type of antiferromagnetic ordering. The (9 × 2) Co oxide monolayer is energetically almost degenerate with the c(4 × 2) monolayer phase, which is derived from a single CoO(100)-type layer with a Co(3)O(4) vacancy structure. Under specific preparation conditions, the (9 × 2) and c(4 × 2) structures can be observed in coexistence on the Pd(100) surface and the two phases are separated by a smooth interfacial boundary line, which has been analyzed at the atomic level by STM and DFT. The here described 2D Co oxide nanolayer systems are characterized by a delicate interplay of chemical, electronic, and interfacial strain interactions and the associated complexities in the theoretical description are emphasized and discussed.Read more
The aims of this study were to determine the sorption coefficient (LogK(DOC)) of 17β-estradiol (E2), according to the size and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from wastewater effluent using a fluorescence quenching (FQ) method, and to measure the estrogenic changes due to the extent of E2 sorption onto effluent DOM (EfOM) by using an E-screen bioassay. The highest logK(DOC) of E2 for a DOM size fraction less than 0.2 μm was observed by 4.87 ± 1.87 Lkg(-1)(DOC), and its estrogenicity was the lowest among all the size fractions at 1.2 ng-EEQL⁻¹. However, E2 estrogenicity for a DOM size fraction less than 5 kDa was as high as that for the positive control due to the absence of fulvic acid- and protein-like DOM to bind with E2. The estrogenic activity for the hydrophobic fraction bound with E2 was significantly reduced to 1.6 ng-EEQL⁻¹, while that for the hydrophilic fraction having no binding with E2 was 2.6 ng-EEQL⁻¹, which was similar to that of the positive control (i.e., 2.8 ng-EEQL⁻¹). The results support a conclusion that the change in estrogenicity was due to the strong sorption affinity of E2 onto DOM.Read more
A synthetic approach to the structurally diverse family of π-expanded diketopyrrolopyrroles is described. A three-step strategy appears to be very general and starts with the preparation of diketopyrrolopyrroles followed by N-alkylation with bromoacetaldehyde diethyl acetal and electrophilic aromatic substitution. The final reaction regioselectively furnishes S-shaped, violet and blue functional dyes of previously unknown structure. New dyes possess sharp absorption and emission peaks, with very high molar absorption coefficients and reasonable fluorescence quantum yields. As a proof of principle, cell uptake of selected dye was demonstrated.Read more
Within a generalized Langevin framework for open quantum systems, the cyclic evolution of a two-level system is analyzed in terms of the geometric phase extended to dissipative systems for Ohmic friction. This proposal is applied to the dynamics of chiral molecules where the tunneling and parity violating effects are competing. The effect of different system-bath coupling functions in the dissipated energy is shown to be crucial to understand the behavior of the geometric phase as well as the decoherence displayed by the corresponding interference patterns.Read more
The potential early predictive value of microalbuminuria (MA) in the estimation of atherosclerosis and the relation between the degree of urinary albumin excretion and the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) were investigated. Patients (n = 159) with stable angina pectoris and angiographically significant stenosis in at least 1 of the major coronary arteries were included. Microalbuminuria was measured by immunoturbidimetry. The extent of coronary artery stenosis was graded using the Gensini score. The Gensini score was significantly greater in patients who had MA. Also, the Gensini increased by 0.15 units with 1 unit increase in MA. In the groups who had diabetes mellitus and hypertension, there was no correlation between MA and Gensini score. The results of the present study suggest that MA is associated with the severity of CAD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors.Read more
We examined factors associated with lifetime treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. Of the 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 years who participated in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 362 (5.6%) with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD were analyzed. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. Of the 362 respondents with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD, 117 (32.3%) had been treated for psychiatric problems. Treated individuals with MDD were more likely to have chronic episode(s), more symptoms of depression, insomnia, and suicidal ideation, and were less likely to have feelings of guilt. In addition, treated individuals were more likely to have comorbid anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Treatment-seeking by individuals with MDD is affected by socio-cultural factors such as misconception and stigma of mental illness, as well as severity of depression and comorbid conditions.Read more
: To compare the relative frequencies of constipation and other functional bowel disorders between patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
: This was a case-control study design. Cases were patients with stage 3-4 POP presenting to a urogynecology clinic and controls were patients presenting to a general gynecology or women's health clinic for annual examinations with stage 0-1 vaginal support. Constipation disorders were defined using responses to the Rome II Modular Questionnaire for functional bowel disorders as well as predefined defecatory disorders.
