Red kidney bean coat (RKBC) extract contains bioactive compounds that are known to exhibit anti-melanoma activity in vitro. However, knowledge on antitumor component and mechanism of RKBC extract has not been fully clarified. Here, RKBC extract was portioned with different solvent sequentially, and based on the cell viability assay, cell migration assay, AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining assay, and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, n-BuOH (BU) fraction was identified as the most potent antitumor fraction. It exhibited potential anti-melanoma activity via the induction of apoptosis and vacuolization in B16-F10 cells. Transcriptomic and bioprocess-target network analysis revealed that BU fraction triggered apoptosis and vacuolization through regulating PI3K-AKT-FOXO, MDM2-p53 pathway and increasing the expression of Bcl-xl. In addition, quercetin might be served as one of the key anti-melanoma compounds in BU fraction through the similar mechanism. Although the anti-melanoma activity and mechanism of BU fraction have not been elucidated completely, this study effectively expands our understanding for the anti-melanoma activity of RKBC extract and provided the basis for the further functional food research and development using red kidney bean, as well as a new possibility for treating melanoma.
Keywords: Apoptosis; Mechanism; Melanoma; Red kidney bean coat; Transcriptome; Vacuolization.