The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem that comprises of more than 100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells. The microbiota, the gut, and the brain form an association, 'the microbiota-gut-brain axis,' and synchronize the gut with the central nervous system and modify the behavior and brain immune homeostasis. The bidirectional communication between gut and brain occurs via the immune system, the vagus nerve, the enteric nervous system, and microbial metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), proteins, and tryptophan metabolites. Recent studies have implicated the gut microbiota in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we present an overview of gut microbiota, including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, SCFA, tryptophan, bacterial composition, besides age-related changes in gut microbiota composition, the microbiota-gut-brain axis pathways, the role of gut metabolites in amyloid-beta clearance, and gut microbiota modulation from experimental and clinical AD models. Understanding the role of the microbiota may provide new targets for treatment to delay the onset, progression, or reverse AD, and may help in reducing the prevalence of AD.
Keywords: Acetic acid ( CID: 176); Alzheimer’s disease; Butyric acid ( CID: 264); Chemical compounds studied in this article 5-hydroxytryptamine ( CID: 5202); Dopamine ( CID: 681); Gamma-aminobutyric acid ( CID: 119); Propionic acid ( CID: 1032); SCFA; Tryptophan ( CID: 6305); brain; fecal microbiota transplant; gut; microbiota; prebiotic; probiotic; tryptophan.