: 128 cases and 127 controls were enrolled. After controlling for race, education, and comorbidities, women with POP were more likely to report symptoms consistent with outlet constipation, including straining during a bowel movement (odds ratio [OR] 3.9, confidence interval [CI] 2.1-7.3), feeling of incomplete rectal emptying (OR 4.0, CI 2.1-7.7), a sensation that stool cannot be passed (OR 3.4, CI 1.7-6.7), and splinting (OR 2.7, CI 1.3-5.7). In spite of this, cases were just as likely to meet the criteria for functional constipation or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation as controls but more likely to meet the criteria for IBS-any type (OR 3.8, CI 1.6-9.1) as women with POP reported more discomfort or pain in the abdomen (OR 3.4 CI 1.6-7.1) and >3 bowel movements per day (OR 2.9, CI 1.3-6.3).
: Patients with POP are more likely to have symptoms of outlet constipation and other functional bowel disorders compared with patients without POP. The Rome II criteria may not be an appropriate classification system for functional bowel disorders in patients with advanced POP.Read more
Porous nanostructures of polypyrrole (Ppy) were fabricated using colloidal lithography and electrochemical techniques for potential applications in drug delivery. A sequential fabrication method was developed and optimized to maximize the coverage of the Ppy nanostructures and to obtain a homogeneous layer over the substrate. This was realized by masking with electrophoretically-assembled polystyrene (PS) nanospheres and then electroplating. Drug/biomolecule adsorption and the release characteristics for the porous nanostructures of Ppy were investigated using rhodamine B (Rh-B). Rh-B is an easily detectable small hydrophobic molecule that is used as a model for many drugs or biological substances. The porous Ppy nanostructures with an enhanced surface area exhibited higher Rh-B loading capacity than bulk planar films of Ppy. Moreover, tunability of surface morphology for further applications (e.g., sensing, cell adhesion) was demonstrated.Read more
In order to obtain an image of scattered X-ray in the diagnosis domain, we have newly developed a pin-hole camera. Because of the necessity of the X-ray shielding, the pin-hole part has a depth corresponding to that of the shielded material. As a result, efficiencies of obliquely incident X-rays are reduced. To decrease the descent of the efficiencies, we developed a large camera using a 10 × 12 inch size phosphor plate as an X-ray detector. A phantom was irradiated by X-rays with conditions of 500 mAs and 5000 mAs, and images of scattered X-rays were obtained. The former image showed scattered X-rays from the phantom. The latter image showed those from the air of beam axis as well as from the phantom. Moreover, we made a new proposal to obtain an optical image using the fading effect.Read more
As experienced with the assistance evaluation of children/adolescents with chronic kidney disease in dialysis treatment on hospital we thought about which aspects could be relevant to the peritoneal dialysis (PD) application at home. The objective was to describe the level of schooling and information of the parents about the PD technique, general conditions of the place used to do PD at home and search association with inadequate technique.
From March 2004 to May 2006 a descriptive study of an universe of 30 children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease treated in the HC/UFMG. To obtain the results was undertaken the software SPSS version 13.0. The parameters: low educational level, low family income, inadequate level of information, inadequate hygiene of hands during peritoneal dialysis (PD) procedure, were associated with worse quality of PD technique.
The technique application of PD quality was considered inadequate in 18 (60%) patients. All the Odds Ratio values were into the confidence interval (95%) limits and were higher than 1 showing a possibility of a positive association between some independent variables and variable researched although without statistic significance.
The statistical analysis did not show association between the parameters tested although they may have a positive role in the success of the dialysis technique.Read more
Calcium ions and calcium-binding proteins play a major role in many cellular processes, in particular skeletogenesis and bone formation. We report here the discovery of a novel S100 protein in fish and the analysis of its gene expression patterns. A 648-bp full-length cDNA encoding an 86-amino acid S100-like calcium-binding protein was identified through the subtractive hybridization of a gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) cDNA library constructed to identify genes associated with in vitro mineralization. Deduced protein lacks an identifiable signal peptide and exhibits two EF-hand motifs characteristic of S100 proteins. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses of S100 sequences suggested that gilthead seabream protein represents a novel and fish-specific member of the S100 protein family. Expression of S100-like gene was up-regulated during the in vitro mineralization of bone-derived cell lines and during seabream development, from larvae throughout adulthood, reflecting skeletogenesis. Restriction of S100-like gene expression to chondrocytes of cartilaginous tissues undergoing endo/perichondral mineralization in juvenile fish further confirmed the mineralogenic role of the protein in fish and emphasized the potential of S100-like as a marker of mineralizing cartilage in developing fish.Read more
Surgical aortic valve replacement remains the gold standard of the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis but is often not considered due to excessive risk factors and comorbidities especially in elderly patients. We describe the burden of untreated severe aortic stenosis at a tertiary care hospital in New Zealand.
Consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis presented between January-December, 2005 were studied retrospectively. Outcome assessment included mortality, hospital stay and on going symptoms (angina >CCS class II, dyspnoea >NYHA class II and syncope).
A total of 105 patients with severe aortic stenosis were identified (mean age 76 plus or minus 13 years, 51% men). Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the management strategy. (Group 1: Not referred for surgery as asymptomatic (n=25), Group 2: Declined for surgery (n=41), Group 3: Accepted for surgery (n=39)). Median follow-up was 34 months (interquartile range: 16-36 months). All-cause mortality in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 36%, 73% and 18% respectively while hospital days per 100 patient-years were 3.5, 10.1 and 6.4 and symptoms on last follow-up were 0%, 64% and 0% respectively. Almost half of symptomatic patients (Group 2 versus 3) were denied valve surgery due to comorbidities. Symptomatic patients had a significant mortality (p<0.0001) benefit with less hospitalisations (p<0.0001) post surgery.
Untreated symptomatic severe aortic stenosis is associated with a poor prognosis and significant morbidity. For symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis who are denied surgery, alternative therapies such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation could be a viable option.Read more
In this work semibatch miniemulsion was carried out wherein the effect of free radicals produced by ultrasound and an external addition of initiator was examined. Influence of different variables on polymerization rate and polymer particle size has also been investigated. Over a range of 0-4% (by wt) initiator, the polymerization rate was found to increase over a range of 0.56-1.33 g L(-1) min(-1). Similarly monomer concentration range (7.2-15 wt.%) changed the polymerization rate from 1.33 to 2.61 g L(-1) min(-1). Under optimum parametric conditions polymer particle size 50 nm were obtained with a narrow size distribution. Syndiotactic phase of PMMA was observed by controlling the formulation recipe. Although, number of reports could be found in the literature [9,13,17,18,20,22] related to batch emulsion polymerization, this experimental data could be useful for the production of large scale monodispersed PMMA latex as all of the scale-up and design parameters have been qualitatively addressed.Read more
2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-5,15-diphenylporphyrin (1) is characterized by an inner cavity with a rectangular shape and small NH⋅⋅⋅N distances. It resembles porphycene, which is a constitutional isomer of porphyrin known for its strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds and rapid tautomerization. Such distortion of the porphyrin cavity leads to tautomeric properties of 1 that are intermediate between those of porphyrin and porphycene. In particular, a tautomerization in the lowest excited singlet state of 1 has been discovered, occurring with a rate three orders of magnitude lower than that in porphycene, but three to four orders of magnitude higher than that in porphyrin. An isomer of 1, 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-5,10-diphenylporphyrin (2), exhibits a different kind of geometry distortion. This molecule is nonplanar, but the inner cavity shape and dimensions are similar to those of the parent porphyrin. The same hydrogen-bonding strength as that in porphyrin is observed for 2. In contrast, the nonplanarity of 2 significantly influences the photophysics, leading to a decrease in fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. Absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectra are similar for 1 and 2 and resemble those of parent porphyrin. This is a consequence of comparable energy splittings of the frontier orbitals, ΔHOMO≈ΔLUMO. The results demonstrate that judicious selection of substituents and their position enables a controlled modification of geometry, hydrogen-bonding strength, tautomerization rate, and photophysical and spectral parameters of porphyrinoids.Read more
Histatins are a family of human salivary antimicrobial peptides. Histatin-5 (Hst-5, DSHAKRHHGYKRKFHEKHHSHRGY), a prominent member of this family contains an albumin-like, N-terminal Asp-Ser-His sequence, known to bind a Ni(II) ion in a square-planar geometry. Nickel is a strong allergen, and oral exposure to Ni(II) ions can elicit allergic reaction in sensitized persons. In contrast, prior oral exposure to nickel in non-sensitized persons can prevent sensitization. The fate of Ni(II) ions in saliva is obviously important for these processes, yet little is known about it. Using potentiometry, UV-visible titrations and circular dichroism, we determined stability constants for Ni(II) complexes of Hst-5 and two truncated analogs, 5Hst-5 (DSHAK) and 10Hst-5 (DSHAKRHHGY). The conditional binding constant at pH 7.4 for Hst-5 was 10(7.5±0.2), compared to the corresponding value for albumin, 10(6.8±0.3) (M. Sokołowska, A. Krężel, M. Dyba, Z. Szewczuk, W. Bal, Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (2002) 1323-1331). These values indicate that Hst-5 binds Ni(II) five times stronger than HSA. The simulated competition for Ni(II) between Hst-5 and albumin shows that significant amounts of Ni(II) ions may be carried by Hst-5 in vivo. Therefore, Hst-5 and other histatins should be considered as factors in nickel allergy and other forms of nickel toxicity.Read more
The present study investigated the role of IGF1 in lactating lean and non-lactating obese dairy cows by injecting 1 μg IGF1 into the ovaries prior to superovulation. This amount of IGF1 has been linked with pregnancy loss in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and was associated with impaired bovine oocyte competence in vitro. Transcript abundance and protein expression of selected genes involved in apoptosis, glucose metabolism, and the IGF system were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of IGF1 and leptin, and IGF1 in uterine luminal fluid (ULF), were also measured. IGF1 treatment decreased embryo viability in lean cows to the levels observed in obese cows. Obese cows were not affected by IGF1 treatment and showed elevated levels of IGF1 (in both plasma and ULF) and leptin. Blastocysts from lean cows treated with IGF1 showed a higher abundance of SLC2A1 and IGFBP3 transcripts. IGF1 treatment reduced protein expression of tumor protein 53 in blastocysts of lean cows, whereas the opposite was observed in obese cows. IGF1 in plasma and ULF was correlated only in the control groups. Blastocyst transcript abundance of IGF1 receptor and IGFBP3 correlated positively with IGF1 concentrations in both plasma and ULF in lean cows. The detrimental microenvironment created by IGF1 injection in lean cows and the lack of effect in obese cows resemble to a certain extent the situation observed in PCOS patients, where IGF1 bioavailability is increased in normal-weight women but reduced in obese women, suggesting that this bovine model could be useful for studying IGF1 involvement in PCOS.Read more
The purpose of this study was to assess behaviors and health beliefs concerning early diagnosis of breast cancer among women working in a textile factory in Turkey. The data were collected with tools designed by the researchers. The study population consisted of 167 women working in a textile factory in Izmir, Turkey. According to their responses, 23.4% of the women performed breast self-examinations and 12.6% received clinical breast examinations. Results indicated that 91.6% of the women had no education about breast cancer. Early methods of detecting breast cancer should be included in workplace education programs.Read more